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IN THE YEAR 1798, &c. 


An Impartial Narrative qf the F?0€ . 



From the Year 1783 till the total Suppreaaion of the laiurrectton > 





— tt^«:0^^» — 


VOI^ Ll 




Invasion of Ireland hyHtsnry 11. Vol L p. U 

Henry achiowledged lord qf that country - 24 

John^ Henry* s son, made governor of Ireland 33 

Miserable state of Ireland during 400 years 37 

Accession of Henry VIIL - - - 40 

Henry assumes the title of King of Ireland - 45 

Introduces the reformed religion • - 48 

Accession of Edward VL - - - 50 

Progress of the Reformation during his reign 52 

Accession of Mary - - - 5S 

Psrsecution of the Protestants - - ib. 
Opposition to her government - -54 

Accession qf Elizabeth ... 55 

First rebellion against the English government 56 

Total suppression of the rebellion - - 58 

Accession qf James I* - - - 61 

New settlement of Ireland - - - 64 

Ptrst national parliament assembled - 6g 

Accession qf Charles L - - - 72 

People of Ireland treated as slaves - - 75 

Dangerous conspiracy - - - $5 

Formidable rebellion in Ulster - - 88 

Miitual barbarity of rebels and royalists - 92 

Bloody decree of the parliament - • 101 

Accession of Charles II. - - - 113 

O/iu^- Cromwell laads in Ireland with an army 118 

Infernal cruelty of his conduct - - 1^^ 
Vol. I. a 


All Ireland submits to CromwelPs authority 126 

Charles IL proclaimed — wretehed state of Ireland 13 e> 

Duke of Ormond's administration •* 134 

Accession of James //. - - - 137 • 
Protestants take arms against James y and proelaini, 

William andJUanf - - - 13<> 

James lands at Kinsale with a small army • 141 

William IIL arrives in Ireland - - 144 

Battleofihe BopiCf and flight of James - J 45 

English government grietfous to Ireland - 150 

Excellent administration of Lord Chesterfield ISS 

Invasion of Ireland by a small French force 162 

Disturbance by the White Boys - - 16J> 

Dittoby the Oak Boys - - - l66 

Insurrection of the Steel Boys - - l68 

Octenial parliaments adopted - - 171 

Intolerable restrictions on the trade of Ireland 17a 
Associations against importing British cotnmodities 17D 

Commencement of the Volunteers - - 18 1 

Their spirited conduct • . - I95 

Assemble in large bodies at revie^vst Sfc^ « IQ9 

Meeting of delegates from 143 volunteer corps SOI 
British parliament relinquish their pretensions to 

legislate for Ireland - - 2 12 

Meeting of 272 volunteer representatives - 216 

National convention meet in DubUn •• 217 

Their plan of reform refected by parUafkent ib* 

Commencement of the United Irishmen « 221 

National Guards * - « 223 

Catholic convention «• • • 226 

Defenders - - - - 2S3 

CONTENT.?^. iii 

Declaration of the United Irishmen - • 934' 

llieir warlike preparaHonst - - 64^. 

Send messengers to France to solicit assistance 558 

Seizure of same leaders of the United Irishmen 96a^ 

Important pctpets found in their possession %b» 

Arrest of Lard Edward Fitzgerald - 976 

Ilehellion breaks out ^ ^ ^ ^8- 

Attack upon Naas and Prosperons - 28J) 

Ditto upon Clime - * • . 590^ 

Ditto upon Monastereven - - - 296 

Rebels defeated in their attempt upon Carlmo £98 

Routed also at Hdcketstown - -^ • 303- 

Battle of Tarah - , - - . • 305- 

Slaughter of rebels cm the Currdgh ofKUdare 308 
RAellian ctimmence^ i» Wexjbrdshire VoL IL 5 7 
A detachment of the Cork militia totally destroyed 9 

Capture of Enniscorihy by the rebels - IS 

They form a camp 9n Vinegmr-4iiH - * 17 

Defeat of the km^s troops at Three Rocks 22 

Royal army evacui^e Wexford - ^ 25 

J^ewtown^Barry attacked by the rebels » 31 

Defeat of tAe rebels al Baliyeaitnow - 37 

Colonel Walpale defkitted and shin - 40 

Battle of Ross - - - - 45 

Horrid massacre at ScuHabague ^ ^ 52 

Battler of Arklow - ^ *. ,. O3. 

R^h totally dtfeamd at Vinegar-hiH - 75 • 

Victory over the r^ls by General Moore - 77' 

Inhuman scene on Wexford bridge - - 19"' 

King*8 troops re^^nter Wexford - - 85 
Bloody Friday ^ ^ - .90- 


Hacketstoum destroyed by the rebeh - 94 

Caianel Pulestone of the Ancieut Britons defeated qQ 

Battle of Whiieheaps - • - 98 

Attack on Clonard - - - 101 

Ditto on CastlecomeF - ' - - 107 

Battle of Antrim - - - 111 

of Sainifeld - - - 113 

r— of Ballynahinch - - - 114 

InsurrecHoa in the county of Cork - - 115 

Lord Cdrnwaliis arrives in Dublin - - ^ II7 
Agreeinent between the chiefs of the rebellion and 

the British government - - ib» 

French invasion 9 and capture of Killalla - II9 
Lord Cornwallis receives inteUigence of the landing 

of the French troops - - - 144 

Battle of Castlebar - - - 146 

Description of the French officers - 159 

Lord Cot-nwalUs marches against the enemy 172 

Total surrender of the French army - I77 

Rebels attack Granard, and are defeated - 178 

Battle of Killalla - - - 228 

French officers removed to London - 237 

Arrival of three French frigates at Killalla 246 

Appendix - - - - 257 

Catechism, of the United Irishmen - 268 

Further particulars of the massacre at Scullabogue 290 

Descent made by James Napper Tandy - 307 
Claims of the loyalists who suffered during the 








Rttiew of tkt History of Ireland^ fnm the first Lwa- 
sion of the EngiisJh in the Year eleven hundred and 
seventy n 


IBEFORE entering upon a detail of that unhappy 
straggjle betw^een the people of Ireland and Great Bri- 
tain, which has distracted and considerably impaired 
the population, consequently injured the trade and 
diminished the wealth, of the country of the former, 
we shall take a short retrospective view (that we may 
the "better understand the nature of our subject) of it# 
Vol.. L A 


general history from the time of its first invasion by 
the English during the reign of Henry 11. in the year 
one thousand one hundred and seventy^ to the period 
more immediately connected. with the principal object 
of our eonsideration« 

Torn by intestine dissentions divided into a nuniber 
of weak and petty states, and harrassed by the inces- 
sant invasionsof the Danes, the people of Ireland, with 
the exception of a few religious devotees, continued 
later than most other European nations in a state of 
barbarian darkness and commotion* No law had any 
weight but that of force ; no tie extended further than 
the limits of the territory possessed by any particular 
jept or clan into which the people were divided ; a 
f^hieftain distinguished by strength of body, ferocity of 
manners, or superior skill in conducting a predatory 
band in quest of plunder, wasthe only object of their 
attachment and admiration. In such a state of socie* 
ty, acts of treachery and brutality; abounded, which 
were not unfrequently alleviated by noble instances 
of magnanimity, benevolence and hospitality, virtues 
rarely to be met with in civilized life, but nearly pecu- 
liar to the ardent temper and elevated imagination of 
the savage* 


Meantiine England, consolidated into one great and 
powerfiil kingdom, under the dominion of William I. 
commonly called the Conqueror, and his successors, 
advanced rapidly in knowledge, in civilization, and in 
strength, and began to be sensible of her consequence 
and importance on the. theatre of Europe* Occupied, 
previous to the reign of Henry II, with repelling the 
restless inroads of her neighbours the Scots and at- 
tempts to reduce them under her dominion, with de- 
fending and enlarging her . possessions on the Conti- 
nent, and with repressing domestic animosities, she 
began,^ under the administration of that great and po- 
litic, though not always fortunate prince, to tnm her 
attention towards Ireland, The proximity of its situ- 
ation to England and the fertility of its soil were not 
overlooked by Henry, who was fully sensible of the 
vast advantages which might accrue to his own king- 
dom from the conquest of the sister island. 

Statesmen, to suit the purposes of their ambition, are 
seldom at a loss for plausible pretences to justify their 
undertakings ; but, at a time when the popes, taking 
advantage of the truly deplorable state of mental dark- 
ness in which mankind were involved, arrogated to 
themselves not only supreme authority over the spiri- 
A 2 


tual concemg of the chuvefa, but tlic absolute dttpoeal 
of the temporal affairs of the woridy the consent of the 
bishop of Rome was deemed by Henry necessary to 
give a sanction to his projected enterprise* 

Owingy however, to the state of affairs on the Con» 
tinent, he was, for several years, obliged to suspend 
the execution of his plan, though the ambitious prelate, 
eager to extend the sphere of his own authority by 
having the Irish church reduced to a complete de- 
pendance on the see of Rome, issued a bull in the year 
one thousand one hundred and fifty-six, authorising 
him to take possession of the country. This was pre* 
sented to Henry, together with a ring, in token of hia 
beipg invested with the sovereignty of Ireland, 

While affairs were in thi» situation, however, Der- 
mod Mac-Murchad, Irish provincial king of the 
^ countries of Ossory, Decies, and other territories of 
[ Leinster, having seduced and carried off the wife of 
O'Rourke, king of BrefFney, while the latter was ab* 
sent on a pilgrimage, the husband called on Roderic 
O'Connor, king of Connaught, to assist him in puni^ 
shing the Leinstrian prince. By their united efforts, 
and the defection of his own subjects, who hated him 


for Us tyranny » I>enBad W96 compeUed to fly, and to; 
leave hk mistresS) together with his kingdam* at the 
disposal ^ his enemies. Instigated by rerenge, he fledy 
with rancour in his l^east, to Guienne, in South 
France, where Henry then was ; and, prostrating him-* 
£«lf at his feet, implored his protectiooi and his assist- 
ance towards regaining his dominions ; promising, 
should he snceeed, to held them in vassalage of the 
crown of England, 

Henry saw at once the benefit that might accrue 
from this occurrence ; and, encouraging the fhgitive 
prince by the most courteous demeanour, accepted his 
vassalage, and held out to him hopes of vigorous sup* 
port* As his situation would not at that time allow his 
personal interference in his behalf, he presented him 
with letters of credence, addressed to his own subjects, 
permitting them to enter into the service of the mo- 
narch of X^inster. 

With these he departed to England, and published 
them in Bristol, then the principal port of communi* 

I cation between England and Ireland. There he re» 
mained a whole month without a prospect of gaining 

\ succour, and had begun to despair of restoration, 


when Richard, carl of Pembroke, surnanied Strongw 
bow, on account of his feats of archery, distinguished 
no less by his afiability and generosity than by his 
military talents, but who was estranged from the royal 
favour and of dissipated fortune, was pointed out to 
him as likely to close with his proposals. . 

He accordingly pressed Richard to espouse his 
caused, and even promised to give him his daughter 
Eva in marriage, and to make him heir to his domini- 
ons. Overcome by such seducing otfeis, the earl pro- 
mised to assist him with a. considerable force in the en- • 
suing spring, provided he could obtain from Henry his 
particular licence and approbation^ 

Conceiving that by this negqciation he had effectu- 
ally secured the recovery of his territories, Dermod 
immediately proceeded to St Davids in South Wales, , 
intending to return by that course privately to^Ireland, . 
and there to await in silence the arrival of hjs ally 
with a force to support him... During his journey, he 
had the good fortune to add to-his adherents, Robert 
Fitzstephen, governor of Cardigan, a magnanimous, 
brave, and skilful soldier, eminent for loyalty, whom 
Rice-ap-Griffith, a Welch cbieftan, who commanded 


in the country about Pembroke, had imprisoned^ that 
he might not be m a situation to oppose an intended 
Tevolt against Henry. To Fitzstephen and to his ma* 
temal brother, Maurice Fitzgerald, Dermod bound 
himsdf to cede the town of Wexford, with a large por- 
tion of land, as soon as he should be &irly re-establish* 

After receiving their solemn protestations to join him 
in the spring with their followers, he set sail with his 
Irish train and a few Welch adventurers, and landed 
without being observed on the Irish coast, about the 
end of the year one thousand one hundi*ed and sixty- 

Punctual to bis engagements, Fitzstephen, together 
with Maurice de Prendergarst, sailed from Wales in 
the beginning of May^ne thousand one hundred and 
seventy ; and making his appearance on the Southern 
coast of Wexford, disembarked his forces, consisting of 
forty knights, sixty men in armour, and five hund- 
red archers, in the bay of Bannow, twelve miles from 
the town of Wexford, which, after he had been joined 
hy Dermod, surrendered to his arms, though not be- 
fore the garrison had sustained a vigorous assault* 


Hating rec^ved a further reinforciement by the ar** 
rival of Fitzgeraldi Dermod*s power was so coBside^ 
mbly iacreased, that he was enabled to reduce the lord 
of Ofisory, whose territories, together with those of De- 
oies and Olandelagh^ he had ravaged akid laid waste : 
•and even O'Connor, who made his appeairanee against^ 
him with a numerous army, consisting of the trOops of 
Connau^ht, Bteffney, Thomond, and some lords of 
Leinster, afraid to risk a battle, was obliged to dome 
to an accommodation, and to acknowledge him as king 
of Leinster ; on condition that he did homage for his 
dominions, that he introduced no more British adven- 
turers into Ireland, and that he delivered up hi& fa- 
vourite son as an hostage for the performance of the 

After receiving the submission of Dublin, and giv- 
ing his daughter in marriage to Donald O'Brien , 
prince of Thomond, who consequently renounced bis 
(tllegiance to O'Connor and united his fortunes to 
those of his ftither-^in^aw, Dermod began, notwith- 
standing the late treaty, to aspire to sovereign power, 
and to plot the downfal of the king of Connaught. 

To secure the accomplishment of this great object. 


he dispatched pressing i^lieitations to the eari of Pem- 
broke to hasten his preparations, who accordingly, 
notwithstanding a peremptory mandate from Henry 
to desist from the enterprise, set sail with an army of 
between two and three hundred knights, and ahout 
thirteen hundred archers, and arrived in the vicinity 
of Waterford, in the month of August, one thou- 
sand one hundred and seventy-one. In conjunction 
with Raymond le Gross, a nephew of Fitzstephen, 
whom he had sent before him with the vanguard, he 
advanced immediately to the attack of that city. 
Though twice repulsed by the garrison, he returned 
a third time to the assault with determined valour, 
and having succeeded in making a breach, rushed 
with irresistible impetuosity into the town, putting 
all without distinction to the sword, till the arrival of 
Dermod put a period to the slaugliter^ After consum- 
mating the nuptials of the earl with Eva, Dermod's 
daughter, according to their orii^inal stipulation, the 
two chieftains marched with their united forces to 
chastise an insurrection of the citizens of Dublin, and 
to oppose O'Connor, who had assembled 'an army of 
about twenty thousand men« Intimidated by the for- 
midable appearance of the British troops, the forces 
of the king of Connaught returned home. Dublin 
Vol. L B 


was taken by assault^ and many of the inhabitantt 
slaughtered or drowned in theLiffey; while Hesculf 
Mac-Torcal, the governor, with several oilers, hav- 
ing escaped on board some ships, iled to the Hebades. 
Strongbow was invested with the lordship of Dublin ^ 
whence he marched into Meath, carrying slaughter 
and devastation in his train. 

The Irish, accustomed only to desultory war&ne, 
kicapable of making a long continued effort to resist 
their enemies, and not politic enough to unite in their 
own defence, appear, after various vicissitudes- of for- 
tune, to have been unable to cope with the steady va- 
lour and discipline of the British adventurers, who ra- 
pidly gained fresh confederates and fresh, ground in the 
island* Henry, however, who indeed had forbid Strong- 
bow's departure for Ireland, grown jealous of his suc- 
cess, issued a mandate, enjoining all his subjects in that 
country instantly to return home under penalty of high 
treason, prohibiting all supplies to be conveyed to them 
from his own kingdom, and expressed in high terms his 
disapprobation of their proceedings. Deprived, by this 
jealousact of his sovereign^ of all assistance from abroad, 
deserted, in consequence, by many of his knights 
Mkd their followers, who obeyed the order of their so- 


▼ereign, and abandoned, after the death of Dermod 
which quiekly followed, by the ^eater (>art of hif 
Lash allies, the earl experienced a nearly &tal reverse 
of fortune* 

O'Connor, taking advantage of his destitute situ*- 
atioD, aided by the exertions of L*awrence O^Tool, 
archbishop of Dublin, who flew from chief to chief, 
exhorting them to s^ze so fair an opportunity to ex- 
pel the invaders, mustered an army stated at thirty 
thousand men, and invested him in Dublin with his 
whole force, while a fleet of thirty Danish vessels 
blockaded the harbour. Fatigued by unceasing watch- 
fulness during a siege of two months, oppressed by 
famine and disease, the garrison was. reduced to the 
last extremity, and having no hope of succour, were 
compelled to^ make overtures of accommodation. 
By the advice of O'Tool, their proposals were reject- 
ed, the besiegers declaring that no terms would be 
listened to which had not for their basis the total eva- 
cuation of the country by the Britons. An animated 
speech made by Maurice Fitzgerald determined the 
English troops : " If we must fall,** said he, " let it 
not be by the hands of a treacherous and revengeful 
&e after we shall have put ourselves into their 

16 REVIEW OF Tlffi 

power: let us rather, vbile ihey;&dkcf u^ wat\ ia 
despondence, rush on their entreacbtnei^ts, and die, 
as we have lived, the terror of our barbarian enemies," 
His magnanimous sp'irit was caught by th^ assembly. 
Next day an assault, rendered furious by desperation, 
was unexpectedly made upon the .'asstiilants. It was 
pointed at the quarter where O^Connor co^camanded 
in person. The onset was impetuous, irresistible ; 
the rout instantaneous ! O^Connor was obliged to 
mingle half naked with his flying troops, who were 
pursued with terrible slaughter* The other Irish 
chieftains, witnesses of the disaster of their leader, re- 
tired with the utmost precipitation, leaving the Bri- 
tish masters of the field, of an immense booty, and 
of provisions sufficient to support them during a whole 
year. The Danish fleet also withdrew, leaving' the 
sea as well as the land*^ open to the successful adven- 

Mean time Fitzstephen was closely besieged by tte 
Wexfordians in the fortress of Oarrick, which he hiio- 
self had built near their city. Though suppori^ed by 
only a yery slender garrison, he repeatedly repulsed 
them with great slaughter. Unable to storm the fo*- 
tress, the Wexfordians had recourse to the most exe- 


cmbk, perfidious, and despicable means of success, 
perhaps ever recorded in the annals of any country* 
In a parley they assured Fitzstephen that Roderic 
O^C6nnor had taken Dublin by storm, and that he 
had put the whole garrison to the sword : They repre« 
sented to him that it would be vain to think of resist- 
ance when he should approach to make the same exe« 
cution at Carrick : They declared themselves to be 
impressed with such respect for his virtues, that, if he 
would but surrender himself to them, they would ship 
him and his followers for Wales, in order that they 
might escape the resentment of the vengeful prince. 
Two bishops, dressed in their pontifical robes, solemn- 
ly swore to their truth, laying at the same time their 
hands on the cross, on the host, and on the adored 
relicts of saints* Fitzstephen fell a victim to their per- 
fidy. He accepted their terms, and was immediately 
thrown into chains ; while many of his companions 
expired under the horrible and inhuman tortures which 
the malignant fury of their captors inflicted on 

Strongbow, who, the day previous to that on which 
he routed 0*Connor before Dublin, had received from 
Donald Kevanah, one of the few Irish chieftains who ] 


continued firm in his attachment to the English, in- 
telligence of the danger of Carrick, marched imme- 
diately to its relief. He narrowly escaped d^dtructiob 
Jrom an ambuscade, in passing through a defile iu the 
territory of Hi-drone, in the modem county of 
Carlow, At no great distance from Weilbrd, be 
received the mortifying information of Fitz^tis 
phen*8 captivity, together with a threat fl-otn the 
captors, who had burned their city and retired to an 
islet in the harbour, that, if he attempted any thing 
against them, they would without mercy put their few 
remaining prisoners to death. Alarmed for their 
safety, he immediately turned aside from Weifofd, 
and directed his course towards Ferns, the regal seat 
of the monarchs of Leiuster, where, after he had 
punished several of his enemies, and established sonie 
useful regulations, he received a special summons from 
Henry to appear and answer for his conduct, a sum- 
mons which he did not think it prudent to disobey ; 
but, appointing governors in his absence, repaired 
instantly to England. 

Inconsiderable as the restoration of Derinod, a 
criminal and exiled prince, to his principality may at 
fii-st view appear, yet, as the consequences of the in- 


rasion occasioned by his application to a few Welch ad- 
venturers were far from being unimportant, we have 
beenparticular in tracing the progress of his arms and 
those of his allies* History, not satisfied with mere- 
ly relating facts, disdains not to descend to the most 
minute and remote occurrences, estimating their im- 
portance, not by^ their real magnitude, but by the ef- 
fects they are likely to have produced on the state of 
the penod to which her attention is more immediately 
directed, and by,the light which they may throw on 
the subject of her consideration. . 

We shall now endeavour to pursue the progress of 
the English arms and policy, during a period more 
brilliant, indeed, but productive, for a considerable 
length of tinve, o^ consequences less obvious, and of 
advantages liess solid, than reasonably might have 
been e:^cted to follow the successiful period we have 
just had under our observation. Considered as an alien 
from the constitution of that country df which it has 
beoome a member, depressed by the iron hand of 
power, through the insolence and rapacity of gover- 
nors unacquainted with the genius, the manners, and 
the disposition, of its people, unhappy Ireland has 
boen upwards of six centuries the scene of bloodshed 

20 REVIEW OF THE, kc. 

and desolation. The contracted views of those placed 
at the head of its administration, by causing them to 
be treated in general as objects of suspidon, rather 
than with the liberality due to a free people living un- 
der the protection of a free go- ^* ament, have, instead 
of bringing the Irish to be peaceable and useiiil 
members of that community to which they apper- 
tain, rendered them turbulent and involuntary sub- 
jects, ready at all times to arm against those whom 
they esteem their oppressors, and to plunge themselves 
into all the miseries^ the inconceivable horrors^ of a 
civil war* 

CHAP, ll; 

Henry, previous to the recal of Strongbow, .had 
been enga<^ed ia a dangerous contest with oae of his 
own subjects, Becket, whom he had raised to the 
archbishopric of Canterbury. Instigated by the pope, 
Adrian III. the same who granted to Henry the so- 
vereiffnty of Ireland, the archbishop had pertinacious- 
ly opposed the constitutions of Clarendon, whereby 
the civil w^s declared independent on the ecclesiastic- 
al authority. Incensed by his insolence and ingrati- 
tude, Henry, amongst other passionate exclamma* 
tious, 'was overheard to complain that no one had at- 
tei;npted to rid his sovereign of the turbulent and 
refractory prelate. Four of his knights, zealously at- 
tached to the person of their monarch, imagining they 
could TM)t better display their promptitude in his ser- 
vice, ^lently quitted France, where Henry then was, 


and making all speed to England, assassinated the 
archbishop in church, while performing his duty at 
the altar. Henry was stunned by the intelligence of 
this atrocious deed, which threatened to arm the pa- 
pal power for his destruction* By his great abilities, 
however, he frustrated the designs of his enemies at 
the court of Rome, and having brought. matters to an 
accommodation, he at length found leisure to attend 
to the state of Ireland, and, after his return to Eng- 
land, had summoned Strongbow, as we formerly ob- 
served, to appear and answer for his conduct. 

The earl waited on the king at Newnham, near 
Gloucester, and surrendering to him his territory 
round Dublin and his maritime fortresses, was, by the 
intercession of bis uncle, Hervey de Mountmorres, 
received into the royal favour, and permitted to retain 
all his other Irish possessions under Henry and hw 
heirs for ever. 

Henry, now determined to push his personal expe- 
dition to Ireland with the utmost vigour, accompa- 
nied by the earl, proceeded through South Wales 
to Pembroke, seizing the castles of many Welch 
chieftains in his route : and at length having complet- 


ed his prepaTatioB8» set sail from Milford Haren with 
a fleet of two hundred and forty yeflseU and about five 
thousand men. He arrived in the harbour of Water- 
fordf on the feast of St Luke» in October, one thou- 
sand one hundred and seventy^twoi Destitute of a 
common interest to unite them in their own defence, 
and already dispirited by the successes of the first ad- 
Teaturers, the Irish made little or no resistance to the 
kiog of England* His progress resembled more the 
procession of a triumphant prince through his own 
dominions than the march of an invading army. The 
chieftains flocked eagerly from all quarters to make 
their obeisance : he had only to accept their homage. 
The men of Wexford waited on him soon after his 
landing, and delivered up their prisoner, Fitzstephen, 
whom they represented as a traitor. He was afterwards 
pardoned; and surrendering to Henry the town of 
^Vexford, was reinstated in his other possessions. 
The grandeur of Henry, his condescension, his mu- 
niticence, seem to have made great impression on the 
minds of the Irish chieftains, his new subjects, whom 
he magnificently entertained during the feast of 
Christmas in an immense fabric erected for the pur- 
pose in the suburbs of Dublin ; while William Fitz- 
audelm and Hugh de Lacey were dispatched with a 


body of troops against O'Connor of Connaught, and 
0*Nia], the powerful prince of Ulster, who declined 

As the inclemency of the season prevented the re- 
duction of these monarchs, Henry summoned the 
clergy and the lords who had made their submission 
to meet at Cashel, in order to take into consideration 
the affairs of the church, the ostensible object of his 
invasion. By this convention Henry was solemnly ac- 
knowledged sovereign of Ireland : The clergy were 
declared independent of the civil magistrate in crimi- 
nal cases, and their lands exempted from secular 
taxes : But the most important decree passed by this 
assembly, a decree which, notwithstanding the violent 
shocks by which the country has been convulsed, has 
continued unremittingly to exert its force,, was that 
whereby the Irish churches were reduced to a similarity 
with that of England, consequently to a dependance 
on the see of Rome. 

After having been about six months in Ireland, dur- 
ing which period he had made several regulations for 
the government of his new dominions, and was pre- 
paring to subdue by his arms the whole island, he was 


unexpectedly snmmenedy ocTore he had even secured 
those conquests he had already made, to appear !>e- 
fore Albert and Theodine in Normandy, two cardinals 
whom the pope had appointed to investigate the causes 
ef the murder of Becket, under pain of excommu- 
nication and an interdict on his dominions, acts of spi- 
ritual power, which, daring the melancholy reign of 
Ui^otry and ignorance, were sufficient to convulse the 
greatest states, and to shake to their bases the thrones 
of the mightiest monarchs ! Henry, alarmed at the 
danger with which he was threatened, made some hasty 
arrangements for the government of the country dur« 
ing his absence. He appointed Hugh de Lacy chiof 
governor, and invested him with the lordship of the 
territory of Meath, and empowering the chancellor 
T?ith several" others to elect another chief governor in 
<Mse of de Lacy*s death, hastened his departure from 
^Vcxfo^d and made the best of his way to Norman* 
tly, where the two cardinals were expecting his ar- 

Henry was obliged to leave his new dpminions in a 

very unsettled state. That part of Ireland already 

possessed by the British, which, afterwards extended, 

consisted of the counties of Dublin, Kildare, Meath> 

Vol. !• C 


mnd Uriel, together with the cities of Cork, Lime-' 
rick, and Waterford, formed what was called the 
Engiish Pule^ had the advantage of the same laws 
with England. The inhabitants of the remainder, in- 
cluding those who had made their submission, conti- 
nued to live under the same form of government as 
before. They professed allegiance to Henry : Their 
native independance and ferocity were in reality the' 
same as ever. The English settlers quickly felt the 
evil consequences of thb unorganized state of the 
country. The chieftains who had so lately sworn alle- 
giance to the crown of England rose every where in 
arms ; while Henry was so far from being able to give 
any assistance towards reducing them to submission, 
that he was obliged to draw off great part of thetrc^ps 
already stationed in Ireland, in order to suppress the 
unnatural rebellion of his own sons. Strongbow, as 
joon as he learned the danger of his sovereign, had 
hasted to Normandy to his assistance, which mark of 
'loyalty and attachment to his person so highly gratified 
Henry, that he sent him back to Ireland as chief go- 
vernor, and invested him with discretionary powers for 
the government of its turbulent affairs. On his re- 
turn [1174] he found the troops so prejudiced against 
their leader^ Benrey de Mountmorres, that he was 


obliged to deprive bim of his commandy and to sub* 
stitate in his place Raymond le Gross, whom they im* 
portanately demanded for their generaL This valiant 
soldier immediately began to act with vigour. With 
his little army he ravaged Ofblly and Lismore, and 
gratified the rapacity of his followers with the acquisi- 
tion of considerable plunder. Having shipped his booty 
on board several small vessels, he marched along the 
-coast on his return towards Waterford, In this situa- 
tion he was attacked both by sea and land, but ob« 
tained a complete victory on both elements* 

Elated by his success in this and other expeditions^ 
Raymond demanded Strongbow's • daughter Basilia in 
marriage, which tlie earl coldly refased. Indignant 
at a denial which he thought his services had not me- 
rited, le Gross gave in his resignation and returned 
to Wales. Mountmorres was again invested. with the 
chief command. A body of troops, however, on its 
march to join him at Caahel, was intercepted at 
Thurles by O^Brien of Thomond, and driven back 
with the loss of four hundred men. Alarmed by this 
misfortune, and the general revolt of the Irish chief- 
tains, who, not excepting even the hitherto faithful 
Donald Kevanagh, every where took arms, the earl 


was obliged to retreat with precipitation to Waterford, 
whence he sent solicitations to Raymond to return 
to Ireland, promising, should he comply, to bestow 

on him his daughter. 

Flattered by this invitation, Raymond immediately 
set sail. His arrival was fortunate ; as the inhabitants 
of Waterford had premeditated a general massacre of 
the English, which was only prevented by the appear- 
ance of his fleet in the harbour at the moment of its 
intended execution. On the day sacceeding that of 
his nuptials with Basilia, which were solemnized at 
Wexford, he, together with his father-in-law, march* 
ed into IVJeath against O'Connor, who had suddenly 
crossed the Shannon and ravaged the country, demo- 
lishing at the same time the fortresses of the EDglibh. 
Bv die di:iVcticii of several chit-ivains, Kv.»i*jric was 
foicod to r^^'trtai, dvA ^;ib pursued by Raymond with 
. considerable, slaughter, Leinster being thus reduced 
to temporary quiet, the victorious o&mmanders turn«> 
cd their arms against North Munster, where the Bri« 
tish standard was again crowned with success. 

Meantime O'Connor, justly incensed at the fickle- 
ixess and perfidy of bis compatriots, resolved to save 


at least Us own provioce, by making a timely submis- 
sion to the king of England. For this purpose he dis* 
patched to Henry, whose afibirs had by this time as- 
sumed a prosperoas appearance, he having reduced to« 
obedience his unnatural sons and vuiquished the ei^ 
forts of their ungenerous allies, three deputies, with* 
offers to do homage for his kingdom of Connaught, 
and to pay a tribute a* an acknowledgment of the so-« 
vereigaty of Henry. The king received them »l 
Windsor, and accepting the terms proposed, permit- 
ted the mMiarch of Cminaught to retain in full all his 
possessions,, and his nominal title of king of Ireland, 
with the exception of the territory possessed by the 

The warfare of the other Irish chieftains continued. 
O'Brien of Thomond be»eged Limerick [11 76], and 
on the march of Raymond to its relief with about five 
}iandredm«n and a body of auxiliaries furnished by 
the lord» of Ossoiy and Glandelagh,^ endeavoured to> 
intercept him- by posting his^forces in a defile near Ca- 
shel. But Raymond, at the head of his five hundred 
men, while his Irish eonfederates stood spectators of 
t/ie engagement, prepared to side with whichever par- 
ty 6houl4 prove the stronger, forced his entrenchments^ 


BfkA compelled him to give hostages for hb submission* 
He then turned his arms against the son of Mac-Arthy^^ 
prince of Desmond, who had deprived his &ther of 
his principaltt}^, and thrown him into prison* He re- 
instated the injured prince on his throne, and rec^ved 
a track of land as a recompence for his services. He 
had scarce accomplished this laudable achievement, 
when he received information that his father-in-law, 
the brave, generous, and magnanimous Strongbow, 
had died in Dublin in consequence of a mortification 
of his foot, whither he immediately hastened, leav- 
ing Limerick in custody of O'Brien, who, notwith- 
standing he took a solemn oath to guard it for the 
king of England^ set it on fire as soon as Raymond 

The jealousy of H«nry had been excited to such a 
degree by the envious misrepresentations of Mount- 
morres, that, previous to Raymond's expedition for 
the relief of Limerick, he had sent over four com- 
missioners tc^ summon him to appear before him. The 
extreme urgency of aflairs, however, as the troops 
refused to march vmder any other leader, had induced 
them -to suspend the execution of their commission ; 
and they were now, after a thorough investigation, so 


well convinced of the injary which bad been done to 
his ch?iracter, that, with the concurrence of the conn- 
cil, they consented to his being appointed successor to 
Strohgbow. The king, however, notwithstanding 
their favourable report, being still diffident, refused 
to confirm his appointment, and deputed William 
Fitzandelm chief governor, a sordid, insolent, and 
rapacious man, every way unfit for the high station to 
which he was exalted, and who was more intent on fil- 
ling his own coffers, than on attending to the welfare 
of the colony. By Fitzandelm was convened at Wa- 
terford [U77] an assembly of the dergy, wherein 
the brief of pope Alexander, confirming the bull of 
Adrian which declared Henry lord of Ireland was pro- 
mulgated, denouncing tremendous anathemas upon 
all who should reftise to acknowledge his sovereignty. 
After the transaction of this and some other business, 
the new chief governor proceeded, by dint of cun- 
ning, to deprive the "original adventurers of their pos- 
sessions, thereby gratifying the avaricious desires of 
himself and his herd of venal dependants. Several of 
the most adventurous went in consequence in quest of 
new settlements, "and the territories 'of the dynast o^ 
Ulster presented a wide field for their enterprizin^^m- 
bition. Others, after being stripped of all tliey pos- 


seflsed moHt Tataable, were compelled either to mix 
with the native Irish, or to remain with the colony^ 
in hopes of better days, when their sovereign should 
become sensible of the treatment which their services 
had deserved. In the mean time they were burdened 
with all the labours of defending the colony, Fitzan- 
delm and his myrmidons keeping aloof from danger, 
and spending his time in revelry and debauch,, equally 
careless of the interest of Ins charge and the honour 
of his prince. The colony, under his evil aministra'- 
tion, necessarily declined with the utmost rapidity ; 
unlil his conduct being at length represented to Hen- 
ry in its genuine colours, he was removed and Hugh 
de Lacy appointed to succeed him* 

During the wise and vigorous government of de La- 
cy the settlement again assumed a flourishing appear- 
ance. He laboured to repair its losses with unremitting 
assiduity, and might have succeeded in establishing 
the English power in Ireland upon a solid basis, had 
not the interested and nudicious calumnies of his ene- 
mies caused the government to be transferred from his 
hands to Philip de Braosa, whose oppressive and ty- 
ronnhstftl administration nearly brought total ruin and 
excisio^^on the colony. 


The role of his successor pramised at its beginning a 
more happy issue. Prince John, the youngest of the 
SODS of Henry, was sent over attended by a considerable 
force and a w^l furnished train of <k>urtier8 aud ex« 
pecfeants. Intimidated by his formidable preparations, 
and dazzled by the lustre of his appearance, the 
chieftains, even those who had been most remarkable 
for enmity to the English, came eagerly forwardto be 
received into favour. But when they made their ap- 
pearance and advanced with cordiality to kiss the 
priaee's hands, they were, instead of beipg received 
with the respect they thought their due, rudely push- 
ed back Jby the attendants and young lords, who gaz- 
ed with astonishment upon their Irish garb, their un- 
couth manners, and bushy beards, and at length, iu 
childish sport, began to push them about from side 
to side. Thw impolitic Vondaot-^w^ae-ftUctrfd by vory 
disastrous oonsequeoces. The chieftains left the pre« 
sence with <motfaered rage, indignant at the gross af- 
front which had been put upon them« ^ming with 
resentment and the desire of revenge, they instigated 
others to espouse their cause, and in a«hort time the 
flames of war were kindled all i*ound, and directed 
from eve*y quarter against the colony. 


During the short time Hugh de Lacy wan in office, 
Milo de Cogan, one of the early adventurerB, was ; 
treacherously murdered by Mac-Tire, an Irisiiman, 
whom he had esteemed hi» firmest friend, and the > 
worthy Fitzstephen, the first English leader who had 
set foot in Ireland, stunned by the intelligence of 
this melancholy event, lost his reason and died of 
grief. Most of those who had contributed to establish 
the power of Henry in the island either were cut off 
by perfidy, or, neglected by their sovereign, had the 
mortification to see others enjoy the best fruits of all 
their toils and dangers.' Their descendants in general 
l^roved unworthy of their virtues, and disgraced their 
names by acts of the blackest atrocity. The follow- 
ing instance may suffice to show the abyss of depravi- 
ty into which they sunk. Richard de Clare, son of 
the illnstrionR Str/voo,v»or.', Vm ";.i^ uutVirtnnately by 
his lofty d em PPT I our incurred tlu* jealousy of Henry III. 
was banished to Ireland ; but returning thence with a 
numerous band, of followers, he seized and fortified 
his castle of Pembroke. This bold action alarmed the 
king so much, that, dreading his power, he made a 
•how of receiving him into finvour. Having aflterwards, 
however, entered i ato a confederacy to expel the king'* 


ibreign ikvourites, he brought upon himself the ipi- 
placable Tesentment of Philip des Roches^ bishop of 
Wittdiesler and prime minister. The malignant pre- 
late immediately laid a plot for his destruction ; and 
Bending Over letters under the great seal, signed by 
himself and eleven others, offered to Maurice Fitzge- 
raldy the chief governor, son of the same Maurice 
^ho by his magnanimity had caused the rout of O^Con- 
Qor before Dublin, to two sons of de Lacy, and to 
Geoffiry de Maurisco and some other barons, all the 
Irish estates of Richard, provided they seized his per- 
son and sent him dead or alive to the king. They 
blushed not to enter into the conspiracy, and imme- 
diately began to take steps for putting it into execu- 
tion. For this purpose Maurisco invited him over to 
Ireland on pretence of defending his property. On 
his arrival, feigning a zealous attachment to his per« 
son, he advised him to render himself master of the 
whole country, and to establish a power independent on 
Britain. The earl fell into the snare, and imnvediately 
began to act offensively. The other conspiring barons 
opposed him : but affecting to come into his views, 
agreed to hold a conference on the plains of Kildare, 
where Richard and Mauriseb met them. This was the 
favourable moment for putting sn end to the scene* 


Waving the ostensible cause of their meetings the 
conspirators demanded a truce, which Richard revis- 
ing to grant, they declared that that moment should 
determine the business with the sword. At the onset 
of the two parties, Mauriaco deserted with eighty fol- 
lowers, leaving the earl with only fifteen, when the 
degenerate lords, rushing on the son of their fathers' 
companion in arms, threw him from his horse and in- 
flicted a stab in his back of which he died in a few, 

G B A p. 111. 

Having thus .seen, ^^en during the reign of one" 
of its wisest moBardis, the short-sighted policy of ' 
England towards Ireland doing every thing which 
might prove detrimental to her interest there, by the 
resftoval of governors qualified to promote her influ- 
ence acMl the intemiption of plans which tended to 
estahlish h«r power, we shall pass in silence over a pe- 
riod of near four hundred years, from the reign of, 
Henry II. to the Reformation, a period distinguished 
hy no event worthy of particular notice, but reniarka- - 
ble for the uniform detestation in which the colony 
was held by the native Irish. . During that long pe- 
riod, the eye of the historian can* meet with no scenes 
except those of the most ruthless warfare, mutual 
perfidy, wretchedness, and desolation. Every ad- 
vantage was alternately seized by the English and Irish ^ 
Vol. I. D 


to extend or contract the limits of the Pale. Their 
success was various : but implacable rage, famine, and 
every species of evil arising from mutual hatred and 
mutual barbarism, uniformly marked the progress of 
cither party. Discord, extending her influence over 
the whole island, not only established her empire be- 
twixt the primitive inhabitants and the new settlers, 
but inflamed the members of each division against 
«each other. The Irish chieflains waged incessant war 
against their compatriots: The great barons of the 
English colony were ever ready to fly to arms, as re- 
sentment, the prospect of plunder, or the desire of 
revenge, stimulated them to take the field against 
one another. But whatever excited them to assemble 
their followers, the community invariably suffered. 
The most insignificant occurrence was sufficient pre- 
text for the chieftains to enter the Pale : The colonists 
never were at a loss for pretences to make an attack 
upon- them. The submissions of the Irish werqi|£re- 
quent, sometimes abject ; but always precariouB, and 
never lasted longer .than the English forces maintained 
a decided superiority. These evils were increased by 
the depredations of lawless bands of Scots who land- 
ed frequently on the coast, wasting and destroying 
the cQuntry wheresoever their arms enabled them to 


penetrate. During the reiga of Robert Bruce, an 
army was sent over under the command of his brother, 
to attempt to wrest the island from the hands of the 
English. Bruce landed in Ulster, and having ra- 
vaged the whole of that province, proceeded south- 
ward as far as Dublin, marking his progress, like a de- 
voaring plague, by every calamity which fire and 
sword could inflict. 

Such, in short, was the multitude of afflictions to 
which this ill fated country was doomed, during the 
reigDs of sixteen English princes, that its inhabitants 
were reduced not unfrequently to feed upon grass, 
leaves, and even, hideous nourishment ! the flesh of 
their fellow-creatures. On turning aside from scenes 
60 shocking to humanity, gladly would we present 
prospects of a more pleasing nature. The sixteenth 
century, celebrated for the intellectual light which 
then fasrst forth in all its splendour upon Europe, 
we should have expected to display a striking contrast 
to the dismal period we have past : But, alas ! the 
miseries of unhappy Ireland were not yet arrived to 
a termination. To the hatred occasioned by the un- 
seasonable aggressions of the English has been added 
fuel by the rancour of religious persecution : and if 


the Irish, when only tein|>oral conoerns were in ques- 
tion, were actuated by such inveterate enmity tofwwtdB 
the English, ta what a pitch mtist their hfiitred Ksve 
been increased, when religion and bigotry gave fce^ 
poignancy to their feelings ! 

At the accession of Henry VIII. to the throne, the 
colony had arrived to a degree of prosperity eompoira- 
tively great to what it had formerly experienced* , Un- 
der the administration of several s^uccessive governors, 
however, it relapsed with rapidity into its fomaer 
state of anarchy and weakness. . The ep.rl of Kildare 
was appointed lord depnty, and confirmed in his au- 
thority beyond the reach c^ opposition. He abused 
the power with which be was entrusted ; and putting 
himself at the head of a rapacious rabble, employed 
them to the annoyance of those whom he was appoint- 
ed to protect. He formed intimate connections with 
the most pow^ful of the Irish chieftains : He kept 
the colonists at n distance from his person ; and ap- 
pears to have considered the high authority with 
which he was entrusted n>erely as a fit insti-ument for 
the purpose of establishing his own personal influence. 
He continued much longer in office than any of his 
predecessors ; but, disdaining to bend his^ haughty 


spirit to sttit the views of cardinal Wokey, the kini;'^ 
minister and favourite, he was by the influence of timt 
prelate and- the intrigues of the Butlers, the noble 
family of Ormond, together with the complaints of 
the real friends to government in the colony, ordered 
to vest the administration in the^ hands of some person* 
for whom he sfaovld be responsible, and to repair in« < 
stantly to England. . Kildare anfortunately entrusted 
this important charge to his son, lord Thomas Fitzg^e- • 
raid, a gallant and accomplished youth, affable, gc** 
nerous, well qualified to « gain the aiFectioos of the 
people, but impressed with notions rather exalted of the 
consequence and grandeur of his family. . Immediate- 
Ijr after bis lather's landing in England, he was arrest- 
ed and committed toi the Tower; . and false reports 
were spread abroad that he had there been beheaded. . 
The imp^uous lord Thomas, struck with filial grief- 
by this- supposed outrage, and inflamed by rage and- 
indigpaiioa, instantly threw up his commission of de- 
puty, suad boldly renouncing his allegiance, declared 
war ag^iagt bis sovereign in open rebellion. Several 
other chieftains espoused his cause, and their united 
forces put tfaenuuilves in so formidable a situation that 
alarmiag apprehensions were entertained by the go*' 
vemment party. . The temerity. and inexperience of 
\ouh E 


lord Thomas, however, rendered ivaitleds all their ef- 
forts. Sir William Skeifington, who w«w appointed 
lord lieutenant and sent over wii^ a considerable rein- 
forcement, succeeded in completely quelling the in- 
surrection. The confederates of lord Thomas made 
their submissions and ware restored to their posses- 
sions : he himself was promised a iiill pardon if he 
would give himself up. His confidence proved his 
destruction. Placing implicit relia .ice on the feith of 
Henry, he went over toEn gland, but was treacherous- 
ly seized and sent to the Tower. Lord Grey, succes- 
sor to Skeffington, was ordered to seize the five uncles 
of lord Thomas, and to cause them be conveyed pri- 
soners to London. He invited them' for this purpose 
to a banquet, and after sumptuously entertainingthem, 
perfidiously arrested their persons. Though three of 
these had decidedly opposed the rebellion, and all of 
them were entitled to pardon by the treaty conclud- 
ed with the rebels, Henry ordered the whole to be 
executed a^ traitors with their nephew, and vowed de- 
strucion to the whole race of Kildare. Gerald, how- 
ever, brother to lord Thomas, a boy only twelve years 
old, was by the vigilance of his guardians secretly 
conveyed out of the kingdom to cardinal Pole in Ita- 
ly, the determined enemy of Henry ; and under his 


protectioii he lived to regain the honours and estates 
of bis iUustiions family. Kildare himself died of 
§prief for his son's rebellion and the fatal consequences 
by which it was followed. 

Considering the suppression of this revolt as a new 
conquest ei the island y Henry was about to have pro* 
ceeded to lengths which might have produced the most 
fatal consequences, proposing it as a question whether 
be bad not a right to sebe the whole property, spiri- 
tual and temporal^ of the country, notwithstanding 
many, both within and without the Pale, had contri- 
buted vigorously to the reduction of lord Thomas. 
This impolitic conduct, together with his unjnst and 
cruel treatment of the Kildare family, one of the 
most poweriul and ]K)pular in Ireland, brought on 
him the detestation of the whole people, and was 
particularly incautioas at a period* when he was pre- 
paring to effect important changes in the system of re- 
ligion, changes which require all the energies of a so- 
vereign well beloved by his people to accomplish. 

The vigorous administration of Grey, who labour* 
ed to forward the designs of Henry»for bringing about 
n partial re|brmation of the church and having himself 


acknowledged its supreme head on earth, and whose 
zeal for his service carried him not unfrequently be- 
yond the bounds of justice and honour, met with the 
reward which might be expected from a king who resem- 
bled in tyranny too many of those who have been dis- 
tinguished by the same title. By the intrigues of the 
Butlers and the enmity of church zealots, he was im- 
prisoned on a variety of frivolous and groundless 
charges. Conscious of the tyranny of Henry, whose 
unjust measures he himself had assisted to put in ex- 
ecution against others, his courage, for which he was 
eminent in the field, forsook him at a juncture that 
required him to summon it all forth to his support. 
Relying on his many and eminent services to eecure 
the good dispositions of his sovereign, he declined a 
trial, pleaded guilty, and threw himself on the cle- 
mency of the king* who, with no less ingratitude than 
cruelty and injustice, ordered him to be beheaded. 

The government, meantime, reaped the benefits of 
his exertions. The chieftains came so eagerly forward 
that sir Anthony St Leger, the lord deputy, was bu- 
sied receiving their professions of submission. The 
earl of Desmond, who had hitherto held high privile- 
ges, voluntarily renounced them, threwoflf the su- 


ptvraacy of the popes ai^d g<^ve np hn son to receive 
an English education : Several septs petitioned to be 
admitted to a participation of the privileges of Eng«- 
lish subjects, and to be placed under the jurisdiction 
of English law : The O^Bymes, in particular^ re- 
quested that their territoiy should be formed into an 
English county. These favourable dispositions of the 
Irish were much incnf eased by the assumption of the 
title of Idnghj Henry instead of that of forrf of Ire- 
land which bad been originally bestowed by the pope, 
the splendour and novelty of the appellation convey- 
ing to them nations of respect with which they had 
never formerly been impressed. But this noble op- 
portunity of uniting the Irish into one powerful peo- 
ple under English administration was unfortunately 
lost by the thoughtless inattention of the king towards 
their country^ who lavished the blood and wasted the 
treasure of the empife in vain>*^lorious wars on the 
Continent, and neglected, like most of his predeces- 
sors, the solid interests of his crown at home. Indeed 
it has been the fatal and misguided policy of Great 
Britain, for a considerable period before, and ever 
lince, the accession of this monarch, to be eterually 
involved in the prosecution of delusive schemes of ag-' 
grandizement, forming, for the furtherance of he» 
Vol. I. F 


plans, conftinenial'atiiaBcesi aad embreUkig herself ib 
continental widrv^ vhi«b miast tfelttmately prove ber de» 
stniction, rat;ker tihaat'o be engaged in cnltivaling the 
Hesdingsof peaces and in attempting to amdierate' 
the wretched conditim of by fax the gutter pari? of 
bef people. 

( A pow^tfdl party of. the servants^ of the crown, all. 
(Tf them d^terotimed enemies of Kilddre^ at the head 
of \H4ch wa9 Allan archbishop of Dablnr» bad b^e& 
in the nrean time formedi They obtitkiftd with much 
^filculty a resolution 6f the loitd* ii» cmiiidl to send 
the master of the rolls to the king, ^ tHe purpose of 
laying before, him the state of the cowfitry, andrtof^rave 
his royal interference in its behalf. The master of tbet 
rolls represented tc^ the king in th>ir i>a^e the dis- 
tressed state of the country ; the nearly total disuse 
of the English laws, manners, and language, which 
Were confined within the trifling compass of twenty 
miles ; the exorbitant exactions by which most of the 
tenantry were compelled to relinquish tbeir lands ; 
and the heavy tribute which the few remaining were 
obliged to pay in order to procure the preCaritHis pro- 
tection of Irish chieftains ; the enormous power of the 
English barons, who, by keeping a great number of 


Irish in their pay, could with 'impunity tippress hw 
highnesa'd iiege subjects ; land above a!l, the scantU 
nessof the royal revenue, which left the realm with- 
out the means of defence ; they entreated, for the 
amendment of these Auses, thathe would be pleas- 
ed to appoint in future such governors as had no inte- 
rest in Ireland, ^o, unbiassed by Irish influence 
or Irish faction and party-spirit, might im partially 
adminirter to the glory and honour of his crown ; and 
concluded with strenuous professions of loyalty and 
attachment to Iris government, 

Henry,' though the slave of caprice and passion, 
did uot want for penetration, and was sensible that 
more might be done towards accomplishing his designs 
in Ireland by conciliating than by violent measures. 
He therefore gaVe a gracious answei* to the petition 
•from the col«iy. He encouraged th^ chieftains by 
every means to submit to his dominion. He gratified 
their fancied importance and their family pride, by 
conferring on them pojnpo'n^s titles and honours. He 
prevailed 6n numbers to resort to his court ; and be- 
stowed on others sumptuous houses and* lands'in the 
nei^bourhood of Dublin,'for their cotf^eiiient attend- 
ance on the irhief governor. TMany or them, flatter- 


ed by these marks of distinction, surrendered their 
possessions and received fresh grants of them on mi- 
litary tenure* 

The archbishop of- Dublin, Allan, having died 
about this time, George Browne, an eminent preach- 
er of the Reformation in London, was appointed to 
succeed him by the king, with a view to forward that 
important work in Ireland. Several commissioners 
were sent over with him, who were instructed to con-» 
fer with the clergy and nobility, and to endeavour to 
procure from them an acknowledgment of the king's 
spiritual jsupremacy. Having begun to execute their 
instructions, Cromer, archbishop of Armagh, imme- 
diately protested against the measure as impious and 
rebellious against the holy see, from which the kings 
of England held their sovereignty. Leaving the 
commissioners, he summoned the suiFragans and cler- 
gy of his province, and denouncing dreadful curses 
upon all who should give way to the views of the 
king, commanded them in the name of the pope to 
resist all innovation, as they valued their eternal sal* 
vation. He then dispatched two emissaries to the court 
of Rome, to represent to it the danger of the churchy 
and to rouse it to the defence of its rights. 


Meantime Browoe, by labonring to fonrard the 
views of the kiag. brought his life several ti^es into 
imminent danger, and at length advised that a parlia- ' 
ment should be summoned to enforce by law what 
could not be accojaplished by persuasion. Accord- 
ingly a provincial assembly of the Pale, dignified with 
the appellation of a parliament of Ireland, met on the 
first day of May, one thousand five hundred and 
thirty-six, which, by the intrigues of II<;nry, enact- 
ed that all who should refuse to acknowledge his su- 
premacy were guilty of high treason ; that the spiri- 
tua! power of the pope was for ever annulled ; and 
that payment should be made to the king of the first 
fruits of bishoprics, abbeys, priories, hospitals, and 
colleges. This parliament also renewed tlie laws 
against iutermarriages with the colonists and native 
Irish, and enforced the observance of English customs 
and the use of the English language throughout the . 
Pale. By these regulations the division between the 
colonists and the, primitive inhabitants was widened 
and extended more than ever, and two factions were 
formed within the Pale Itself, whioh inv Ived the co- 
lony in endless dissension and hostilltj'. The whole 
nation, ajjoriginab and new settlers, with exception 
of a few who favoured the designs of Heniy, were at 


this period zealously attached to the doctrines of the 
church of Rome. Vindictive as the Irish were to each 
other and to the English, they had hitherto implicitly 
believed and observed the same forms of religious wor- 
ship. In their wars, though uniform in their detest- 
fttion of the English, they as often had recourse to 
arms for the annoyance of each other as of them. 
But they were now closely connected by a new bond 
of union with which they were formerly Unacquainted, 
and which they could allege to be the cause of all 
their future disaffection-— the defence of the inviolabi- 
lity of their conscience. Several chieftains, on that 
pretence^ rose iif arms and acted openly as rebels, till 
they were obliged to submit by the vigorous conduct 
<rf the deputy. These oppressive measures, however, 
and the introduction of base money into the Pale, 
contributed to render the administration of Henry 
exceedingly unpopular, and to distract the short reign 
of his successor Edward VI. 

Many chieftains, immediately on the accession of 
this virtuous young monarch, hoping to profit by his 
minority, showed themselves in arms, and resorted 
to their ancient practices of pillage and warfare. Sir 
Anthony Bellin^ham, the deputy^ however, succeed- 


ed in redacing them to obedience. He also seized the 
earl of Desmond, who had begun to relapse into his 
' former way of life ; but, instead of punishing him« 
' he prevailed on him by conciliating treatment to give 
sureties for his future good conduct, and to continue 
a true and faithftil subject daring the remainder of hi* 

Meantime the Reformation was pushed with greateY 
vigour than before. The protector, Somerset, hav- 
ing successfully proceeded with it in England, deter- 
mined that the English liturgy, together with several 
other new ordinances, should be introduced into the 
Irish church. Accordingly, sir Anthony St Leger, 
who was appointed lord deputy [1559] was entrusted 
with the management of this important business. 
Without convening a parliament, the royal proclama- 
tion was published, enjoining the clergy to accept the 
new liturgy in the English tongue. An ecclesiastical 
assembly being called, it was submitted to their inspec- 
tion, whenJohn Dowdall^ an Irishman by birth, who had 
been promoted to the priqfiacy of Armagh by Henry, 
unexpectedly opposed it with the utmost vehemence, 
and, followed by most of his suffragans, retired from 


tlie cenvention. Areh bishop Browne and other pre^ 
lates declared their acceptance; after ^hich the as- 
•enibly bvoke up. The litHrgy was read in the cathe- 
dral of Dnblin, in presence .of the lord lieutenant, 
the nobiKty, and tfee clergy, on Easter day, one 
thousand five hundred and fifty-one. The primatial 
dignity was transferred from the see of Armagh to that 
•of Dublin ; and Dowdall retiring to the Continent, " 
hi& diocese was l»estowed eo a prekte named Goodaore. 
John Bale, a man of gveat learning, and so liolent an 
apposer to popery, diat his life was ii} continnal dan- 
ger from the populace, was promoted to the see of 
Ossory. B«t the Reformation was far from being ef- 
fected bj these means. The aversion of tlie people 
to it was supported by the refractory opposition of 
Dowdall, and much increased by the un\varranta.<« 
ble conduct of thg commissioners appointed to re- 
move relics and other objects of superstition, who 
, without authority plundered and exposed to. public 
sale the most valuable furniture of the churches* 
These attempt!^, tbere&ire, to furee* the Ipsh to de- 
part from the religion of tlieir ancestors, and to con- 
form to an English ritual, not only caused mhny pre«« 
^fent disturbanpesi but' contributed to raise the il^moua 


iusurrectioa of the earl of Tyroae, who had latelf 
made ample submisftioD to the king and accepted an 

English title. 

The sudden death of Ed ward^ and the short reign of 
bis sister and successor Mat-y, a stupid and sanguina^ 
ry bigoty xealonsly attached to the cauFe of popery» 
and disgraced by a combinatioa oi the lowest passioni 
and prejudices x>f the vulgar with almost eirery vice 
usually attendant upon exalted stations, gave a tem* 
porary respite tothe troubled state of Ireland. Imme- 
diately on her accession, she repealed* all the acts in fer- 
vour of protestantism which had been executed by her 
father and brother : She returned the church to its 
toroier dependance on the see <^ Rome : She placed 
many of the deposed eeclesiastics in their former situ- 
titioDs : She persecuted the reformers in England with 
unremitting assiduity, committing all who refused to 
renounce their opinions without mercy to the flames : 
the persecution, however, did not extend to Ireland, 
whither many of the heretics fled to escape her fury : 
•'^he restored Gerald, the only surviving member of 
the noble finoiily of Kildare, to the honours and estates 
of his progenitors. 'During her reign an insurrection 
^'f the people of Leix and Ofally was quelled with 


^eh effect as nearly to oc(s»sioa their total ^itirpatior 
Their territories wer^^or ever v^ted ia the crown an 
converted into shires ; Leix, under -the nanae 
Qaeen*8-county, in compliment to the queeo, aD( 
Ofally, under thatof KingVcoui^, >fvoai a like at 
tention to her husband,. Philip, king of Spain. 31i 
•reduced the army in imland to aboi|t a -thoasand mei) 
eao confident 9vasehe- of the tr«nqu4lUty of the eouc 
try, but was obliged aftenpvsards to reinforce -it, on ac 
*«ount of the. iocveasiKgooramotaons, >«ad the lawleb 
tM>nduct-of Scotch adventurers, who«oii^«ed to laiK 
-frequently on the t6laqd« 

Although the rettonution of the church to its formei 
4tate of dependanee on the see of 6je«e gave mud 
'Satisfaction to the great mass of the Irish, yet thev 
aeem, upon the whole, to have been lati^r dassatistifcid 
^ith the administration of Mary. The^pow^r vcfjted 
in the lord lieutenant to dispose of the lands of Leix 
sud O&lly at the royal pleasure, to the injury of the 
•natives to whom they had hitlierto li^nged, and se- 
veral acts she passed with evident intention totally to 
^sttbvert their civil independence^ eppear particularly 
to have irritated them. 


Oa Eliztbethr's accession to the- throne [155S], she 
(^3iind the Irish better disposed to submit to her go* 
vernment than they had been to that of any of her 
predecessors. Having resolved, however, complete- 
ly to effect' the reformation in religion, she imprudent-' 
ly reversed the stepa of Mary, and renewed the impo« 
litic measnrerof Hemy with still greater severity. She- 
adopted, amongst other outmges against the people, 
the inboKMia plan of- repeopling the whole province of 
IVIuQster,. to the exterimnation of the original inha* 
Ijitaots* Great hiducemenls were held out to all who 
would adventure in this scandaloufl undertaking* 
Estates were offered, at a small rent, on condition that 
a certain nuniber of families were planted on themt 
amongst whon^ tfeere were to be no native Irish ; and 
they wer« proraiaed a force sufHcient rbr the defence of 
thtir iiieaitiers. To sir Walter Raleigh and many other ] 
jjersons of power and distinction, considerable portion* 
of territory were on these terms iniquitously granted. 
The. people were enraged by this arbitrary measure^ 
and though forced to afiect submissionr waited only 
for a favourable opportunity to shake off the yoke by 
which they were oppressed. 

The chieftaioSj especially in the north, were soon 


in arms; and «o formidable did tbey at length become^ 
that the queen was forced to submit to treat with thein. 
The cessation of arms that ensued was only a tempo- 
rary respite. Hostilities quickly recommenced ; and 
for the first time [159^] a regular system of rebellion 
against English government was organized in Ireland, 
The most formidable of the rebels was 0*Nial, who, 
disdaining his title of earl of Tyrone, boldly assumed 
that of king of Ulster, and entered into a correspon- 
dence with Spain, from whence he was furnished with 
a supply of arms and ammunition* The queen sent 
over her favourite, the earl of If ssex, as lord deputVj 
with an army of twenty thousand men. During the 
violent struggle which ensued, acts of the deepest 
atrocity were committed by both parties* The Eng- 
lish arms were fof several years unsuccfessful ; but mu- 
tual devastation soon rendered the country, however 
fertile, incapable of supporting its inhabitants. Ma- 
ny fell daily by the sword : more were destroyed by 
famine. The putrid exhalations from multitudes of 
qarcases, left every where exposed to the air, brought 
on a pestilence, which, added to innumerable other 
calamities, threatened completely to annihilate the 
Irish race. The army of Tyrone diminished rapidly ; 
while the English were supported by seasonable sup- 


f^Fies of firesh proTision* from sea* Reduced to ibe 
kst extremity, O^Nial uras obliged to make overtures 
of accommodatioD. After mudi treachery, evasion, 
And many pretended submissions, lie was at length 
obliged to yield in good earnest. He fell upon his 
knees before the deputy, and petitioned for mercy 
with an air and aspect of distress. He subscribed his 
submission in the most ample manner and form. He 
implored the queeh*8 most gracious -commiseration; 
i<and humbly sued tol>e restored to his dignity and the 
state of a subject which he had justly forfeited. He 
utterly renonnced the name^of 0*Nial, which he had 
-assumed on account of the veneration in which it was 
held by the people. He abjured all foreign power, 
-and all dependency except on the cirown of England^ 
He Tesigned all daim to any lands, excepting such as 
should bexonferred upon him by letters patent ; pro- 
mising'at the same time to assist the state in abolish- 
ing all barbarous customs and in establishing law and 
introducing civilization among his people. The lord 
deputy, on ihe part of the queen, promised a full 
pardon to him and all his followers ; to himself the 
restoration of his blood and honours, with a new pa- 
tent fer his lands, except some portions reserved for 
Vol. I. G 


certain chieftains, received into faypur^ and soipe fojr 
the use of English garrisons. 

Thus ended this formidable rebellion ; but it was a 
melancholy consideration that the reduction of Ireland 
, to a state of s^ullen submission, through famine, pes- 
tilence, and bloodshed, cost Engla&d near four mil- 
lions and a half of money, a sum which, in that age, 
was truly enormous, and to the support of which her 
resources were by no means adequat^. 

No insurgent now ri^mained in the kingdom who If^d 
not, obtained or sued for mercy^ Manj> ip^^ed, hjid 
been forced to make their escape to the Cootipejiit^ 
where they subsisted tben\§elve9 by serving in the ar- 
mies of Spain : and thus a race of Irish exiles was 
trained to arms, filled with a malignant reseiiUnent 
agaii^st the English* The ghastliness of fap^ine and 
desolation was now somewhat enlivened by the r^stpta* 
tion of tranquillity, though the price of provisions 
had increased to so exorbitant a pitch is astoni<* 
nisbing the inhabitants were able to subsist ; e^iery ar- 
ticle having advanced to at least four ^im^$ the v^tlue 
h bad bore but a few years before* 

inSTOKY OF tRELAl^D. 59 

With the rebellion ended tBe reign of £ltzabeth, a 
princess distingnishea by the wisdom and vigour of 
her administration in England, but who appears to 
hate miserably mistaken her triie interest in Ireland* 
Enthusiastically beloved by ibe English, she drew on 
herself the detestation of her Irisb subjects. Politic 
and artfut, she hoped the blackness of her actions 
would never be exposed to the light of truth. Her 
dehaucheries, however, escaped not' the observation 
evien^ of her own times* Since then, her character 
ha{ justly been painted in all its genuine blackness 
and deformity. PerEdious and deceitful, she hesitat- 
ed at no step, however vile, which tended to forward 
her views ; and she advanced in iniquity with a cau- 
tions circumspection that proves her villainy to have 
heen as deliberaifi a» her principles were depraved* 
Her* treacherous and cruel treatm3nt of thfe amiable 
and accomplished, though unfortunate Mary, queen 
of Scots, wh» fled to her for protection against the 
attempts of her rebellious subjects, unjustly detain- 
ing her many years in prison on the groundless charges 

• Bte Whittaker's Mary Queen of Scots Viadicatea. 

eo REVIEW QF THE^ &c. 

ef her enemies, the effects of hev own iatrigues, and 
whom she at length caused tp be beheaded , though 
conscious of her innocence and of her own duplicity, 
wilt stand to her eternal dishonour^ and to the disgrace 
of that legislature which suffered &o flagrant a viola- 
tion of the laws of justice and humanity to be inflict- 
ed on the person of a sovereign prince,, a fugitive 
whom it was bound by every principle of honour to 
cherish and to protect ! — To gratify the injustice^, the 
passions, or the caprice of a monarch, to what degra- 
dations, to what abject compliances, has not an 
English legislature descended I 


To.ElizabeA succemiisd^ wnder Ihe tide of Jamefs T. 
JaisLes the koAi Idrag' of Scotland » a; iiesoend^nlr of 
HearyViK bftlie female lineV a pritiSe eimhent Sek 
profouiMl erndMoti/ and a fktdfic temper though 
uaskilted ia politicaraad nither pedknt'ic. Undec h1^ 
goremmeoty boWev^, Ireland began to assume a 
quite different appedrdn^e. At the time of his acces* 
fiioti, the coontry^t^as so re^Sobod by famine and deso* 
latien that all ihonghts of parchi^itag independenee 
by a Ten^wai; of such calam^ies were abandoned. 
England, on the other hand, was unable longer to 
support tlie excessive 'loss of^ blood and treasure which 
was incurred by her struggles with the Irish. It was 
therefore uaqitestiohably the interest of the crown to 
endeavour to extend its influence not by violent but 
hy amicable means. It was no less the interest of the 



Irish to submit with patience to a yoke which ihej 
could not shake ofil The new monarch consequently 
endeavoured to ingratiate himself with his Hibernian^ 
subjects^ A report being spread, whieh was rather 
encouraged than discountenanced by James, of his 
being attached to the Romish church, tended further to* 
pave the way for tlie peaceable reception of his admini* 
«tration» An act of Mivkm and mdenmiijf waa passed^ 
whereby all offences against the crown, all injuries and 
trepasses committed by sidbject upon suligect, were for 
jirer pardoned and extinguished, never afterwocda ta 
be revived^ The whole of the Irish were admitted to 
a full' participation of the rights of English suligects. 
The lords surrendered ther lands and received fteah 
gran1» of .them aecoiding to English law. By this 
means the estates of eaeh Mitt descended by faeredi** 
ditary^ right to his next heir acconfing to the Englisll . 
mode of sticeession, instead of being conveyed to per* 
baps a distant braneh of the sept, » cause of much dis*- 
sension and hostility*. The new grants were confined 
tb the lands actually in possession of each lord,* by 
which the landed interesft of the whol^ island was new 
modelled^and the landed property became permanently 
asf ertainedand fixed> so as in fiitura Uf- prevent in part 
aK disputes;. 


By the lands winch from time to time had been e»» 
cheated to the crown, particularly the forfeiture of the 
territorres of Tyrone and Tyrcwinel, who fed the 
kingdom in conseqiience of an information of high 
treason having been lodged against them, James found 
himself in posaession of a fasit^trackv consisting of near 
fire hundred thou^md acres^ in the^six northern couii^ 
ties of Tyreonnel (bow called Donegal), Tyrone, 
Dorry, Fermanagh), and Armagh, a track of coniK 
try so^eovered^with wood, that itaffofded a seeure re^ 
tireat not only to-rebeU^ but to greatbandd of Scotch 
and'^sh banditti, who infested the open country ; 
and n^hieh^ but for the seasonable interposition of go^ 
Temtnent, might have for ever continued a wild uno» 
profitable waste, dtsfigurmg the fkce of the countryi 
and destroying the health of the people by the noxiouH 
Tapoors which incessantiy exhaled from it, the pemi- 
cTous effect of the jnoisture collected' by the wood» 
To dispose of" these Tands in such a manner as might' 
introduce to their inhabitants all the blessings of peace' 
and ccdttva^o(A, was an undertaking exactly suited to 
the genius and disposition of James ; and, had not a 
planting maii^, which made him extend his plans to the 
rajury of- Wa peaceable subjects by depriving them of 
tiieir rightful posaessicms^ taken possesion of his breast, 


•would have, redouaded 1)0 his inlnifOTtal hdnoixr. He 
cinlbed survey to be accurately and expeditieusly 
t&ken of tb« geVeral coitfitks where tlie new ciettk* 
tnentd were to be estiabiished ; he described partioularly 
tbe state of each ; he pornted out the situfltiona mo^t 
pvoper for the e? ectioa of towns and casdes ; he dcJi- 
4M9Bted- th6 cfaatafcter of the Irish chieftains^ the m«n- 
jier in ^hich the;^ sh^ld be treated* the temper aiid 
^ireuixistanceB of the old inhabitants, the rights of the 
new purcha^ei*S) and the clfeuns^ of both ; together 
.with the impediment to foriher plantations, and- the 
most proper manner of temoribg th^m* At Kis in* 
•fitarice it was resolved. That the persons to whom lands 
were tissigned should be divided into three classes ; 
new adventurers from Great Britaii^ ; servkars^ as they 
were called, that is, natives who for some time had 
.served in Ireland in military or civil offices ; and na« 
tives without distinction. The first, persons bom in 
Britain, and chiefly Scotch, were permitted to take 
tenants only from amongst their own countrymen ; 
the second,, servitors, welje allowed to cboo^ their 
tenants, either British or Irish, with the exception of 
popish recusants ;- to gain the thitd, if possible, by 
lenity and indulgence, they were under no restriction 
with regard to the religion or birth-pliade of their te* 


nantry» and were tackly exempted firom the oattr of 
alkgiamee, which the two- former were obliged totake» 
la the plantationa which had formerly been attempt- 
ed ,. the English and Irish had been nuxed together, 
k the fond hope that the former would hare civilized 
aud enlightened Ae latter, and changed their barbar^ 
ous nianners to habits of industry and peace* Bat 
experience had now shewn that the very reverse was 
the case ; the English quickly conforming to the wiM 
customs and irregular manner of living of the Irish. 
It was therefore thotight necessary U> plant them in. 
separate quartess ; and uk the choice of these situa« 
tlons the errors of former times were carefully avoided. 
The original adventurers from England to Ireland, 
allured by the rich and fertile appearance of the fiat 
and open districts,, had imprudently settled and built 
their habitations and their castles in them ;. driving the 
primitive possessors into the woods and mountains, 
their natural fortifications^ There they kept them* 
selves without being so much as known, subsisting on 
the milk of their kine ; and as the sexes lived in a 
&tate of promiscuous connexion, they multiplied to* a 
degree almost above credibility. There they heM 
their meetings and formed their conspiracies without 
being digcoivered. By Ae wisdom ctf James's plan, oa 

69 mEVIEW or THE 

ed to have beeiuexduded ; ^e evil consequences of 
ivhich vere afterwards mogt severely felt. 

Much religious discontent was displayed throughout 
the reign of James. The catholic party, while they 
bad power to resist, could not bear to see the protest- 
ant religion established in preference to their own* 
On the annunciation of a design to summon a parlia- 
ment, the only one which had met for twenty-seven 
years, and the first nadanai one which had ever assem- 
bled, all the former having been merely co/onta/ meet- 
ings or partial representations of particular parts of 
the* kingdom, the catholic nobility, clergy, and 
gentry, excluded from holding offices of trust, mili- 
tary or civil, by their refusal to take the oaths of qna- 
lificution, though magistrates and lawyers were in ge- 
neral tacitly permitted to exercise their fnnctioTis, 
were grievously alarmed lest unfavourable designs 
should be attempted against them, and lest the pre- 
ponderance of the TOfwk influence should be so great 
as to insure the completiwi of such designs. To pre- 
vent the danger with which they were threatened, they 
and their agents made the greatest exertions in «U 
parts of the kingdom to have a majority •f catholics 
returned: But, notwithstanding their utmost efforts. 


tjie majority, on the meeting of parliament, was in 
fevoiir of the protestants* Of two hundred and thir- 
ty>twjo members returned for the house of commons, 
six were absent, a handred and twenty-five were pro-* 
testauts, while the recusants amounted only to a hiin- 
dred and one* The lords consisted of sixteen barons^ 
twenty-five protestant prelates, five viscounts, and 
four earls, of whom a large majority were in favour of 
adiiiinistration. The meeting of the commons was tu- 
multuous and .outrageotts. The recusants loudly call- 
ed for an examination into the legality of the election 
of several protestant members. When the house di- 
vided fi>r the purpose of electing a speaker, they 
placed in the chair sir John Everard, notwithstanding 
a majority on the opposite side of the question ; con- 
tending that, by the undue return of their members, 
the majority of the protestants was the eiTect of Ulega^ 
litif. Sir John Everard was 'a respectable recusant, 
Mho had resigned his seat of a jubtlce'of the king's 
bench, rather than take the .6aths of qualification. 
After a most outrageous and Indecent coiitest, during 
which the protestanta endeavoured by force to drag 
Everard from the' chair, and at length placed in his 
lap sir Johtf Davies, the attorney-general, the object 
of their Aoice, the recusants seceded, and declared 
Vol. I. II 


that they would take no part ia the proceedings of an 
assembly which they pronouoced u&Iawfiih The lord 
lieutenant confimed sir John Davies as speaker, and 
prorogued the parliament till the ferment of party 
spirit should subside. The recusant lords had also se- 
The parliament was again convened [16 14], when 
the violence of party was somewhat iHbttted by the 
management of the deputy and the prudent conduct 
of the more thinking recusants. It confirmed all' the 
politic measures of James for the abolition of odions 
distinctions between the colonists and the Irish ; and 
the session was closed by voting to the king, his heirs, 
and successors, two shillings and eightpence in the 
pound from every personal estate of the value of Ihree 
pounds and upwards, from aliens seven shillings and 
fourpence in the pound; and four shillings in the 
pound from every real estate of the value of twenty 
shillings and upwards. An act so liberal could not 
but be agreeable to James, who in a letter to the de- 
puty expressed in high terms his grateful sense of their 
munificence. . 

A convention of the clergy was in the mean time 


held £dr the purpose of framiiig a confeeaion of faitii 
for tke e8ta}>l4died protestant church of Ireland. 
Doctor Jaipes Usher, a man enuDe&t for learoing aad 
abilities, but atroogly tiiictured with CalvinistLc priiip' 
ciples, was entrusted with the work of its composi- 
tion. It consisted of a hundred and four articles. 
It received tiie ratification of the lord deputy ; and 
though a few of the articles were disagreeable to the 
king, jet, from a sense of justice, his modesty pro- 
moted their ecHXXpiler to the see of Meath. 

During the remainder of James's reign, nothing 
worthy of particular notice occurred. The system of 
planting was carried forward with much spirit, though 
it was fer from being conducted with that prudence by 
which he had hoped to render .the bl'eeaingft of it. ppr- 
manent. Though many vexatious and tyrannical 
stretches of power were exercised by his commission* 
CTs, so as to incense numbers of Irish ; though the re- 
cusants were gievously oppressed ; though the soldiery 
and their officers exacted considerable sums from the 
people: though martial law was executed with rigour 
in time of peace ; and though private property w^s 
most nefaciausly invaded in the prosecution of the 
king's favourite plantation object, so as to reduce ma- 


iiy of them to want and mifsery 5 yet the country had 
been so completely subjugated by Elizabeth, and the 
measures of James were in reality attended by so ma« 
ny sensible advantages, that no disturbances took 

In the year one thousand six hundred and twenty- 
five, Charles I. succeeded to the throne of his father 
James,^ at which time lord Faulkland, an honest and 
upright man, but indolent and weak, was lord depu- 
ty of Ireland. Charles was by no means adequate to 
the arduous task of conducting the affairs of the Bri- 
tish islands, at a period when the empire was in a state 
of the greatest fermentation from the religious fana^ 
ticism of two opposite contending sects and from a va- 
_jciety-<>f oth«^r caiTSCsr, 

At this period no people were more distracted by 
the spirit of intolerance ; no people were more bigot- 
ted to and obstinate in their respective opinions ; and 
no people were more unfit to meet the destructive con- 
sequences of internal dissension, than the Irish. Ag- 
gravated by a series of grievous oppressions, the ca- 
tholics watched with rancorous impatience for an op- 
portunity to inflict their vengeance on the protettiints, 


whdm they regurded in a two-fold light of abhorrence, 
as the enemies and diestroyers of their civil liberties, 
and as damned heretics, accorded in the sight of God, 
to whom' they imagined they conld perform no service 
more grateful than that of extirjiating them, and with 
themselves their abominable opinions. These dispo- 
sitions were much increased by a bull of pope Adrian 
VIII. exhrortrng them to stiflfer death rather than take 
the oath of supremacy, whereby, he blasphemously 
asserted, the supreme power over the church was im- 
piously wrested iVora the hands of the vicar of Christ, 
in open reT^eilion against God Almighty himself. The 
protestants, on th\; other hand, with a spirit hardly 
less impious, affecting excessive purity, declared that 
to tolerate popery would be to render themselves ac- 
cessary to idolatry and the sinful loss of souls which 
were swallowed up in the gulf ^ catholic apostacy* 
The catholics, on the application of the lord deputy, 
Faulkland, agreed to support five thousand infantry 
and five hundred horse for the king's service, at their 
own charge. They were consequently ordered to be 
treated with indulgence. The puritans, however 

raonstrated. The deputy continued to exe- 

^ -Ut^ Ijis 

instructions. The puritans made raisrep ^ ^ . 
^^ his conduct to the cabinet, and he t ^^^g. j^^^^oved 


The administration was now lodged in the hands o£ 
Ely the chancellor and the earl of Cork, who receiv- 
ed the title of lards justices. These governors, with- 
out any authority, proceeded immediately to treat the 
recusants with the utmost severity, threatening all 
absentees from the protestant church with the heaviest 
penalties. The kin ^ expressed his disapprobation of 
their proceedings, which augmented the boldness of 
the popish party. A fraternity of Carmelites assem- 
bled a multitude of their followers to hear divine ser- 
vice according to the rites of the catholic churchy in 
one of the most public places- in Dublin. On the ap- 
proach of the chief magistrate and the archbishop with 
a body of troops to disperse them* they tumultuous- 
ly attacked and put the sddiery to flight. . Charles, 
provoked by this public outrage, seized fifteen catho^ 
lie religious houses and a catholic college :, the former 
.})e retained for his own use ; the latter he assigned to 
the university of Dublin^ to be employed as a place 
of protestant education^ The penal laws were exe- 
cuted with the utmost rigour throughout the king- 
dom ; and, by the advice of the lords justices, the 
army was ordered by the king to be supported aut of 
the fines imposed upon the catholics for. non-attend- 
«Lnce on the established worship : a measure of great 


grievaBce to the recasantsy and attended with but 
trifliog emDlnineiit ta the crown.. 

In th& year one tbousand six hundred and thirty- 
three commenced the celebrated administration of lord' 
Wentworfli, a man of imperious disposition, violent 
temper, haughty,, tyrannical,, and absolute, butwho^ 
tempered^these vices in his constitution by the distin- 
goisbed wisdom of his conduct.. With a conviction- 
thst the people of Ireland were nothing' more tham 
t)ie inhabitants of a conquered country, he determin- 
ed to treat them as mere slaves, and to keep no object* 
m ?iew but the interest of his royal master. On his* 
ktndiDg he summoned the council, but. contemptu— 
onsly neglected to require the presence of several of 
the members. This insult. was aggravated by his con-r 
duct to the restj, whom ho kept in watting. fnll two- 
hoars belbre he deigned to make his appearance ; and ' 
when he did show himself, he entered in a careless in-r* 
different manner, without condescending to make aa 
^P^^<>gy for the deiay. He waved the business fo» 
which they had been assembled, and , enjoined them* 
wthaa authoritative air and tone to represent in their 
several districts the fevour offered by the king to such 
«s would compromise for the renewal of their defeetive 


titles to their estates, and to convince the profestants 
that the support of the royal army was absolutely ne- 
cessary for their defence. On the next day, when the 
council was again ^utnmoned, they evinced stn unwil- 
lingness to supply the king*s necessities beyond the 
present yetfr. Wentworth, enraged, prbudly iiiform- 
ed them thdt he had summoned them, not from ne- 
cesBity, but from ttwilHn'^ness that they should have 
an opportunity to display theirloyalty and zCal ; afnd 
that, at the peril of his head, he would undertake to 
provide for the king's troops amongst them without 
their assistance* Awed by his lofty demeanour And 
by the allusion he made to the odious practice of free 
quarters, they abjectly agreed to furnish another 
year's provision, to be le\4ed on the protestants, the 
catholics having provided for the last. 

The next step of Wentworth was to summon a par- 
liament, in the lower house of which he hoped to be 
aWe to balance the catholic and protestant parties, and 
to tamper privately with each. Tlie custom of con- 
sulting the lords of the Pale, previously to its being 
convened, was contemptuously neglected. When the 
council appeared disinclined to observe tl e mode pre- 
scribed by him with respect to the bills to be transmit- 


ted» he intemipted their conmltatiooig» and informed 

them that they were no^ to consider what might be 

agreeable to the people but what might please the 

\.mg. On the meeting of parliament^ na less than 

six entire snbjMdies, consisting of two hundred and 

forty thousand pounds, were voted by the commons, 

who relied on the royal promise to grant fresh patents 

for the estates in Connaught and' in the county of 

Clare. The deputy, however, having secured the 

subsidies, so £ir from fulfilling this promise, proceed* 

ed immediately to take steps for seizing every estate iu 

Connaught, with a view to establish a new plantation 

throughout the whole province* In the prosecution 

of this his favourite scheme, he advanced first to Robp 

common, the inhabitants erf Leitrim having already 

consented to the surrendry of their lands.. Having 

called a jury of the principal men of the county, he 

informed them, at the head of the commissioners of ~ 

plantation, that the scheme would be attended with. 

great advantage to their country, that the king had 

no interest in it beyond the welfare of his people ; 

that their consent was by no means necessary to esta« 

blish the king*s title, but that it was his majesty^s wish 

they should share in the glory of executing a scheme 

80 beneficial to the commonwealth and to themselves. 5 


tnd tliat^ if thef did not return a f^ourable verdict^ 
tbe i%htfal claims of tkeirsOverdgn^ouM be etifor- 
i^ed hf a more siuamarj mode of pvocedure. Consci* 
otia of the vioJent «iid determined character of tbe 
deputy^ intimidated by his lofity gpirit, and terrified 
into aikbmission by his menaces, the jury found a.title 
for the king. TheHr example wm followed wkkoat 
hesitation by the iiihabitants of Mayo and Sligo, But 
the jury of Gal way, more spirited than those of the 
fbrmer counties, peremptorily refused to acknowledge 
a tttte in the crown. Wetttworth, exasperated by 
their obstinacy, imposed «n «ftch of them the enor- 
UMNis^ne^f i^r ^housiind potunids, and seized onjtheir 
fiersoQS and ef^tates ttll the sums should be paid. On 
the sheriff, also, he adjudged a fine of onethousatid 
guilds for having returned such a jury* 

These vud other horsh attd imperious measures of 
lord Wentworth were attended with such unirersal de» 
testas^ion, that complaints against his administration at 
length reached the ears of the king. He was recall- 
ed ; but, on r^vesenting hie conduct personally to 
bismffjesty, was eonfivmed in his authority with still 
greater powers than before, and was created ead of 
Stratford and knight of the ga^er« 


On his retam he convsned a parliament, which rea«» 
dily TOted to the king h\x more suhsidies ; but which 
at the same time drew up a very strong remotostrance^ 
«6ttiiig^'fi[>rth in feurteea separate articles the grievan** 
ces under which the nsltion laboared ; and appointed 
a committee to convey it to l.oiidon. He next, alarm- 
ed at the critical posture of the king's affairs both iii 
Eogiand'aod Scotland, raised a body of nine thousand 
men for his assistance, eight thousand of whom were 
catholicsy on whose loyalty and zeal he knew he could 
best depend* 

Meantime the comiBittee appointed to conrey tha 
remonstrance of parliament, bad been received with 
particalar &vour by the popaalar party, who expected 
coBsiderable assistance ftom them in the execution of 
the favomite design then in agitation^^^e overthrow 
^f the earl of 'Strafi'ord. Their public instructions 
directed them to apply to the king only for redress ; 
but they were privately ordered to address themselves 
to the English house of commons, a power then 
growing every day stronger than the throne. This 
step alarmed the earl of StralFoid, who percfeived in 
it the first spnptom of Ins danger. By the advice of 
Cbarles^ however^ who assured bim he still had power 


to save him 9 he &tally, contrary to the dictates of his 
own judgment And the urgent solicitations of his 
friends, repaired to London and gave himself up to 
the parliament, by which he was impeached, commit- 
ted to custody^ and afterwards ordered to suffer death 
as a traitor. Before the executian of Strafford, the 
king made a speech to the house of lords, in which he 
assured them he was well convinced the earl had been 
guilty jof high misdemeanours, but that he could by 
no means Ahink he had imagined high treason. Not- 
withstanding this -acknowledgment of the c&iVs mis- 
conduct, however, so infatuated was Charles with his 
£aivoutrite's system, and so implicated was he himself 
in all the acts of his administration, that, by his ad- 
vice, he appointed his kinsman sir Henry Wandes- 
worth to succeed him in the Iwd lieutenancy* On the 
death 4>f Wandesworth, which quickly followed his 
appointment, he deputed sir William Parsons and lord 
Dillon, another relative of Strafibrd, as lords justices 
of the kingdom : but fioding Dillon was exceedingly 
disagreeable to the Irish, he afterwards cancelled the 
commission, and appointed sir John Eorlase in his 
«tead» Immediately on the commencement of the 
exercise of their functions, these ministers proceeded 
to re-establish throughout the kingdom the formerj 


inodetatiott ID die exeiclfttidD of gO¥eni«ieii«, nioUiQr«. 
ing the rigorous meMdtes^ciif JSlraflbvd^ and odaptiag. 
thdr conddct to the lam aefd e^Mtshed customs of 
theraiiro. • * 

About this time Charles began to be serious]}^ alarm- 
ed at the symptoms of disafPection which began to ap* 
pear in Ireland. Conscious of the repeated instances 
of insincerity with which he had treated them, he at*- 
tempted by a last effort to recover the affections of his 
injured subjects. In a letter he directed the lords jus- 
tices to publish to the peojde all the royal graces he 
bad formerly promised them.; and to assure them 
that they should henceforth more particularly enjoy 
his favour and protection* Both houses of padiament 
returned thanks to his majesty for the publication of 
his graces, and prayed that the present parliament 
should not be dissolved n©r prorogued until laws 
should be prepared for the redress of all grievances* 
As the chancellor Bolton had insinuated a doubt, on 
a charge against him, whether, since the enacting of 
a hiw, called the law of Poynings, the Irish house of 
lords had power of judicature in capital cases, both 
houses joined in a solemn protestation declaring that 
the court of parliament ever was and is the supreme 

VaL. I. I 



judicatory of the realm. After the transaction tif 
this and some other business, both houses of parlia- 
ment adjourned, during which recess the grand re- 
bellion of one thousand six Kvndred and tortf^nt 
broke euti 

GITAP: r. 

Th£ hatred of the old Irish to the Eoglitth for whafT 
they esteemed the usurpatioQ of. their country ; the ' 
grievous and oppressive measures which still continued - 
to he enforced hj the commissioners and agents of 
plantation; the dispossessii^ of private property by 
chicane and the revival of obsolete claims of thQ ' 
crown ; the insracerity and faithless conduct of the 
king, who evaded the fulfilment of his promises to the 
recusants ; the insolent and impolitic behaviour of the 
new adventurers, who treated the whole of the na- 
tives of Ireland, both of Irish and Bnglish blood* as 
traiterous and diisaffeoted slaves, and selfishly repre-- 
sented them as such to the government ; the violent 
doctrines of eccletiastics educated on the Contident, 
who laboured with unwearied assiduity to instil into 
the minds of the people the most deep-rooted hatred ^ 


•to heretical opinions and an heretical government rtfie- 
secret and cautious proceedings of the puritans, who 
by a series of aggressions, provoked the recusants fre- 
quently to take arnas,, in order that they might become 
obnoxious to administration, which, by treating thetn 
with rigour, might be deprived of the advantages re* 
suiting from catholic loyalty, daring that contest with 
the power of the crown which they themsel^^s medi« 
tated ; all contributed to foster the latent spark of dis-> 
affection whk^h now csplodt;d with such ^es^nctive 
^fifects. The governmeut, Mkd into a ftital security 
by ^he many fahe ramowrs of conspiracies, plots, 
treasons, and insurrections, which from tim« to thne 
continued to be spread al^Poad,, took no. precautionary 
steps to meet the impending danger. Even the Intel* 
ligence transmitted from the British cabinet that great 
numbers of Irish ecclesiastics had poured mto the 
kingdom from Spam, and -^at it was the o^Hnion of 
the cabinet that a rebellion would soon take place> 
appears not to have roused the lords justices from the 
unaccountable lethargy inio which they had sunk. 

Th* conspirators, the principal of whom ^ere Ro- 
ger Moore, head <rf a induced family in Queen's 
Cooaty, a penetrating and judiciDus man, and pos-« 


stesed of a most insinuatiag address ; Connor Mac- ' 
gttire, baron of Enmskiilen ; 6ir Phtiliin O'Nial 
(§r 0*NeaU as the word is now written ), grandson of 
the famoas rebel earl of Tyrone ; Turlagh O'Neal, 
brother to »r Phelim ; sir James Dillon ; Philip Reily ; 
Hagh Mac-Mahon; Richard Plunket; and many 
others of inferior note; having prepared every thing 
for the execution of the plot, and raised a considera- ' 
ble body of troops nnder pretence of employing them ' 
in the- service of Spain, appointed the tweoty-third * 
day of October, one thousand six hundred and forty- ' 
one, as the most proper time for rising universally in ' 
arms. Moore, Byrne, and MkCguire were to surprise * 
the ca.4tle of' Dublin with Iwo hundred men, while a 
considerable number were ta follow for their support, 
and to take possession of the city. The fortresses in * 
U Isttr wereto be seized by different chieftains, who, - 
after having -accomplished their several task?, were to ' 
forma junction with sir Phelim, and under his direc- * 
tlon to march wiih their united forces to Dublin* On ^ 
the twenty-second of October, the day before the in- " 
tended surrection, Moore and the other chieftains ap- " 
pointed to take the castle assembled in the capital, • 
>vhe;e they found only eighty of their men. They 
spent the day, however, flattering themseVies that th« - 


remainder of iheir n«Htber would join them beftue the 
nioment of action ; iind, falling on their kneed, with 
much solemnity drank suceess to their enterprise. On 
this critical evening a full discovery of the plot was 
made to the lords justices, by a servant of sir John 
Clotwortfhy, named Owen 0*Gonnolly, and the dis- 
covery was quickly followed by the arrest of Mac- 
Mahon and Macguire, who were afterwards hanged as 
traitors at Tyburn* Moore, Byrne,, and the other 
leaders effected their escape. The castle, however, 
notwithstanding this discovery, might still have been 
taken, as it was defended by only about fifty meUy 
armed with balberts, had the conspirators persevered 
» in their determination^ It contained fifteen hundred 
barrels of gnn-powder, an immense q^iantity of bullets 
and matches, ten thousand stand of arms, and thirty- 
five pieces of cannon, fully equipped. The arrival of 
sir Francis Willoughby, governor of the fort of Gal- 
way, a brave and experienced officer, tended to soothe 
the apprehensions of v the citizens. By his advice the 
lords justices and coo noil retired within the castle ; 
with the defence of which he was entrusted, together 
with that of the city, A proclamation was issued on 
the twenty-third, amiouncing the discovery of a most 
tven^onablc and detestable conspiracy, imagined by 


theiQaffiected Irifth psipif^ tbranghaut the kingdom; 
and.Qxborfaiig all -^ govarDment to provide for 
their Own defence and that of the 9tate, The catholic 
lords and gentlem^ of the Pale, excepting to the ge<* 
Beral tenns of this procl^mationt immediately waited 
on the lords vjustices and council ; and, expressing 
tiieir abhorrence ^fs apd imiocence in, taking any . 
part io the revolt^ demanded arms for their own de-^ 
fence and the annoyance of the insurgents. These 
were refused coldly, on pretence of a scarcity* On 
the twenty-ninth, however, the lords justices and 
council issued an explanatory proclamation, intimat- 
ing that by Irish papists they meant the old Irish pf 
Ulster, and not the £ngli^ catholics of the Pale, or 
thioughout the rest of the realm. The jealousy of 
tlie justices, who were strongly attached to the puri« 
tauic party, prevented the catholics of the north from 
suppressing the insurgents ; and they are with great 
appearance of justice suspected to have even checked . 
every exertion for that purpose, in the base and disho* 
nourable hope of profiting by the forfeitures of those 
^bo, emboldened by their apparent want of support, 
mij^ht join in the rebellion. 

Meantime the rebels in Ulster had risen with alacrir 


ty at the appointed time ; and with such spirit and 
activity did they push forward their operations, that in 
the course of eight days they had acquired full poses- 
• sion of the counties of Tyrone, Monaghan, Longford, 
LeitHm, Fermanagh, Caven, Donegal, and Derry, 
and part of the counties of Armagh and Down. They 
confined their attacks every where to the English set- 
tlements, and, as had been previously agreed on, left 
the Scottish planters for the present unmolested. The 
English were the objects of their resentment : the 
measures of a puritanic government the subject of 
their complaint. • England and English tynjaiiny were 
every where thundered against with tremendous impre- 
cations, and held up by every party as worthy of the 
utmost detestation. The spirit of the rebels was kept 
alive by assurances of support and assistance. Their 
leaders sometimes affirmed that the Scotch were about 
to join them in the glorious effort to extirpate the Eng- 
^lish ; sometimes that they themselves had risen by or- 
der of the queen, who was a catholic ; sometimes that 
they a( ted under authority of the English parliament: 
These pretences being laid aside as dangerous to their 
cause, sir Phelim -CNeal produced a parchment with 
the great seal appending to it, which he declared to 
be a commission from the king for taking arms* This 


he refiised to mbmi to iiwpectioa i faut seven days af« . 
terward* a forged conamission was puWicly produced, 
with the great seal fimed to it, which had been torn 
from the parchment «*ove nentioned. It was notified 
withoreat solemnity to tlie rebel coafederates, and 
coiitiib«t«d aradi to erfiilerate their spirits, while the 
puritan protestants, who regarded Charles with an eye 
of deep ^strust, dismayed at the »ght of , the great 
sf al, declared that they were a " sold peopieJ* The 
commisMon declared in the name of the king, 
that " For the preservation of his royal person he had 
" long been obliged to take np his residence in Scot- 
'* land, occasioned by the disobedience of the Eng^ 
" lish parliament, which had deprived him of hisroy- 
" ad power and prerogative, and assumed the govern- 
« ment and adnunistration of therealm ; tliat as these 
" storms blow alofty and are likely to be carried into 
•' Irebnd by the vehemency of the protestant party, 
*' he hath giv^n full power to his catholic subjects to 
" assemble and consult, to seize all places of strength, 
"■' except those of the Scots, and to arrest the goods 
" and persons of all English protestants within the 
'' kingdom <^ Ireland.*' The lords justices, immedi- 
ately on the first report of this commission, endeavour- 
ed to-connteiactits tendency by publishing a procla- 


places of fteemity, in aU ihe ghaBOioesv'ef ebid, feetti 
aud faminie. Ttvote prisoneri they hkd How io'l^eir 
power eitpefi«A€6d tbe fall effects el ibeit imrptocable 
foi^* HmoaQity ^buddefs at tbe nltiilesB -scenes wbich 
successively presented iibeviseltes* Lord Caulfie^d 
was basd 7 aod 'wantbiily murdered; Fifity citbers, at 
the same time and in the salne pQdce, feH by catboHc 
poniards *• Makiys confined -in dkffef ent places^ were 
brought out on pretence of being con ducted to finglish 
settlements f ' they were goaded forward hy tb«r guards 
like, beasts, te whoni tbieir torments afforded sabject 
of brutal mirth and savage ^cultation. Sometimes 
they enclosed them in some bouse or castle, wbich 
they set on fire, and, spectatoars of the shocking scene, 
heard their cries and saw them consumed with a bar* 
barous indifference!^ Sometimes they plunged them 
into the first riv«r they met : from tbe bridge of Port^ 
adown in the county of Down no fewer than one b«n» 
dred and ninety were at. once precipitated into the 
stream §. Sometimes " Irish ecclesiastics were see* 
** encouraging the carriage. The women forgot th^: 

* Lcland, frem manuscript depositions of the county 
Antrim. t Id. Ibid, % Id. Ibid, § Id. ibid. 


** "teoderness of their sex, pursued the Englwh with 
^* execrations, and imbrued their hands in bloods 
** Even children, in their feeble malice, lifted the dag- 
" ger against the helpless prisoners. They who es- 
" caped the utmost fury of the rebels languished in 
*^ miseries liorrible to be described. Their imagina-* 
" tiona were overpowered aud disordered by the recol- 
*' lecticm of tortures and butchery. In their distrac* 
'* tion every tale of horror was eagerly received, and 
*' every suggestion of itenzy and meUncboly believed 
" implicitly* Miraculous escapes from death, raira- 
^' culous judgments on murderers, lakes and rivers of 
" blood, marks of slaughter indelible by every hu- 
" man effort, visions of spirits chaunting hymns, 
** ghosts rising from rivers and shrieking out revenge ; 
** these and such like fancies were propagated and re- 
" ceivcd as incontestable." * The protestants, on the 
other hand, began to show a spirit no less diabolical. 
The Briti&h settlers in plates of security forgot that 
their suffering brethren bad been frequently rescued 
from thebands of the rebels by the interposition of th<» 

* Leland. 

Vol. I. K 


old natives. Their hatred and abhorrence to ihelfMi 
raeie was so violent and indi^criminatet as to render 
them gililty of acts eqWally atrocious with these which ' 
had excited their abhorrence* . The gairriBon of Cai^-* 
rickfergusy in particular^ inflamed by an habitual an^ 
tipafhy to popery » beheld the Irish with implacabie 
detestation. In one fatal night they issued forth* from 
the castle into a neighbouring district^ called laland- 
Macgee, where a number of the poorer romanista^ 
peaceable and inolTensive subjects, untainted with re- 
bellion, resided, as in a place of safety under the pro- 
tection of the garrison ; and, assailing them in their 
beds, with deliberate cruelty massacred the whole 
without distinction ; old men sinking under the bur- 
den of age and accumulated infirmities, women in ia^. 
hour, children at the breast^ all fell victims alike to 
the cold-blooded barbarity ,of their meix^iless assail* 
ants I 

Meantime the lords justices, on the full discovery 
of a plot of general insurrection, had sent 0*Connol- 
ly, the informer^ lyith intelligence to the earl of 
Lwcester, who resided in England under the title of 
lord-lieutenant. Sir Henry Spotswood was dispatched 
at the same time to Edinburgh with the same intelli- 

aistoRY OF Ireland; 95 

gejice to the kiag. The uafortiiaate Charles, in ca- 
pable .of renderiog any assistaDce towards suppressia^ 
the rebellion, devolred the management of the af- 
fairs of Ireland on the English parliament, whose de- 
termined plan was totally to subvert the royal autho- 
rity. The parliament assumed this cpocessiofi in its 
most extensive signification, and resolved to use the 
power with which they were entrusted as a fit iastru- 
meat to forward their designs* Confident \rk their own 
power, on which they relied for being at any time able 
te crush the insurgents, ^ they were careful not to has* 
tea the termipation of the war, which would deprive 
them of .the means of extending their influence by 
patmQ9g«, the levying of money, and the providing 
of arms, which they intended ultimately to employ 
again?§t the kingr though for the present apparently 
agaiast the rebels. * 

Closely connected with the popular party, and in-^ 
flu^ced by the hope of private emolument, the lords 
jttsticesj -especially Parsons, threw every obstacle in 
the.way of putting an end to the rebellion^ and the 
dreadful train of miseries and bloodshed by which it 
was attended. - When proclamations were issued of- 
fering pardons to the rebels, they were clogged with 


90 many stipulations, limitations, and exceptions, 9» 
to render them pf no effect ; and when the English 
parliament at length ordered them to publish a gene- 
ral full pardon to all who should lay down their arms, 
within a certain time, they eluded the execution of the 
orden. When the catholic lords and gentlemen of the 
Pale, whose houses had been plundered and burned, 
whose lands had been destroyed, whose tenants had 
been murdered by the earl of Ormond under these 
parliamentary justices, when these very catholics, not- 
withstanding all these grievances and oppressions, 
again tendered their best services to government, in 
'>rder to put a f^top to the insurrection, now becoming 
general throughout the whole kingdom, their orcrturet 
were rejected with insult and contempt. The earl of 
Castlehaven was unjustly imprisoned, and sir John 
Read most ihiquitously put to torture, for what was 
termed officious interference. The catholics of the 
Pale, thus- left unarmed and exposed to- the rebels, 
were consequently obliged to pay them heavy contri- 
butions for their good treatment. Incensed by these 
unjust, irritating, and impolitic measures, they were, 
in self-defence, together with the rest of tbe well af- 
fected catholic body throughout the kingdom, com- 
pelled to coalesce with the rebels ; a coalition in thiF 


fts'in almost every other iastance, the pure riesult of th e 
tyraoBical aad imptrudeat -conduct of the prote^auts, • 
aod which most unwarrantably has beeu branded with 
the appellation of an* uanatural rebellion^ though the 
catholics^ notwkhstaading the -many harsh oppressions 
iiader which 4hey laboured,' seem to have been indu- 
bitably the most loyal subjects the state contmned. 
Tbeiroath of -eoafederacy was couched in the most 
loyal, moderate, and condliating terms, and they de- 
clared themselves ready at all timet to confer with com- 
missiwiers from the government for the pacification of 
the country. They sent a deputation to the king, pe- 
titioning him to listen to their grievances, and e.^pres- 
siQg their loyalty and attachment to his- person and 
government in the -most explicit terms. Charles in 
coQsequeace signed a c ommisston on the fourteenth of 
January, sixteen hundred and forty-two, by which he 
directed the marquis of Ormond, the earls of Clan- 
rlckard and Roscommon, viscount Moore, sir Thomas 
Lucas, sir Maunce Eustace^ and Thomas Bourke, 
esq. to confer with the principal confederates, and to 
receive from them in writing what they had to pro- 
pound. The marquis of Ormond, a man of great 
personal courage and considerable military talents, but 
ambitious, vindictive, haughty, and impatient of 


control^ was impressed with so malignant a hatred to 
the catholics, that he not only disobeyed his sovereign 
in this and all other attempts conducive to their weU 
fare, but, for the sake of gratifying his antipathy to 
them, meanly descended to execute the orders of hi» 
determined enemies. A committee, sent over by tbe 
English parliament contrary to the express commands 
of the king, were received by the lords justices with 
much respect, who recognized their authority* With- 
out his majesty's consent they were admitted into the 
privy council, where their opinions gave the tone to 
the decisions of the board. Preferring to obey the or- 
ders of this committee to tbe pacific injunctions of 
Charles, Ormond marched towards Ross with an army 
of six thousand men. In this expedition nearly one 
thousand Irish were slaui» Ormond was the only one 
of the commissioners appointed by the king who did 
not attend the meeting of the confederates at Trim, 
where they delivered to the others a very full remon- 
strance of all their grievances, which was transmitted 
to the throne.. 

The king, deeply affected by this reinonstraace, 'in- 
formed the lords justices that he had authorised tbe 
iuarquis of Ormond to treat with the confederates for f 


cessation of hostilities for one year ; and ordered them 
to give effectual assistance to forward the same. Sir 
William Parsons was superseded and indicted to stand 
trial for opposing the cessation and other high crimes 
and misdemeanours ; and sir Henry Tichburne, he- 
ing known decidedly to fevour the cessation* was ap* 
pointed to succeed him as colleague to sir John Bor- 
lase. Ormond again received an order from the lords 
justices, by the king^s command, to confer with the 
confederates at Castle Martin in the county of Kit- 
dare, on the twenty-third of June, one thousand six 
hondred and forty-two* When the commissioners of 
the confederates met him he treated them with all the 
tyrannical insolence of a haughty superior. He in- 
dignantly called for the authority by which they ap- 
peared, and when they produced a copy of the autho- 
rity which they had received from the supreme council 
of the confederate catholics at Kilkenny, he superci- 
liously contested their title, and questioned the facts 
referred to in the writings. He peremptorily rejected 
the condition insisted upon by the confederates of the 
dissolution of the present and the calling of a new 
parliament, notwithstanding the king*8 positive comr 
mands to gratify them in that particular. By this con- 
duct and many other contrivances to which he had re- 


course, the cessation was delayed till the seventh of 
-September, sixteen handred and forty-three, whea 
Charleses wishes and positii^e commands were at length 
iaQG^ed to. Ormond procured fronoi them a voluntary 
xontributioA.of thirty .thousand ;pottnds, and a rein* 
fprcementof . several thousands of their best troops for 
ihe service of their sovereign in Scotland, who con- 
.ducted themselves Jn such a manner as to reflect ho- 
nour on the country from which they were sent, and to 
jender essential services to the royal cause. 

No sooner was ^the treaty of cessation signed, than 
the northern army, as well as the rest of the king's 
^nrc^, all under :the command of Ormond, rejected 
it, and immediately taking the covenant, offered to 
•follow their leader Monroe, whenever he should march 
against the Irish. About the same time lord Inchi- 
jquin revolted ; and administered an oath to each of his 
followers for the extirpation of popery and the exter- 
mination of the Irish. 

Meantime the confederates continued to send over 
•o many and such effectual supplies to the king, that 
on the twenty-fourth of October, sixteen hundred 
and forty-four, the parliament issued this bloody de- 


cree:— " That no qaarter should be gi?en to any 
*' Irishman or papUt born in Ireland that should be 
" taken in hostility against the parliament, either 
" upon sea or in England and Wales.*^ The hostili- 
ties daily committed upon the confederates by Mon- 
roe in Ulster, sir Charles Coote in Connaught, and 
lord Inchiquin in Munster, cansed them to petition 
the marquis of Ormond, now created lord lieutenant, 
either to put himself at their head, or at least to per- 
mit them to arm against those who, by violating the 
cessation of arms, acted as avowed enemies to the 
crown. The crafty OrmcMid^ however, who beheld 
the catholics with the utmost antipathy, though fully 
sensible of their loyalty^ not choosing to acknowledge 
tliem as the best friends to government, artfully evad- 
ed the petition ; and at the same time by the unbound- 
ed sway be possessed over the mind of his royal mas- 
ter, be contrived with consummate art to delay the 
peace in opposition to the king^s pressing and positive 
commands, until such a measure was rendered una- 
vailing by the cessation of the exercise of the royal au- 
thority, on the imprisonment of the king's person> in 
the year sixteen hundred and ffft^-six. ;^ /*>•'• > 

Thwarted and disappointed aabe was inhi« favour^ 


ite object of ingratiatii^g himself wijth the cpnfedeiaiBd* 
catholics, and provoked by the conduct of Ormood in 
this ani other particulars, the \infortunate monarch 
could yet neversummon suf&cient resolution to repro- 
bate the proceedings of bis favourite, and openly to 
avow a decided approbation of the catholics* Being 
fearful, however, that they might be alienated from 
his cause, he endeavoured to effect by secret influence 
what he had not courage to do by the public exercise 
of his authority. He granted to Ihe earl of Glamor* 
gan, a catholic nobleman, one of the heads of the 
confederacy, extraordinary .powers for the express pur- 
pose of counteracting the measures of Ormond, and 
pledged himself to ratify whatever he should think 
proper to grant the catholics ; they having " by their 
** supplies testified their zeal to our service**' After 
•> this acknowledgment of the loyalty and zeal of the 
confederates from the king himself, it is but fair to 
Conclude that their, subsequent endeavours to obtain 
succours from Spam, Italy, and Lorraine, weredic- 
' tated by a wish to render still more effectual assistance 
to Charles, who himself drew considerable aid from 
the same quarters. 

Charles^ liowever, notwithstanding all hi* profes- 


uOQs, stiO never seriously meant to support the confe« 
Vrates, who continued to be the dupes of his dnplici*' 
y and the victims of the malevolence of Ormondw 
»v his intrigues they were prevailed upion, contrary to 
'i«e advice of the pope's nuncio, to make peace jneft/tiv 
/ with the marquis, and privately with the earl of 
ilamorgan, making separate treaties for the religious 

idj^o/t/tVa/articles* On the sixth of March, sixteen 

indred and forty-six, they deputed lord Muskenry 
I .d several other commissioners publicly to conclude 

peace with Ormond, which accordingly was signed 
t Dublin on the twenty-eighth of the same month. 
'!ie secret treaty with the earl of Glamorgan, relat- 

^ principally to the tolerat-on of the catholic religion, 
(.d the sending over subsidies to the king, had been 
\ecuted on the twenty-fifth of the preceding month 
f August. 

Meantime the conferlerates earnestly endeavoured 
> prevail on the lord-\jeu tenant to declare the north- 
i\ covenantersxebels, while he artfully enip] oyedhim- 
\i to gBL\n the confidence of these forces, and to 
■in"- them over to the kiiig's service. Not only the 
M English troops, but even Monroe and bis Scots 
-emed inclined to unite with the chief governor on 


moderate terms, which alarmed the English parlia- 
meDt 80 much that, to prevent their defect]<m» they 
resolved to seed them supplies of monef , provisions, 
and clothing. Sir Charles Coote, a staunch parlia- 
mentarian, in the mean time demanded their assistance 
towards suppressing a rebellion against his government 
in Connaught, and to reduce the town of Sligo, the 
principal place of strength in possession of the insur- 
gents. After some hesitation, four thousand foot and 
five hundred horse were detached from the Scotch and 
English forces for this service. Sligo was soon forced 
to surrender ; and all the adjacent country became ex- 
posed to their depredations.' The confederates of Kil- 
kenny, provoked at these hostilities pending the nego- 
ciation for peace, ordered sir James Dillon with eight 
hundred men to assFst the archbishop <>f Tuam in the 
recovery of Sligo. The martial prelate led the assault 
in person, forced his way into the very centre of th< 
town, and would have succeeded in expelling the gar- 
rison, had not he received the mortifying intelligence 
that a strong army of the northerns was approacfain^r, 
His forces immediately retired ; but were attacke< 
and routed by sir James Coote in their retreat, wit I 
the loss of the archbishop himself, who was slaiii 
Amongst his papers was found an authentic copy o 

rn^Tonv of Ireland. 


irrjuy c»f pro re rosidndej with the end of 
irgn^n* ¥rhti-li miportaut ucqui«ttion wng iyrtmedi* 
itted to U»e BnglUh parrmtnrctti ^bo or- 
tti^ fiajier to be printed and indtiRtnunsly (Im^ 
il« to lite f^r«at joy «fid e%uUt^tion of the kingV 
^^Mw Cli^rtes, to prevent the bud coDseT|uiTncr^ 
*^^ might iinae frona thi*> dat^lared* iipoti the failh 
^^B»^ ' / ami m eftristiatt^ tim! he had ticrer giveu to 
l^^brl tif Glamorgan iho^t? prUik-gt;:* mid po^^er* 
hn wtts then kiig^o bj many, aiid b now knawn 
to hare repeated Ijr con ferred o pan h t m. W* i ih 
r eflrofiter}' the marqais of Ormond iiud lord 
9 both f if ^hom wcU knew ihc authority upon 
Glamori^ had aetrd, caa^ed hi to to hn indict- 
liireaviHi fiirforj^ng cirattrrfptilioimly obtam* 
coainiideiioiifi»aud itiiincdiately coot mitt cd hit 
clofe custody { but the confederates luiriu^ 
ptoriljr dechired that tlicy would br< «k ofT the 
Iff pesiee if hu was not iusljiully Uberatedi he 
lafgvd oa the recognizatice of huiiveff and tl^^ 

%* nil Mntiilfr that manf of the coiifv^tTtttcs, af- 
^^ nuttjof ihti ri>>id fwith, hy which 
[ foond thirm»elve« ao frcqiwotly deluded aod be* 


trayed, should in their future negociatioiis require 
some more stable security for. the performance of the 
articles of a treaty than the word of a king so repeat- 
edly violated. A great majority, however, still conti- 
nued to place unlimited confidence in the king, pla- 
cing his conduct to the account of the imperious neces- 
sity of his affairs. Much dissension, from this disu- 
nion of opinion, consequently arose amongst them. 
The peace by this means was retarded: and their pow- 
er considerably weakened, to the secret satisfaction of 
Ormond, who most actively fomented their internal 
divisions. The nuncio of the pope, with a very great 
body of the confederates, objected to any treaty which 
had only future concessions for its basis ; while others 
were for implicitly relying on the good intentions of i 
Charles and the lord lieutenant. But however they' 
might differ in this respect, they all, to the very last, 
continued warmly attached to the royal cause. 

The treaty concluded with Ormond at Dublin wd 
attended by a conditional obligation by which the kinJ 
was absolved from all concessions unless the confedcfl 
ates transported for his service in England six thoi 
sand foot, well armed and provided, by the first 
April, and four thousand more in a month after. 


the mean tiine» the treaty was deposited in the hands 
of ioid Clanrickard, as an instmment of no validity 
until the troops should be sent away. Bat the nego** 
elation was so long protracted by various concurring 
circumstances, that the succonre, which formed so 
grand a part of it to the unhappy diaries, arrived so 
late that they could be employed to scarcely -any ef- 
fectual purpose. 

The proceedings of sir Charles Coote and his par- 
liamentarians becoming insufferably violent and alarm- - 
i/]g> the confedemtes renewed their urgent solicita- 
tions to Ormond to lead them against these enemies 
to the crown ; but he resisted their pressing entreaties, 
artfully observing that he was well convinced there was 
an absolute necessity of union, but that he would not 
act with those who had not received their authority from 
the king. He insisted with obstinacy, in the mean 
time, on the suppression of Glamorgan's treaty, which 
Charles had disavowed all knowledge of, and that the 
treaty of Dublin concluded with himself should be 
Immediately published. If these overtures were not 

cceded to, he declared that the situation of the king*s 

affairs in Dublin must compel hira to seek some other 

method of tecovering and supporting his authority in 



^ again returned from France into Irelatid, and arriving 
at Cork on the twenty*ninth of October, sixteen hun- 
dred and forty-eight, resolved to use the unshaken 
loyalty and severely tried attachment of the catholics 
to Charles as the instrument of his own revenge. He 
therefore dissembled for the moment his implacable 
hatred to the catholics, and effecting to place the fate 
of the king in their exertions, was received with uni- 
rersal acclamations. He was invited by tbe general 
assembly at Kilkenny to conclude a peace witb them, 
and to join his efforts to those of the nation at large 
against the parliamentarians, who were soon to destroy 
monarchy, to abolish the hierarchy, and to extirpate 
the catholic religion. He still, however, rejected eve- 
ry condition of peace that related to the toleration of 
po^)ery, or the repeal of any of the penal laws. Dur- 
ing this delay lord Inchiquin^s army revolted against 
the king, which defection the nuirquis seized as a pre* 
text for completely delaying the definitive treaty. 

By this unaccountable conduct of Ormond, not- 
withstanding the- earnestness of the king to be recon- 
ciled to the confederates on any terms, the treaty was 
protracted till within one fortnight of the tragical end 
of Charles, Had he been actuated by any seose ol 


the welfare of the state, any regard to the preservation 
of the GonstitatioD, any zeal for the support of his 
own religion, or any real attachment to his sovereign, 
he would not have declared ** that the articles of the 
" peace were not condescended to till all hopes of the 
'^ treaty then on foot in England between the king and 
" the parliament were overpassed, and the army were 
** not ashamed to proclaim their purpose, to commit a . 
*^ horrid and execrable murder and parricide on the sa* 
" cred person of his majesty. This we mentiop, not 
" as thereby in the least degree to invalidate any of 
*' the concessions made unto these people, but, on the 
" contrary to render them in every point the more sa« 
** cred and inviolable by how much the necessity on 
'Vhis majesty^s part for the granting thereof is the 
** greater, and the submission on their part to bis ma- 
" jesty's authority, in such his great necessity, more 
" opportune and seasonable : as also to call the world 
" (and whomsoever either any peace at all, or the terms 
" of this peace, may be distasteful unto) to testify 
" hereafter, that as the full benefit thereof cannot, 
" without great injustice and somewhat of ingratitude, 
" (if we may so speak in the case of his msyesty with 
** refereace to this last act of theirs) be denied unto 
" lhem> so any blame thereof ought to be laid upon 


** those alone who have imposed the sad necesntyi 
** the saddest to which auy king was ever reduced/^ 

What share he assumed to himself of the disasters 
of his royal master, by having so long deprived him 
of the assistance of his catholic subjects, cannot be 
known ; but certain it is, that this awful moment of 
embarrassment was the first in which he made any a« 
vowal favourable to that body of men* Besides the re- 
luctant, the ungracious, and half-penitent admissioD, 
of their persevering attachment to the king in his ut- 
most distress, he said in a letter to lord Digby, writ- 
ten within a week of Charles's death, ** I must say for 
" this people, that I have observed in them great rea- 
** diness to comply with what I was able to give them, 
*' and a very great sense of the king's sad condition.*' 
And in another letter of the same date to the prince 
of Wales, he mentions " the very eminent loyalty of 
** the assembly, which was not shaken by the success 
" which God had permitted to the monstrous rebellion 
** in England ; nor by the mischievous practices of the 
*^ no less malicious rebels in Ireland.*' Yet this loyal 
assembly had Ormond most cruelly persecuted, and to 
these malichus rebels did he surrender up the authori- 
ty with which he was invested by his royal master. 


The rogn of tbe nBfbrtunate Charles vras terminat-^ 
ftdbythe ignominy of his public execution, which me- 
lancboly catastrophe might have been prevented had 
he coodacted himself witb but tolerable sincerity and 
moderation towards his subjects both of England* 
and Ireland. Had he possessed sufficient discernment 
to make a judicious choice of his ministers and favour- 
ites, or had he even decidedly opposed the measures of 
Ormond) and taken shelter amongst his faithful Irish- 
catholic subjects^ it is hard to say how far the power 
of the parliamentarians might have been checked; 
But the glaring weakness, irresolution, insincerity, 
and absurdity, apparent throughout the whole of his 
administration, recal to our recollection the words of a 
celebrated Latin writer — which, indeed, we could al- 
most be tempted to apply to the present rulers of these 

" Quas vultperdere Deus dementat.** ♦ 
So great and general was the indignation of the peo- 

• Tkoic whom God will* to destroy he first makes ma<l« 

i;i4 REVIEW OF THE, kc. 

pic of Ireland at the king's murder, that the pope's 
nuncio immediately left the kingdom, despairing of 
being any longer able to prevent the union of the ca- 
tholic confederates with the protestant loyalists under 
the lord lieatenant, who was at Youghall when he re- 
ceived intelligence of the king's death, where he in- 
stantly proclaimed the prince of Wales king, by the 
title of Charles II. 


In the first effervescence of the horror which all con- 
ceived of the murder of Charles, the English and 
Irish Tied with each other in their exertions against the 
parliamentarian rebels, whom they now denominated 
and treated as regicides. To this union were owing 
the first successfal movements of Ormond's campaign 
in the redaction of most of- the strong holds in the 
northern parts of the kingdom, except Londonderry. 
The pride of Ormond stimulated him above all things 
to regain possession of Dublin, which he had so base- 
7y surrendered. But the infamy of giving it up for 
lucre was aggravated by his disgraceful defeat at Rath- 
mines, about three miles from Dublin, by a very infe- 
rior force under Michael Jones, the rebel governor of 
the city, This shameful disaster, coupled with the 
ready submission of Inchiquin's men, who instantly 


enlisted in Jones's aiiny, and several other circumstan- 
ces attending the conduct of Ormond on this occasion, 
naturally renewed in the Irish their former suspicions 
that he had still some secret understanding with the 
English rehels ; and these suspicions were strengthen- 
ed by the constant failure of all his subsequent en- 
deavours against them. 

The new king had expressly written from the Hague 
** that he had received and was extremely well satisfied 
•* with the articles of peace concluded with the Irish 
" confederates, and would confirm wholly and entire- 
** ly all that was contained in them," Notwithstand- 
ing this, after his majesty had been proclaimed in Scot- 
land, and had been advised by Ormond to accept of 
the commissioners' invitation to go over to that king- 
dom, well knowing that his taking the covenant was 
to be the previous condition to his being admitted to 
the throne of Scotland, he took shipping ajvd landed 
there on the twenty-third of June, sixteen hundred 
and fifty. After having signed both the national and 
solemn covenant in the short space of two months, the 
king published a declaration " that he would have no 
" enemies but the enemies of the covenant ; that he 
" did detest and abhor popery, superstition, and ido- 


**latrf, together with prelacy ; resolving^ not to tole- 

'^rale, much less to allow/ t]Te»e» io any part of his 

"doiQinioQs, and to eadeavour the extirpation therc- 

" of to the utmost of his po#er.*' And he expressly 

proQouiiced the peace lately made with the Irish, and 

coDfirmed by himself, to be null and void ; adding, 

" that he was convinced in his conscience of the sinful- 

"ness and unlawfulness of it, and of his allowing ' 

^'them (the confederates) the liberty of the popish 

" religion : for which he did in his heart desire to be 

"deeply humbled before the Lord; and for having 

" sought unto such unlawful help for the restoring of 

"hinx to his throne.** This declaration necessarily 

produced the effect which Ormond himself declared 

in a letter to secretary Long, namely, •* to- withdraw 

" this people from their allegiance, by infusing 

"into them a belief that, by his majesty's having 

" taken or approved of the covenant, they aredeprived 

" of the benefit of the peace, and left to the extirpa- 

" tion the covenant proposes, both of their religion ■ 

'* and their person^.*! ' 

In the mean time the successes of the puriamenta- 
rians contintxed. When the former successful progre sir 
Ormond first awakened the parliament to a sense o^ 


danger. Waller, their general, was displaced to make 
room for Lambert, Who t^as in turn supplanted by 0« 
liveir Cromwell himself. That us^urper, aware that the 
situation was one whieh would add to his consequence 
and power, contrived by his intrigues to be chosen lord 
lieutenant of ' Ireland, by an unanimous vote of par- 
liament. His intrepidity and vigour quickly dissipat- 
ed all the difficulties df his tmdertaking, and he land- 
ed in Dublin on the fifteenth of August, with eight 
thousand foot, four thousand horse, twenty thousand 
pounds in money, and all other necessaries of war. 
Having entrusted the city to the care of sir Theophilus 
Jones, he took the field with ten thousand chosen 
lEea. Historians in general have represented the sub- 
mission of the Irish to Cromwell as too hasty and un- 
necessary. The truth is, that the Irish suffered sie- 
verely for the personal bravery and intrepidity which 
they displayed in support of the royal cause. When 
Cromwell with his weil-appointed army appeared be- 
fore Drogheda, his summons to surrender was reject- 
ed. ** On the ninth of September he began to batter 
•• the place," says Dr Warner ; " and continuing to 
'* do so till the next day in the evening, the assault 
** was made, and his men twice repulsed with great 
** braverj' ; but in the third attack^ which Cromwell 


" led in person, colonel Wall bein^ killed at the head 
*^ of his regiment, his men were so dismayed that they 
" submitted to the enemy offering them quarter, soon- 
^^ er than they had need to have done, and thereby be* 
'' trayed themselires to the slaughter. The place wa3 
^' immediately taken by storm : and though his ofB* 
** cers and soldiers had promised quarter to all that 
'^ would lay down their' arms, yet Cromweli ordered 
'^ that 00 quarter should be given, and none was given 
'^ accordingly. The slaughter continued all that day 
" and the next, and the governor and fonr colonejis 
" were killed in cold blood." According to Leland» 
*^ this hideous execution was con^nued for five days, 
** with every circumstance of horror. A number of 
" ecclesiastics was found within the walls ; and Crom- 
*' well, as if immediately commissioned to execute di- 
" vine vengeance on these ministers of idolatry, or* 
*^ dered his soldiers to plunge their weapons into the 
" helpless wretches. Some few of the garrison con- 
" trived to e8cai)e in disguise ; thirty persons only re- 
'* mained unslaughtered by an enemy glutted and op- ' 
'* pressed by carnage ; and these were instantly trans-J 
** ported as slaves to Barbadoes." 

Croxawell, with his usual vigour, followed up the 


advantage which his butcheries had obtained for hi 
in the consternation of the Irish, and marched wi 
'nine thousand men through the . county of Wicklo 
while his fleet attended the motions of this army. A\ 
he advanced, the forts and towns of inferior note sur»! 
rendered ; but at Wexford he found thegarrison sufti-l 
ciently strengthened to resist his progress. This place, ' 
however, fell by tfeachery into his possession, being , 
betrayed into his hands by colonel Strafford, whom! 
Ormond had made govenior of the castle; and on this 
occasion Cromwell is described by Ormond, in a letter 
4o the king, " to have exceeded himself^ and any 
" thing 'he had ever heard of, in breach of faith and 
•* bloody inhumanity ; and that the cruelties exercised 
«* there for five days would make as many several pic- 
«* tttres of inhumanity as are to be found in the Cook 
** of Martyrs, or in th/e Relation of Amboyna." 

Cromwell, after the reduction of Wexford, marched 
against Ross, which surrendered upon articles. The 
fort of Duncannon made a more honourable resist- 
ance ; and so considerably had the victorious army been 
reduced by the severity of the season, that a reinforce- 
ment of fifteen hundred men was sent from Dublin, 
and had been some time expected by C lom well. Lord 

History of Ireland. 12 

Incfaiqain was mformed of the march of these forces, 
and, with the consent of Ormond, resolved to inter* 
cept them. In this attempt he was foiled and defeat- 
ed ; yet Wogan, the officer who commanded in Dun- 
trannon, con tinned to malce a brave defence. By the 
Bssistance and encouragement of lord Castlehaven, he 
made a sally with such vigour and success, that the 
siege vvas rais^, net without some confusion on the 
part of the besiegers. On retiring to their main bo- 
dy, tbey found their general transporting his troops to 
the county of Kilkenny, by abridge of boats construct- 
ed on the Barrow. Ormond, who had concluded a 
negociation with Owen O'Neal, and had already re- 
ceived part of his forces, made some prepaiations for 
disputing the passage of the river ; but Cromwell, su- 
perior in vigilance and expedition as well as numbers, 
had already transported his army, and obliged the 
marquis gradually to retire to Kilkenny. Here he 
found the rest of the northern Irish forces ready to re- 
ceive his commands. The presence of their favourite 
general, however, was wanting, for O'Neal now la- 
boured under a malady that soon put a period to his 
existence. So powerful a reinforcement «p^>eared to 
encourage Ormond to the design of meeting the ene- 
my in the field. 

Vol. I. N 


I^.efection and dissensionjB^ however, still contisufd 
to effect more for the parliamentarians than even the 
valour of their armies, . the skill of their genera^ or 
even the terror which resulted irom their dreadful cru- 
elties, could have achieved. Town after town, and 
fortress after fortress, fell iato their possession, until 
at length all Ireland, with the ex^ception of the pro- 
vince of Connaught, was in tl^jp power of the rebels, 
under the command of Ireton, whom Cromwell bad 
appointed general in chief upon his return iq Eng- 
land, where his views of ambition now called for jbhe 
exertion of all his energies. 

Jt was at this juncture of the king's affairs in Ire- 
land that Ormond withdrew from that kingdom a se- 
cond time. Whatever party spirit may allege in 
charge, commendation, or defence of Ormond, and 
no character was ever more partia.lly represented, the 
truth is now ascertained as to the leading facts which 
constituted that character. After his disgrace at Hath- 
mines, he never engaged in person Cromwell, Ireton, 
or Jones ; but at this moment he abandoned the loyal- 
ists in their utmost need, and sought his own peraonal 
safety a second time by flight ; and not only did he 
continue to receive the price of his former surrender of 


Dctblin to the rebefe, but the marchioness of Ormond, 
daring the whole time of heriord's proscription, three 
thoasaad pbunds a-y^at, by favoar of Cromwell. 

So gfOEiBly iacousistent with the late peace was the 
king's subscription to the covenant, that Ormond af- 
fected publicly to discredit the report of his having ta- 
ken it. The confederacy, however, not only believ- 
ed that the kmg had, as the fact was, debased himself 
ani'uetrayed them by covenanting with the murderers 
of his &ther, but that Ormond had approved of and 
advised the measure. Several of them, therefore, 
with a large part of their clergy, assembled at Jamas- 
towa in their present embarrassment, and, after much 
deliberation* determined that the clergy should endea- 
vour by ecclesiasticai censures to withdraw all persons 
of their own communion from the command of Or- 
mond: they accordingly, assuming that his lordship 
would now publicly promote, as he had ever secretly 
favoured, the covenantee, published an excommU'* 
nicatioa against all such catholics as should enlist un- 
der, feed, help^ or adhere to his excellency, or assist 
Wm in any maimer wfaat^eever. But lest their loyalty 
to their cotntitiitioaal sovereign ^ould be suspected, 
tliey involved IB kbe same sentence of excommunication 


all sach catholics as should adhere to the common ene-- 
inies of God, their king,, and country. When Or- 
mond qoittcd Ireland he le£t the wreck of his powers 
to lord Clan rickardy who had often before remonstrat- 
ed with him on those measures of his adaunistration 
which tended to alienate the affections of the nation 
from the royal cause ; and when he received the go- 
vernment from Ormond he was fully sensible of the 
impossibility of effecting any thing for the service of 
the king. 

Although Charles, still being in the. hands of the 
Scots, dared not openly avow t^e treaty then pending: 
with the duke of Liorrain to re-establish thetreaty with 
the royal authority in Ireland, yet he did all he could 
to forward it ; and when he was out of the bands of 
the Scots, he wrote to his highness from Paris to soli- 
cit assistance from him and other catholic princes against 
his and their enemies. Even Ormond himself, find- 
ing his once favoured puritans going greater lengths 
than he perhaps wished or expected, notwithstanding 
his horror of popery, did not scruple to recommend 
the sending fitting ministers and proposing apt induce-* 
ments to the pope, for his speedy and active interpO'* 
mtion wit)i the catholic princes to enable the king's car- 


tfiolic subjects of Ireland to make head against the re* 


The marquis of Clanrickard continued for some time 
to carry on the appearance of hostilities, from a run 
hope of making a diversion in iavoar of the king's Eng«* 
Itsh eaterpiises : bat at length red need to the utmost 
distress, his troops dispersed, and his resources ex- 
haosted, he accepted conditions from the republicans' 
and retired from Ireland. 

Fnthemean time the parliament of England co.»cert-r 
ed measures [l662j for the final settlement of the ad- 
ministratiou of the affi^rs of Ireland. I^mbert was 
appointed successor to Ireton : but the intrigues of 
Cromwell caused the parliament to deny him any 
higher title than that d commander in chief; with 
vfaich, as the usurper wished, Lambert was oifended, 
and refused to accept the command. It was cotifer* 
red on Fleetwood, who had lately married the relic of 
Ireton, imd of course was particularly deroted to his 
fetheiHn«law Cromwell. 

Upon the arrival of Fleetwood in Ireland, he found 
there scarcely the remains of war, and the Irish of all 


This period of the history of Ireland Is p<»CBliarl;f 
barren of incident. On the death of Oliver, Richard 
Cj^omwell confirmed his brother Henry in the govern- 
ment of Ireland. 

Richard summoned the members chosen for Ireland 
to the English parlis^ment : the republicans opposed 
the admission of thirty of them who were known to 
be advocates for the crown ; but the court, though 
with dfficulty, at length prevailed that they should 
sit and vote. The news of the dissolution of this par^ 
liament, and the intrigues of the royal party, was 
first brought to Ireland by sir Charles Coote. The 
lord lieutenant with vigour exerted himself to support 
the tottering authority of his brother. On the restor- 
ation of the rump parliament he laboured to prevent 
the disorders which might arise from this sudden revc 
lution. He issued a proclamation to preserve tin 
peace; and, on consulting with his officers, sea 
agents to the council of state with proposals relativ 
to the civil and military government of Ireland* Th 
were referred to the parliament, as it was called, wh 
made some ordinances for the benefit of the adventi 
rers and soldiers ; and at the same time resolved thi 
the government of Ireland should be again administc 


ed by conunissioners) that Henry Cromwell should be 
recalled, and Ludlow appointed to command the 
forces of the commonwealth in that kingdom. The 
sentiments of Henry Cromwell were those of passive 
obedience to the parliament ; but the new commis'- 
sioners, doubting his sincerity, expected oppositidR 
on his part, and prepared measures accordingly. They 
however were received without any obstacle into the 
castle, while Henry retired to a house in the Phoenix 
Park, having administered the government with such 
disregard to his private interests, tliat he could not 
immediately command so much money as would de- 
fray the expence of a voyage to England. 

From the moment of the abdication of Richard 
Cromwell, the royalists of Ireland conceived the most 
sanguine hope of the king's speedy restoration. This 
happy event soon followed. Charles was informed of 
the favourable' appearances which were manifested, 
andLutfor the great expectation which at that time 
was cherished of the success of Monk in England, 
would certainly have repaired to Ireland, whither he 
was earnestly invited by lord Broghill, sir Charles 
Coote, and others, who now espoused the cause of 
loyalty, and waited with impatience for t})e declara- 
Vol. L O 

ido ftEVlEW OF'*rtiE 

tion of Breda. Tbis was readily accepted; and king 
Chat-Ies IL was proclaimed with every manifestation 
6f joy in all the great towns of Ireland. 

iThe situation of ' Ireland at the restoration [I660J k 
^ore eanly described than credited. A people 'who 
had continued in arms staunch to the royal cause 
nearly three years longer than any other part of the 
British empire, reduced to two thirds of their popu« 
lation by their contests with the regicides, by massa- 
cres, famine, and pestilence, stripped of any armed 
force for defence or attack, expatriate at home, and 
divested of the remnauts of their ancient inheritances. 
Thus were these unfortunate wrecks of the native 
Irish, the devoted victims to Iheir loyalty, penned up 
like hunted beasts in Hie devastated wilds of Con- 
naiight, hardly existing in 'the gregarian and {)rc^mis- 
cuous possession and cultivation of the soil, without 
the means of acquiring live or dead stock, and want- 
ing even the necessary utensils of husbandry. Surely, 
if ever Ireland had a call of gratitude on the crown of 
England, it was at the restoration of Charles II. ; yet 
the first legislators after the' restoration was establish- 
ed, confirmed the rebellious regicides in the wages of 
their sanguinary rebellion. Broghill, who was created 


earl of Orrer]^, and sir Charles Coote, created, earl of 
Moptrath, were nominated lords justices of Ireland ; 
and sir Maurice Bustac^ an old and particular friend 
of Ormond) appointed lord high chancellor* By the 
dneeajad.mitMg^iliei^t of ^hete ponoot with Orioond 
WHS tthe ifkole s^Ueo^eiit of the kingdom condocted* 
Thcie R^raQpa. were •^ kpowo and detennhied enemies 
to th$ li^h, cAtboli<Q8» qnd thdr measures were such 
as miglit frop(^ t|^t c^nm^tapce i^a^u.rally be expect- 
ed. Xhe^ contrived to csall a new pflMrliainent* in which 
it was enac^ no member shonld be qualiiied to sit in 
the kon^e of comotio^s but such as had taken the oaths 
of i^lTi^ance and supremacy ; while the speaker of the 
house of lords, (the archbij^hop of Armagh) proposed 
tbat all the mei;r^bers t^<^eof should receive the sacra- 
meut of the Lord*!! supper from his ^^^^t^s own hands. 
With the like view of preventing the Irish catholic? 
from sending over agents to England to counteract the 
state commissioners who were soliciting the English 
parliament to except the Irish catholics out of the act 
of oblivion and general pardon, the convention at 
Dablin put in execution all the severe laws and ordi- 
nances made by the usurpers, by which the catholics 
were prevented from going from one province to ano- 
ther to transact their business, such as had the more 


considerable estates were imprisoned^ and all tteir 
letters to and from the capital were intercepted : the 
gentry were forbidden to meet, and were thereby de-*^ 
prived of the means of agreeing upon agents to take 
care of their interests, and of an opportunity to repre* 
tent their grievances at the foot of the throne. The 
reports of popish plots and conspiracies were resorted 
to for the purpose of alarming the English parliament 
into the measure of excluding the Irish catholics irom^ 
the general pardon, and quieting possessions in Ire^ 
land. Charles published a proclamation for appre*-^ 
kendiiig and prosecuting all Irish rebels (a term then 
used as synonymous with Irish catholics), and com<^ 
luanding that adventurers, soldiers, and' others, vtho 
were possessed of any lands, should not be disturbed 
in their possessions until legally evicted, or his ma*, 
jesty by advice of parliament should take further ord<^ 

All historians agree> that the most extravagant^ and 
unfounded reports against the Irish were brought to 
England, and there received with avidity, and circu« 
lated with every accumulation of inventive malice by 
incredible numbers of projectors, suitors, sufferers, 
claimants^ solicitors^ pretend^8> and petitioners^ who.' 


thronged the court, and looked to the Irish forfeitttrei . 
ns the sore fuad for realising their various specula* 
4ion8. Suchy however^ was the effect of these ma^ 
nceavres and other means, that when the state com- ~ 
missioners from Ireland petitioned the parliament of 
England to exclude the Irish catholics from the genet 
ral indemnity, the duke of Ormond opposed it, alleg* 
ing ** that his majesty reserved the cognizance of that • 
** matter to himself;** though it was notorious that the » 
king had some da3FS before in his speech informed the ' 
parliament, that he expected in relation to the Irish, 
that they would have a care of his honour, and of the ' 
promise he had made them^ - This promise, received 
from Breda throagh the marquis of Ormond, stated 
explicitly, that he wonld perform all grants and con- 
cessions, which he had either made them or promised 
them hy that peace ; and which, as he had n^w in- 
stances of their loyalty and affection to him, he shonld 
etady rather to enlarge than diminish or infringe in • 
the least degree. Nevertheleis the Irish catholics • 
V ere excluded from the general indemnity, to their 
ruiD, the. exultation and triumph of their enemies, and 
the astonishment of all impartial men*- 

Ormond was now reinstated in the government of 


Ireland, and by him were framed and settled the 
king's declaration, the acts of settlement and expla- 
nation: by him were made out the lists of persons ex- 
cepted by name, amounting to about five hundred, 
after the ruinous effects of the act of settlement. By 
him was recommended the court of claims, and under 
his influence were appointed the first members of it, 
whose interested partiality and corruption became too 
rank even for their patron to countenance. He then 
substituted men of real respectability to fill their 
places, but so stinted them in their time for investi- 
gating the claims of the dispossessed proprietors, that 
they were compelled to apply for further time to 
go through several thousand unheard claims, which 
Ormond opposed, and rejected a clause in the bill 
for the relief of these unheard claimants* 

When the sympathy and justice of his royal mastev 
balanced between the claims of the English protestanU 
and the Irish catholics, Ormond's efforts to bias the 
king in favour of the former could not fail to be suc- 
cessful. Conscious as he was of that monarch's dis- 
position and secret wishes to favour the catholics, he 
did all he could to raise divisions amongst them,^ by 
«li\id ng the clvrgy upon a punctilious form of oath, 


15y which it was then in contemplation to allow the ca- 
tholics to express their allegiance to their sovereign. 
Not contented with the indignant rejection of the cler- 
gy*8 remonstrances, he ordered them to disperse, and 
soon after banished them out of the nation : and so ri- 
gorously was this effected, that when Ormond quitted 
the government there were only three catholic bishop! 
remaining in the kingdom : two of them were bed^ 
ridden, and the third kept himself in concealment. 

So far was Ormond from having suffered by thest 
rebellious insurrections or civil wars in Ireland, that 
we learn from a letter written by his intimate and par- 
ticular friend, the earl of Anglesey, and published 
during the life of the duke, *' that his grace and h\$ 
" family, by the forfeitures and punishment of th^ 
" Irish, were the greatest gainers of the kingdom ; and 
'* had added to their inheritance vast scopes of land, and 
" a revenue three times greater than what his paternal 
" estate was before the rebellion, and that most of his 
" increase was out of their estates who adhered to the 
" peaces of sixteen hundred and forty-six and sixteen 
" hundred and forty-eight, or served under his majesty's 
" ensign abroad.'* During the remainder of the reign 
of Charles II. many malicious attempts were made f 

ia6 BEIVEW OF THE, &e, 

stigmatize the Iridb yrlth fresh rebellions, which at* 
ways served as a pretext of enforcing the executipo of 
the penal laws against the cathplic^»^ TBe dake of 
Ormond, of whose conduct both to the king and hi? 
countrymen such oppi^ite opinions have been formed, 
and whose government we hs^ve traced to the present 
period, was now daily declining in power and influence^ 
through the intrigues of the duke of Buckingham and 
the earl of Orrery : he was first succeeded in the govern^ 
ment of Ireland by lord Kobarts, and afterwards by 
the earl of Essex* He was again however taken into fa- 
vour and restored to the situation of lord lieutenant, 
which he retained till the death of Charles II., tho.ugb 
that king, a very short time before that event, had in- 
timated to the duke of Orn^ond his intention of send- 
ing ever the earl of Rochester to assume the govern- 
ment in his stead : his grace's removal was however so 
far determined upon by the ruling interest of the em- 
pire at that period, that it constituted one of the earliest 
acts of James IL 


IHE short reign of the UDfortunate James IL whp' 
saceeeded his brother Charles in the dominion of the 
British empire, was pree^nant with events of the deep*- 
est importance to the 1 rish nation. That the joy of the • 
Irish catholics at the accession of a prince to the 
throne who- was universally known- to be a catholic, 
should be excessive, and even intemperate, is by nO* 
means surprising. . The turn of the state of politics i|». 
this kingdom, was rapid and complete* 

The earl of Clarendon succeeded Ormond, but he' 
was probably too firmly attached to the protestant in-^ 
terests^to give as largely into James's measures as the- 
court wished. His instructions clearly bespoke the 
king's intention of introducing catholics into corpora- 
lioBs, aad investing them with magistracies and judir - 


cial offices ; and being called upon by bis instructions 
to give bis opinion on tbe legality of tbe measure, he 
expressed bis readiness to comply witb bis majesty's 
tommandsy although contrary to the act of Elizabeth. 
The army was however soon filled with catholic 
officers, the bench with C8th die judges, except three 
who retained their seats ; the corporations with catho- 
lic members, and tbe counties with catholic sherifis 
and magistrates. The earl of Tyrconnel was appmnt- 
-efl cpnupand^r in chi^ <^ tbe.uirmj^ a|i4 1^# ipde- 
pendent qf tb&loi4 lie\it^napik. On tb|ey^xi;¥i9;iouy 
of th?^e procei^ings ajj^roa, a^id cOiDstjern^^oi) 9^iQe4v 
t^e i^^rtest^it pftrt of tl^g. l^ipgdpm : and aftOSt qt the 
trader^ and otb^r^ yf)^o^^ fc^j^es wf re tr^^&rable fied 
from a qoupta-y in \fh19h tHey expeict^d a speedy e«ta^ 
blishment of popi^ry, and g^oer^I transmutation of 
property*. The catbojips now feeling, themselves se- 
cure at least in tbrir i^ligion, induced Tyrcoiinel to 
go to England in order to prevail upon the king to ac- 
cede to their favourite measure of breaking through 
^e act of settlement* The king however saw more 
inconvenience in thrp]tt^ipg the w|iq}§ natiocoal property 
into a new state <^. dis^rdj^r and confusion than these, 
did, who bad h^v\ suffering duripg tw^wty y«%RS frpoi 
the deprivatiiQu o^ their Wrtfh-rigbt. Tyrconnel was 

mStOltY OP nttiLA'ND. 159 

himiilf a gfrfeat eto^my^ to tbe act of settlement, arid ho 
so w6rked updn the kin^^ as to dispose him to consent 
to the tepeaX of that a6t, wd he soon returned to Ire- 
land to Idrd'dejf^'atjT. Tyrcotinel wds {lerfeon^ly bhnbxtr 
ious to 'the prbtlntants, ' he Was impetaous, resolute» 
<Ddhnperi6ii8:'liepoBS^sed an unbound^ inihience 
over the king ; ^hd haiidg in his y6tith b^n a witness 
to the bickfdy c^n^i^e at ]>rOgheda, ' he butd ever re- 
tained Itn at>h6rrence of fatlaticlsm, with the spirit of 
which he considered all prOttetants more or less in* 
fected. Nothing more was wanting to alienate the af- 
fections of the protestants from James and his govern- 
ment ; arid ere this unfortunate monarch, by the ad- 
vice of imprudent and insidious counsellors, had 
been brought to abdicate the crown of England, the 
irhole protestant interest of Ireland had already asso* 
ciated againsi'him. 

Long before king James lei\ England, the protes- 
tants in the north of Ireland were generally in arms, 
truning and disciplining themselves to oppose by force 
tbe measures of his government. This formidable 
armed force of the northern protestants bad been gain- 
ing strength several months before the land of William 
prince of Orange in Torbay ; and they continued daily 


ill an improving state of organization and regular wai^ 
fare against the existing government of the country ; 
for it must be recollected that James II. continued to 
bekingof Ireland^ notwithstanding his abdication ef 
the throne of England ; since by the constitution ef 
Ireland, neither the people of England nor the par- 
liament of England could dissolve or transfer the al- 
legiance of the people of Ireland^ which long hadbeeu, 
then was, and continued till the Union to be an inde- 
pendent kingdom. This singular epoch, therefore, 
•f the Irish history furnishes the most simple demon* 
fttration of the necessity of an incorporate unioa, and 
exposes the monstrous anomaly of several independent 
Icingdoms under one sovereign* 

Ireland now again exhibited a gloomy scene of op- 
pression, dejection, insolence, and despair ; of power 
exercised without decency, and injuries sustained with- 
out redress. That English interest, which princes and 
statesmen had laboured to establish in this country, 
was discouraged, depressed, and threatened with final 

The enterprise of the prince of Orange against Eng- 
land was yet a secret to James when Tyrconnel receiv- 


ed intelligence of his desiga from Amsterdaoif aiiiT 
conveyed it to the king, who received it with derision. 
The Irish catholics, conceiving themselves suhjects of 
king James, at first affected to despise the prince of 
Orange and his attempts ; but they soon learned thfc 
rapidity of his successes in England, that king Jamei 
was deserted by his subjects, and that the revolutioti 
every day gained new adherents. The distracted state 
of this jinhappy kingdom can scarcely be descnbed. 
The protestants in the north in the year sixteen hun« 
dred and eighty eight proclaimed William and Mary, 
which, by Tyrconnel and the catholics, was deemed 
an act of rebellion. An army was formed of about 
thirty thousand men, and officered chiefly with catho- 
lics. James, who was then at the court of Louis XIV., 
gave constant assurances that, he would come to* Ire- 
land and head them in person. He accordingly sailed 
from Brest with a strong armament, having on board 
twelve hundred men of his own adherents, who were 
then in the pay of France, and one hundred French 
oflBcers, and landed at Kinsale in March sixteen hun- 
dred and eighty-nine : from thence he proceeded to 
Dublin, where he was received as king with great 
pomp and solemnity. He issued five several proclama- 

VOL. I. P 


tions, by the last of which he summoned a parliament 
to meet at Dublin on the seventh day of May ; which 
did meet, and sat from that day to the twelfth of July, 
and then adjourned to the twelfth of November fol- 

After these acts the scene chang^ed lo open warfare. 
The reduction of the protestanis in the north who had 
declared for William was the first object of the atten- 
tion of Jamts, who determined to march to Derry, 
and appear in person before their wall*. The defend- 
ers of Derry and Enniskillen supported the cause of 
the rcvolutionibts against James's forces till the arrival 
of an English army of forty thousand men under count 
Schomberg, which was afterwards commanded by Wil- 
liam io person. 

Ireland at this time, exhausted by unhappy wars, 
could not supply James with the monej' necessary for 
his purposes, and among the acts of his short reign in 
that kingdom there was one which has fixed a peculiar 
odiunlupon his character. In detiance of law, reason, 
and humanity, he seized the tools and engines of one 
Moore, who by virtue of a patent of the late king en- 


joyed the right of a copper coinage in Ireland, and es- 
tablished a mint in Dublin and Limerick. Bras-; and 
coppa*of the liasest kind, old cannon, broken bell^, 
household utensils, were assiduously collected ; and 
fionie?ery poand weight of such vile materiuLs valued 
at four-pence, pieces were coined and circulated to 
the amottat of five pounds in nominal valuer By tlie 
first proclamation they were made current in all pay- 
m«ttU t^aiad ftfim Xh^ kmg dud the sabjccta^ of the 
YC^lm, txe^^ilifig thedotks on ia^portatiou 4*f foreign 
^S^S raoney knt ia tria»t» or due hf mortgages, 
t^lsi« DiT boads ; mid JMMftpromised» that when this 
niOQ^ dhoold be colled io^ he woold receive it in all 
Byttettlft, or moke fall sotis&Gtion in gotd or eilfer. 
HU soUieffo were aovt paid in tins coin, it was forced 
<^ tbe prolestont trdders, the nominal iraloe was rats^- 
^ b^&iiboeqikent prodamaticMtt, the onginal lestric- 
tiQQ^aiire «emoved» and this base tOiaantf was ordered 
to be received in alt kinds of payments* As brass and 
copper grew scarce, it was made of still viler materials, 
of tin and pewter. It was obtruded ou the protestantii 
with many circusistances of insolence and cruelty. 
Old debts of one thousand pounds were discharged 
with old pieces of vile metal, amouutingto thirty shil-- 


lings in intrinBic value. Attempts were made tap\ir« 
chase gold and silver at immoderate rates with the braSi 
money : but this was strictly forbidden on pain of 
death ; and when protestants (Utteropted to exonerate 
themselve of these heaps of coin by purchasing the sta- 
ple commodities of the kingdom, James by proclama- 
tion set a rate on these commodities, demanding theia 
at this rate, returning his brass on the propnetorB> and 
with all tbe meanness of a ttader exported them to 
France. )t appeared indeed in the end, that James 
was the only gainer by this iniquitous projecty and 
that in the final cottrse of circulation his own party be- 
came possessed of the greatest part of this adulterated 
coin, just at the time when Willifim had power to sup- 
press it. 

William arrived at Carrickfergus attended^by prince 
George of Denmark, the young duke of Ormond, and 
.-•thers. His military genius prompted him, and the 
distracted state of England, together with the formi- 
dable preparations of France, obliged him, to a vigo- 
lous prosecution of the war ; and when some cautious 
,couQcils were suggested by his officers, he r^ected 


them with indignation* ** I came not to Ireland^'* said ' 
he, " to let grass grow under iny feet." ' 

Six days liad elapsed frovi the time of William's 
hndioQ, when James received the first intelligence 
tbat:a prinoe» who he confidently heliieved must be de^ 
taioed in ^England by faction and discontent, was al« • 
ready on his march to meet him* To particularise the 
eveats' of this, civil war» would far exceed our proposed 
limits : the battle of the Boyne, which was fought on • 
the first of July sixteen hundred and ninety , turned the 
scale of the kingdom: there William^ although he 
commanded a considerable superiority of forces, at- ■• 
tended to the duties' of a vigilant, steady, and intre* 
pid general : he shared the danger of his army, encou^ 
raging it by his presence and example, even after he 
had been wounded, and had been pressed by his oftir. 
cers to retire ; whilst James stood at a secure distance, 
a quiet spectator of the contest for his crown ; so fear- 
ful of his enemy, or so difiident of himself or his troops, 
that his chief concern and preparation before the bat* 
tie were to secure his personal retreat* He fied with 
precipitancy to Dublin, and from thence to Water- 
ford, where a frigate was ready to convey him back to ' 


France ; leaving the beaten relics of his army tomal» 
''the best stand against the enemy, and procure from 
him the best terms their personal bravery would enti- 
tle them to. The Iiish army under Tyrconnel and 
Sarsfield made a very vigorous resistance against a su- 
perior well disciplined army acting under the first ge- 
lieral in Europe, until they surendered the town of 
Limerick, which was their last hold, on the third of 
October sixteen hundred and ninety-one, upon arti- 
cles which sufficiently proved the estimation in which 
king William held their valour and steadiness, even 
after the many advantages whicli he had gained over 
them. Thus terminated the final effort of the old 
Irish inhabitants for the recovery of the ancient power, 
and the slender relics of Irish possessions now became 
the subject of fi-esh confiscation. From the report* 
made by the commissioners appointed by the parlia- 
ment of England in sixteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
it appears that the Irish subjects outlawed for the re- 
bellion of sixteen hundred and eighty-eight amounted 
to three thousand nine hundred and seventy-eight, and 
that their Irish possesions, as far as could be comput- 
ed, were of the annual value of two hundred and eleven 
thousand six hundred and twenty-three pounds ; com- 
prising one pillion sixty thousand seven hundred and 


ninety-two acres* This- fani was sold under the an* 
thoritf of an English act of parliament to defray the 
ezpences incurred by England in reducing the rebels 
in sixteen hundred and eighty-eight.; and the sale in«> 
troduced into Ireland a new set of adventurers. It is 
STery curious and important speculation to look to 
the forfeitures of Ireland incurred in one century* 
The superficial contents of the island are calculated 
at eleven million forty-two, thousand six hundred and 
eighty-two acres. In the reign of James I. the whole 
ai the province of Ulster was confiscated, contain- 
ing '. • . . 2,836,837 acres. 

Set ont by the court of claims at the 

restoration « 79800,000 

Forfeiture of sixteen hundred and 

eight-eight 1,060,79^ 

Total 11,697,629 

Thus it appears that the whole island has been con- 
fiscated, with the exception of the estates of five or 
six families of English blood, some of whom had been 
attainted in the reign of Henry VIII. but recovered 
their possessions before Tyrone's rebellion, and had 



the -good fortune to esoape the pillage of the English 
republiic inflicted hy Cronawell ; and no> inconsider' 
able portion of the island has been confiscated twice, 
or even thrice, in the course of a ceatury* The 
situation of Ireland, therefore, at the revdution, . 
stands unparalleled in . the history of the inhabited 
worid *. , 

* Speech of earl Clare, 

CHAP. yilL 

During the anccedlittg reign ef William and Mary 
and that of queen Anne> fbw afiairs of any consequence 
with respect to Ireland seem to have been transacted*^ 
The catholica continued to be treated with still greater 
rigour, if possible than before^ The Irish parliament 
stnq^gkd to have its jurisdiction acknowledged inde« 
pendent on that of Britain. They rejected all no- 
tions of dependence upon the British ministry i and 
though they allowed the king's right by conquest^ 
they most positively denied that the British parlia*^ 
meat had any authority whatever over them ; and 
therefore looked upon the harsh restrictions which had^ 
been lud by it upon their trade as the most grievous- 
and intolerable oppression. 

In the year seventeen hundred and nineteen^ accord*. 


iiig to Mr Crawford, the oppredsions aud grievaaces of 
Ireland became altogether insupportable. A cause, 
for example, relative to an estate, betwixt Hester 
Sherlock and,Maurice Annesly, was tried before the 
court of exchequer in Ireland. Here the latter obtain* 
cd a decree in his favour; but, on an appeal, the sen- 
tence was reversed by the Irish lords*. Annetly appeal- 
ed from them to the English house of p«er«» who her*^ 
log ttgain reverted th« jodgmeat, bt w^ pat in ^« 
ses^on of th« subject m disputtt. Sherlock i^ppetthd 
agi^u to the Irish lonlst when tbo m«ttor bacimio my 
seno«s. It w«» proposed to the considort^n of tho 
jwlges, Whether by the laws of the land aa appeal 
lies from a decree of the court of exchequer in Irdwad 
to tlie king in parliament in Britain* This ^estiott 
being determined in the n^^tive» Sherlock was again 
put in possession of the estate* A petition was some 
lime after presented to the ^jottse by Alexander Bur»^ 
rowes, sheriff of Kildare, setting forth " That hie pre- 
"decessor in office had put Sherlock in possession of 
" the premises ; that^ upon his entering into office, an 
** injunction, agreeable, to the order of the British 
•' peers, was issued from the exchequer, requiring 
** him to restore Maurice Annesly to the possessions of 
** the above mentioned lands ; and that, not dofing to 


** act in contradiction to the order of the hoose, he was 
" fined. In consequence of this, being afraid lest be • 
" should be taken into custody, he durst not come in 
" to pass his'Hccounts ; and for this he was fined twelve 
" hnodred pounds.*' His conductwas highly applaud- 
ed by the Irish lords, who ordered the fines to be taken 
off ; and in a short time after drew up a memorial to be 
presented to his majesty. la this they set forth that, 
liaying submitted to Henry II. as their liege lord, they 
had from him obtained the benefit of English law, with 
many other privileges, particularly that of having a 
distinct parHaraent. In consequence of this concession, 
the English had been encouraged to come over and set- 
tle in Ireland, where they were to enjoy the same pri- 
vileges as in their own country. They further insisted 
that, though the imperial crown of Ireland was annex- 
ed to that of Britain, yet, bein£^ a distinct dominion, 
aod no part of the kingdom ofEnglamd, none could 
determine with regard to its aH'airs, but such as were 
authcrized by its known laws and customs, or the ex- 
press consent of the king. It was aa invasion of 
his roaje-ty's prerogative for any court of judicature to 
take uj on them to declare that iie could not by his 
autliority in pariiauieat, deteriniiie aii controversies 
hetwixt his subjects of this kingdom ; or that, when 


they appealed to his majesty in parliament, they did 
not bring their cause before a competent judicature; 
and they represented, that the pructice of appeals 
firom the Irish parliament to the British peers, was an 
usurped jurisdiction assumed by the latter ; the bad 
consequences of which they pointed out very fully. 

This representation being laid before his majesty in 
parliament, it was resolved, that the barons of ex- 
chequer in Ireland had acted with courage and fide- 
lity, according to law ; and an address was presented 
to his m&jesty, praying him to confer on them some 
mark of his royal favour, as a recompense for the in- 
juries they had sustained from the Irish legislature. 
This was followed by a bill for the better securing the 
dependency of Ireland upon the crown of Great Bri- 
tain. By this it was determined, " That the house oi 
" lords of Ireland have not, nor of right ought to 
•* have, any jurisdiction to judge of, aflfirm, qr re- 
" verse, any judgment, sentense, or decree, given oi 
" made in any court witliin the kingdom ; and thai 
" all proceedings before the said house of lords, upoi 
•' any such judgment or decree, are utterly null anc 
*' void to all intents and purposes whatever.** It wai 
also determined in this bill, that " The king's ma 



" jestjT, by and with the advice of the lords spiritual 
«< and temporal, and commons of Great Britain as* 
^'sembled, had» hath, and of right ought to have, 
" fall power and authority to make laws and statutes, 
'* of sufficient force and validity to bind the people of 

This bill was looked upon by the Irish to be equf* 
valent to a tot^l annihilation of their liberties ; and 
they were still fbrther exasperated in the year seven- 
teen hundred and twenty-four, by the patent granted 
to one Wood an Englishman, to coin halfpence and 
farthings for the use of Ireland. In this affair Wood 
is said to have acted very dishonourably, insomuch 
that a shilling of the halfpence he made were scarcely 
worth a penny. Great quantities of this base coin 
were sent over ; and it was used not only in change, 
but accounts were likely to be paid with it, so that 
dai^gerous consequences were likely to ensue. Ttte. 
Irish parliament in an iaddress to the king, represented 
that they were called upon by their country to lay be- 
fore his majesty the ill consequences of Wood*s patent, 
and that it was likely to be attended with a dimuni- 
tion of the revenue and the ruin of trade. The same 
was set forth in an application made to his majesty by 
VOL.L Q _ 


the privy council. In short, the whole nation seemed 
to unite their efforts in order to remedy an evil of such 
dangerous tendency, the effects of which already h€- 
gan to be felt. 

Among the controversial pieces which appeared on 
this occasion, those of the celebrated dean Swift were 
particularly distinguished. His .Drapier^s Letters are 
to this day held, in grateful remembrance by his coun- 
trymen, but he was in danger of suffering dee^^y by 
the cause. He had been at particular pains to ex- 
plain an argument used by the Irish on this occasion, 
that brass money, being illegal, could not be forced 
upon the nation by the king, without exceeding the 
limits of his prerogative. Hence the opposite party 
took occasion to charge the Irish with a design of cast- 
ing off their dependance on Britain altogether; but 
Swift, having examined the accusation with freedom, 
pointed out the encroachments made by the British 
parliament on the liberties of Ireland; and asserted, 
that any dependance on England, except that of being 
subjects of the same king, was contrary to the law of 
reason, nature, and nations, as well as to the law of 
the land. This publication was so disagreeable to 
gQvernment^ that a reward of three hundred pounds 


was offered for the discovery of the author ; bat as no- 
bod J could be .found who would give him up» the 
printer was prosecuted in his stead ; however, he wat 
unanimously acquitted by a jury of his countrymen. 

The Irish continued to be jealous of their liberties, 
while the British ministry seemed to watch every op- 
portunity of encroaching upon them as far as possible. 
Apprehensions being entertained of a design upon Ire- 
land by th^ partisans of the pretender^ in seventeen 
Kundrod und fifte^D^ a VOte of Credit to (foverament 
was passed by the house of commons to a considerable 
amount.. This laid the foundation of the national 
debt of that kingdom, which was quickly augmented 
to several hundred thousand pounds ; for discharge of 
which a iiind had been provided by administration. 
An attempt was made during the administration of 
lord Carteret (who governed Ireland till seventeen 
hundred and thirty) to vest this fund in the hands of 
his majesty and of his heirs for ever, redeemable by 
parliament. This was opposed by the patriotic party, 
who insisted that it was inconsistent with the public 
safety, and unconstitutional to grant it longer than 
from session to session* In seventeen hundred and 
thirty-one, another attempt was made to vest the sanae 
Q 2 


in the crown for tvrenty-one years; but wbeh the 
affair came to be debated, tbe strength of both parties 
was found to be equally balanced. Immediately before 
the rote, however, colonel Tottingbam, who bad rode 
post on the occasion, arrived in the house and deter* 
mined Ihe question against governrtieiit* 

Tbe behaviour of lord Cheslerfield, who was made 
governor of Irelc^nd in seventeen hundred and forty-* 
five, is highly extolled on account of his moderation^ 
and the favour he showed to the liberties of the people* 
As the apprehensioiis of government were then very 
^considerable, on account of the rebellion which raged 
in Scotland^ bis lordship w&s advised toaugmcAttbe 
military force of Ireland- to four thousand men. In- i 
stead of this, however, lie «ent four battalicma to the 
duke of Cumberland, and encouraged the volunteer 
associations, which fbnned in different parts lor the 
defence of their country; These battalions .he rtjpJac-' 
ed by additional companies to the jegimeats already i 
on the establishment ; <by which means he saved a con- 
Sfderable cxpenee to the nation, without augmenting 
the influence of the crown. The supplies .asked by 
faim were small, and raised in the most e»sf aiu) most 
agreeable manner to thepeoplei eaqftendif^ the ^aftonoy 


attheoune time with the utmost economy* There 
was even a saving vhj^h he applied to the use of the 
public. It had been a custom frith many of the lieu«- 
tenaot governors of Ireland , to hestow reversionary 
grants, in order to purchase the a^stance of frienda 
in support of their oieasures. Lord Chest^field, how« 
ever^ being ^^onvinced that this practice was prejudi- 
cial to the i&terest of the nation^ put a stop to it ; but 
the raost renaarkable part of his administration was^ 
the humanity with which he treated the Roman oatho* 
iici. Be&teJua arrivaU the Ramish chapds in Dab- 
linhadjbeenabut-.up, theif priesli wf re commanded 
by prbdama/lian to leave the lEtm|dom ; and swth aa 
disobeyed had been subjected to imprisonment and 
other peoalfties* ijoid Chesterfield, however, con* 
vineed that the affection is to be engaged by gentle 
usage,, permitted them to exercise their teligioa wlib^ 
out disturbance. The accusations against them <^ 
forming ^pilots against "governm.ent were distfegarded t 
and so Bmch was hbimodeiMlion and uprightness in 
this respect applauded by all parties, that daring the 
whole 4if|ia of his Admimstradion^ the natiaaial traaquiU 
hty iQifr BCi once intermpted by the smallest internal 
conmaftian* On his leaving the island,^ his bust waa 
pIaeed^t!^ipUbiiC«Kp^nce in the castle of Dublia» 


Chesterfield having left Ireland ia the spring orF 
seventeen hundred and forty-si?, the island ccmtinned. 
to be governed by lords-justices, until the thirteenth 
of September, when William earl of Harrington came 
over with the powers of lord lieutenant* A contest ia 
the election of representatives for the city of Dublin 
this year called forth the abilities of Mr Charles Lu- 
cas, 80 much celebrated for his patriotic virtues. Hav- 
ing some years before been admitted a member of the 
common council; he resolved to exert himself in be- 
half of the privileges of bis fellow-citixaiift. . Tha paw. 
ers of this city corporation^ as well as of others, had 
been changed by an act in the time of Charles II. and, 
among other innovations, for the purpose of augment- 
Jng the influence of the crown, they deprived the com* 
mons of the power of choosing the city magistrates. 
This was now vested in the board of aldermen ;. which 
being subject in the exercise of its jurisdiction to tlie 
approbation of the privy council, was consequently 
dependant on government. Mr Lucas complained 
loudly pf the injury; but as this law could not be al- 
tered, he set himself to inquire whether encroach- 
ments which could not be justified by law had not 
beeo made on the /ights of the citizens. Having satis- 
fied himself by searching into ancient records, th«l his 


apprehensions were well founded, he published his 
diflcoreriesy explained the nature of the evidence re- 
stiltii^ from them, and encouraged the people to take 
the fH'oper steps for obtaining redress. The conse- 
quence of this was a contest between the commons and 
aldermen, which lasted two years. The former strug- 
gled in vain to recover their lost privileges ; but the 
exertions of Lucas in every stage of the dispute had 
rendered him so respectable among his countrymen, 
that on the death of jsir James Somerville he was en- 
eonraged to declare himself a candidate for a seat iu 
parliament. Tfiis being l^ighly agreeable tahis wishes, 
he was elected accordingly ; and distinguished himself 
not only by the boldness and energy of his speeches, 
but more especially by a number of addresses to his 
countrymen. In some of these he particularly con- 
sidered the several branches of the constitution, and 
pointed out the encroachments of the British legisla- 
ture, Govemnotent, alarmed at his boldness, deter- 
mined to crush him by the hand of power; for which 
reason the most obnoxious paragraphs were extracted 
from hi» works, and made the foundation of a charge 
before. parliament. The commons voted him an enemy 
to his coantry ; and addressed the lord lieutenant for 
an order to prosecute^ him by the attorney-general. 


The universal esteem in wbicb be ves held conld 
not screen him from ministerial vengeance: be was 
driven from Ireland ; but baving spent some years in 
exile, be was once more enabled, tbrougb the exer- 
tions of bis friends^ to present bimself as a candidate 
for tbe city of Dublin. Being again elected, be con- 
tinued todistinguish himself by tbe same virtuous prin- 
ciples for \vbicb be had been from the beginning so re- 
markable, and died with the character which he had 
preserved tbrougb life, of the incormptibie Lucas. 

In the year seventeen hundred and fifly-tbree a re* 
markable contest took^lace betwixt government and 
the Irish parliament relative to previous consent. As 
the taxes for defraying state expences are imposed by 
the representatives of the, people, it thence naturally 
follows that they have a right to superintend the ex- 
penditure of them ; and by an inspection of jbhe jour- 
nals of the house of commons it appeared that, from 
the year sixteen hundred ax^i ninety-two they had ex- 
ercised a right of calling for and exiUnining tbe public 
accounts. When any surplus remained in the treasu- 
ry, it was also customary to dispose of it by bill for 
the good of the public. In the year seveuteeo hun- 
dred and forty-nine, however, a considerable siun hav-* 


ing remaioed m the treasury, the disposal of this mo^ 
ney in future became an object to miuisters* In seven- 
teen bnndred and fifty*one it was intimated to parlia* 
meut by the lord lieutenant, the duke of Dorset, that 
his majesty would graciously consent and recbmmeud 
it to them, that such part of the money as then re-^ 
mained in the treasury should be applied to the re- 
daction of the national debt* As this implied a right 
inherent in his majesty to dispose of the money as he 
thought proper, the proposal was thought an encroach- 
ment on the privileges of the house of commons. No 
notice was ^therefore taken of the direction given by 
Dofiset, but the bill was sent over to England as usual 
vithout any notice taken of his majesty's consent. In 
England, however, this very material alteration was^ 
tnade, and the word consent introduced into it. The 
commons at this time did not take any notice of sucli 
an essential alteration ; but next year, on its being re- 
peated, the bill was rejected* Government were now: 
at the utmost paitis to defend the measure which they 
bad adopted, and pamphlets were published attempt- 
ing to justify it on various grounds. The event at last^ 
however, was, that his majesty by letter took the mo- 
ney which had been the subject of dispute out of the 

VoL.L R 


In the year seventeen hundred and sixty Ireland sus- 
tained an inconsiderable hostile invasion, the first with 
which the kingdom had been visited in seventy years. 
The armament consisted originally of five ships ; one 
•f forty-eight guns ; two of thirty-six ; and two of 
twenty-four ; having on board twelve hundred and se- 
venty land forces. They were commanded by the ce- 
lebrated Thurot, whose reputation, as captain of a 
privateer, had advanced hiai to thisi dignity. The 
squadroDy howeVer, was driven by adverse winds to 
Gottenburgh ; where having continued a few days» 
they set sail for the place of their destination. On 
their arrival at the coast of Ireland, they were obliged 
to shelter themselves in Lough Foyle from a violent 
»torm which again overtook them. The wind, howe- 
ver, having shifted, and continuing to blow tempestu- 
ously, they were obliged to keep out to sea^ Two of 
the ships were thus separated from the rest by the vio- 
lence of the storm, and returned to France ; but the 
remaining three directed their course to the island of 
Hay, where they anchored ; and having repaired their 
damages, took in a supply of provii^ions and thence 
sailed to Carrickfergus. 

Id the mean time^ au officer belonging to tlic small 


number of troops at that time ia Carrickfergug took 
post on a risiDg grouud, with an advanced party, to 
observe the motions of the enemy. A skirmish ensu- 
ed betwixt this party and Thurot*8 men, until the for- 
mer, having* expended all their ammunition, were 
obliged to retire into the town. Having in vaun at- 
tempted to prevent the enemy from tiiking possession 
of it, the British troops shut themselves up in^the cas- 
tle, where they were soon obliged to capitulate, after 
having killed about one hundred of their enemies, with 
the loss of only three on their own part. The French 
having plundered the town, set sail on the twenty-sixth 
of February ; and three days after were all taken by 
captain Elliot, Thurot himself being killed in the en- 

Sojji, after the accession of George III. Ireland first 
began to be disturbed by a banditti who styled them- 
selves While Boys ; and as these were generally of the 
Romish persuasion, the prejudices against that sect 
broke forth in the usual manner. A plot was alleged 
to hav^'fceen formed against government; French aud 
Spanish emissaries to Iiave been sent over to Ireland, 
and actually to be employed to assist in carrying it into 
execution. The real cause of this commotion, howe- 

l64 /11BVIBW/©I^3»» ^ 

ver, was as follows: About tbe yp^u* se^p^^jo^Jbi^O- 
dred tnd thirtyHMn^ tiie taurrain b^kie ool ano^pg tbe 
horned cattle kr the duGby.o{ Hokteia« frooi^^lience 
it soon after apread tliroiigb the other. part^ of (^oia- 
ny. ' From Germany it reached Hollaod, from \fhence 
it was carried oyer .to jEngland* where it raged with 
great violence for a Bumber pf ye^cs* The mijl^igation 
•of the peoal lawa againat the papists ui^nt thia time i 
encouraged the nativ.eaofttbd iputh of Ir^laiad %o turn 
their attention towards agriculture, and the poor be- 
9iin to esijoy the «eoes89rle8 of .life ip a comfortable 
. l9anQ^* A foroigQ diemcMid S^r be^f and butter^, how- 

^ /ever> •haYingfbeoa^jerfjtfcoinfliuanly gre^t,. bjr r^Won of 
the oaltle distemp^ j iiat m^olion^, < ground 4ippcopn- 
ated'to grazing. beeame More valnaJiile than that em- 
ployed m ^ll^ige. • i The cottetaw^re every. where dis- 
possessed «f their little. p088e8«oin^:rwhi«jb.tb« l^ad- 

. iorda let to> monopolizers MwHotitQuld ei&vd. «^bigher 
rent. Whole batowea wcrenoiv laid op^n to :pi|^ur- 
age, 'While the former inhabitants we«e driven despe- 

' rate by the wairt- of * snbsiatenoe. Nvmb^s; .o£ them 
fled to the i^geeitiies or emigrated to fioreiga coun- 
tries, while those who remained took amaill spots of 

i. land, afeoittt an acre each, atao exoiUtast price,; where 

r they endeavoured if proijarQ the inewis of 


fnrotnicting a miserable esosteace for themselves and 
immilies. For some time these poor creatures were 
allowed by the more homane landlords the liberty of 
oommonage ; but' afterwards this was taken away, in. 
despite of justice and a positive agreement ; at the 
same time* the paymeht of tjrthes, and the low price 
•f labour^ not eiteeeding the wages in the days of 
queen Elizabeth, aggravated the distresses of the un« 
happy suflerers beyond measure. 

In such a situation, it is no wonder that illegal me- 
thods were pursued in oKpectation of redress* The 
people, covered with white shirts, assembled in parties 
at night, turned op the ground, destroyed cattle, and 
levdled the iadosures of the commons. These una* 
vailing aborts were construed into a plot against the 
government ; numbers of the rioters were apprehend- 
ed in the counties of Limerick, Cork, and Tipperary, 
and some of them condemned and executed. In dif* 
ferent places these unhappy wretches, instead of being 
looked upon as objects of compassion, were prosecut«« 
ed with the utmost severity. Judge Aston, however^ 
who was sent over to try them, executed his office 
with such humanity as did him the highest honour. A 
most extraordinary and' affecting instance of this was, 
V01.L S 


that on bis return from Dublin, for above ten miles 
from Clonmely both sides of the road were lined with 
men, womeni and children ; who, as he passed ^cfpgf 
kneeled down and implored the blessing of heaven on 
him as their guardian and protector. 

In the mean time, the violence of the White Boys 
continued, notwithstanding that many examples were 
made. The idea of rebellion was still kept up ; and 
without the smallest foundation, many gentlemen of 
respectability were publicly charged with being con- 
cerned in it, and some of them obliged to give bail, in 
order to project themselves from injury. The catho- 
lics of Waterford presented a petition to Lord Hert- 
ford, the governor in 1765, in behalf of themselves 
and brethren, protesting their loyalty and obedience 
to government ; but no effectual step was taken either 
to remove, or even to investigate the cause of t&c dis- 

About two years after the appearance of the White 
Boys, a similar commotion arose in Ulster; which, 
however, proceeded in part from a different cause, and 
was of a much shorter duration. By an act of par- 
liament, the making and repairing of highwltys in Ire- 


land was former! j a grie?oas oppres^sion on the lower 
ranks of people. An housekeeper who had no horse 
was ohh'ged to work at them six days in the year ; and 
if he had a horse, the labour of both was required for 
the same space of time. Besides this oppression, the 
p<H>r complained that they were frequently obliged to 
work at roads made for the convenience of individuals, 
and which were of no service to the public. Nor were 
these the only ^evances of which the insurgents at 
this time complained : the tythes exacted by the cler- 
gy were said to be unreasonable, and the rent of land, 
was more. than they could bear. In 1763, therefore^ 
heing exasperated by a road proposed to be made 
through a part of the county of Armagh, the inhabi* / 
tants most immediately aifected \)y it, rose in a body, 
and declared that they would make no more highways 
of the kind. As a mark of distinction, they wore oak 
branches in their hats, from which circumstance they 
called themselves Oak Boys. The number of their 
partisans soon increased, and the insurrection became 
general through the coijnties of Armagh, Tyrone, 
Derry, and Fermanagh. In. a few Aveeks, however^ , 
they, were dispersed by parties of the military ; and 
the public tranquillity was restored with the loss of 
€(nly two, or three lives. The road-act, which had 
S 2 ' 

i€b review of the 

beeB 8o justly found fault with, was repealed next 
session; and it was determined, that for tie future 
the roads should be made and repaired by a tax to be 
equally assessed on the lands of the rich and the poor. 

Besides these, another set of insurgents calkd Steel 
Boys, soon made their appearance, en the followii^ 
•ccount* The estate of an absentee nobleman hap- 
pening to be out of lease, he proposed, instead of aa 
ftdditional rent, to take fines from his tenants.^ Maay 
of those who at that time possessed bis lands, were 
tmable to comply with his terms ; while others who 
eould afford to do so, insisted upon a greater rent 
from their under-tenants than they were able to pay. 
The usual consequences of this kind of oppression in* 
stantly took place. Numbers being dispossessed and 
thrown destitute, were forced into acts of outrage 
similar to those already mentioned, A very respec- 
table farmer^ of the name of Douglas, having been 
charged with being a principal leader of the Steel 
Boys, was seized and confined in Belfast, in order to ~ 
be committed to the county "Jail ; but his friends and 
associates, highly irritated at the treatment he had 
received, and smarting under their own grievances, 
determined to fescue him by force. - The design was 


eagerif entered into by great nmnbei^ .all* ^ev the 
country ; and several handreds, haviog .pravidiied 
them^selves witli offenstve weapi>D$^ proceeded t^^al- 
fast in' order to release the prisoner. To prevent this, 
he was removed to the barracks^ and piaffed ifiulal the 
guaid of a large party of Highland aoldie^ quarteo^ 
there* The Steel Boys, however,, witbif det^r^tHUfld 
and undaunted coanige» worthy iof th^^^vijt <¥Mi9<V 
abd in excellent order, pressed forw^d t<^MP99(tf>(4iMi 
thielr purpose by force, and several, shots m^» ai^MiU>E 
exchanged between them and the military. The coa?? 
sequences would undoubted! v haye)^^a &m». IfuiUr 
not been for a physician of highly r^sp^ot^V? *>^<W(M 
ter,' Vho interposed at the risk of hi^ li%^ r apd pjrevaiU ' 
ed apon those concerned to ^t^ ^ri\si(^j[\frMiAikMyi' 
The tumult, however, was net thus q^?^ad* rXha* 
numlierof insurgents da^yjucrcjasad, iinc|*id9l«iwaa> 
comii|itted by them yipqre much, greater thau.tbosarrf r. 
the other two parties. S^n^?, weire t^kim^d tfie^iati > 
Cariickfergas, but .none condemn^ed* , , It was? t»j^'4 
posed that the fear of ^p^ilar. |^sef^tn»en^ hadinfiu-*' ' 
«oced the judges; for whiph fisa^aan «i9l wtts,p«aiiiftedy 
enjomingthe trial of s^ch jprJ8onei;^,fQ^,tb^futi|jr^to 
be Held in cout^ties di%re^t ftpna thq^e wteie tp« 
crimes vTere commiUed. This breach of a fundamen- 

'tar fftw 6f fh6 eoilstihition ga\« ««iefa ^fl^te, tbtt 
thoiigH stfteMof theSted Boyt were irfterwiu^st&ken 
up Anff da)Tf«d to Hie caiitle of }>«blm^ no jury Wdold 
find i3hetil^;^i%y. TIrrt bfatoosd^M'teir wa» therefore 
Vepedi^dt ttfter ^iclP«ome'Of('t}M»iita«nrgent6» bemg 
iri^ la their respectite eotiittS^i 'were co n dk ntt nid 
«tid ei(ec<iteA/lriu8 thif^cl>iMio($i5iift^^re eK«iti{g«Kidi- 
ed; hot tts no meftfiid^ '^ft^rc^^liJk^' tt^^i^^ 
*cattire, tK^ 'contihned ^^re«fte» tif &eiit^hpl049NHre 
many tfaoli$afid0 of tfaemt(»Ai|ieiioftiaii^f(Bir y«&rB«^ 

tt^ lihe mtkn iStL^, a va^y msHferMr^ iSMmtimm had 
' taken phice \A the coii6t?ttltl6» of ><fa^'kib^oill^ with 
'regard to tke dii^at?on "df-'pAtHafftftleirtb.' ^<At ^h eariy 
period these had continued only for a year ; but aHer- 
wards they were prolonged until the death of a aove- 
reign, unless lie ^Hosk t<3i dis»ol««Ht^«Mdir>bf to ex- 
ertion of his firerb^tiv^. ^ Thiis^ frota' tfavimiment 
of theit election, Ifhe c^ensialonetift of '{rehmd>w«witi a 
^'manner totally iiidependentof thb peo^iler ato^ tuider 
' 'the influence of the cpoWYv; atid ^wt^uta^mft «oon 
availed itself of tliis'pbwift'to brth* a iaaJAritf toTcerve 
' its own purposes. VaHous taetliodi ytet^ tiMnigtit of 
to remedy this eirif; bat all pfov^^iiibrerifeclttttl «ibtil 
the'year 178s> When^ dtirin^ the &fAttii0ii6^«>rt of 

HISTDltY^OP'.fiWBliAf^D. m 

Lord Teimslieii^ a bill v|i^ piepitf ed «nd «eot o?«r 
toBn^^iiii^ (^wliich ili was e^^ct^ that Ae Irish 
pariiaaiQBU tbeiic€|t|ti|i hfld ^eqr »er#a 
y«ae9» li.naa.retivnfid mih tberaddilioi^of ai^ 7«9r; 
and from thai pw^d down, to the luomi with Great 
Brilais, the parliament of Irelaud con^ui^ ,to be 
octmwiL . Bnxiffg^ ^jhia^ eeswui* l^^} ^n i4tf;inpt 
wat 'Mido b^ ibe JBTitiib/iiiiai^^ to ioln^g^ ^pon t^e 
aigjhte' of <$he.:hoM»e ofM^oi^uaQiM in a vary n^atei^il 
paiadb A oiooeyf^MlU iwfbi^ bad not opg^ated in 
Irda»d» was sent over from Britain, but was rejected 
in aapitttcil ittMMor* Ita x^ec^io^ g^^v^ .^^ Ojfence 
to^tbo h}rd]«)eote^^a0t, wfrpor^pi^edi^ prorogi^ed th^m 
tSl tbe year 090 ibb^i^^tod stetea^hupdredand seventT- 

!TbeiaAiffa<«^iIw1aiid<.bi9gafi p^w, to drew JpwaHs 
.thstotrisb ^kk effeet^d .a.r^iiigrk^le. revolutioajn 
faMsrtfdla^lfbMrtiW'.ofi.tibi^ pe^le^,. 7h« passii^of 
ihs octenmliLbin b»d;dipuniA^>>ut J9,Qt taken a^ay» 
theii^avce <^ the crown; and the situation of aSi^trs 
betwaeoifrefl^ Britwn and A)W?ip»i,*>M In^liiJied the 
miai^stlQr tcimal^.l^e mpst, of , this influence possible. 
Ib one tj^^i^wfod ^eyait l^ui^dred and seventy-three, 
l^ lfer«?«ll»,, 8f| ttot tifltte g^v^mor of Iceland;, ex- 

erted himself sp powerfully iu fer^urof admifiistratioo, 
that the voice of opppsition in par)f anient tfir^liliBOst 
entirely silenced. Tt^ di^culUesi ^wef^^r^iWuder 
which the whole nation lalK>iired« b^«^Q n4j«¥^to be «o 
severely felt, that an address pn .Ji^ mij^^ed^ waa pre- 
sented by the commons to. his ^xcellei^^py. . «.ln . ibts 
they told him, that they hq^ed li^ woi|14.1a^.t)e£mre 
his majesty the state of Ireland, i;e^C^ «^^ ^m»* 
merce from the sbort^^igh^ policy 00 feroieflnn^s, 
to the great injury of the liing4^iny .aodfth«ad«alite*e 
(ff the rtrals, if not of the^emi^, of QmAi'Bvlbum. 
These hi^rd^hips, '^h^y 9j|i4^,^wer)^,>t>o4v0ft]|)r.'nn^olitic9 
but unjust; and th^y ^oU hi^ OJM^eUe^PfiT'pWtdlf v^^hat 
they expected ta be i»stored jtp gomey if no4 J^ allt their 
rights, which alone could justify them to tiieioc0»» 
stituents for laying^ u pop. .^he^i {SQ.many bttcdens dar«« 
ing the courrf*^ of this sei^^n^ ( .^ . m1. n -in:.. '< ' 

This represei^tatiou to the ^>r4.Iiienten^l^MfBlticed 
no eifect; and Ireland for somje year^.tQngj^r conilMMtcd 
to groan under the burden of intalei^bl^ KUBtrictiioiis^ 
These had, pi^i^pally t^en .p)i^]ie.(wigi| ^of 
Charles IL At.this |iifie it jWAa.en^tfdi - timt>bi^ef ^ir 
live cattle should not be^^portfy^ ,t<i>.^B«gland $ neiih^r 
were the commoditi^,9f)xdatii4^t(|tli«'fiaqpoirl^ 


AaM>nean cdontes, nor American goods to be import- 
ed to any port in Ireland without first unloading them 
in some part of England or Walesr All trade with 
Asia was excluded by charters grants to- particular 
compames; and restrictions were imposed ppou almost 
every valuable arUcle of commerce sent to the diffe- 
rent ports of Europe*. Towards the end of kitig Wri- 
liam'a reign, an absolute profaibitioh was laid on the 
exportation of Irish wool. - This restriction proved dis- 
advantageous not only to Ireland, but to Great Britain 
herself. By smuggling, the French were plentifully 
supplied with Irish wool ; and not only enabled to fur- 
nish woaUen stuffs sufficient for their own eonsump-* 
tion, but even to vie with the British in the foreign 
markets* Other restrictiona conspired to augment the 
national calamity ; but that which was most sens! Uy 
ftU, took place in the year one thousand seven hun- 
dred and seventy-six. •* There had hitherto (says Mr. 
** Crawford) been exported annually to America large 
** qoiuitfties of Irish linens : tlws very considerable 
•* source of national advantage was now shut up, un- 
*• der pretence of rendering it more difi&cult for the 
^^ eneaay to be sopptied with the means of subsistence ;^ 
* * but IB reality,, to enable a few rapacious £nglifth 
'• coa(r»etom to tttlBI their eng^emente^ anembarga 


<* which coutiaiiedy was laid upon the exportatioD of 
*' provisioBs from Ireland, by an pnconstitutional 
" stretch of prerogative. Remittances to England, 
'* on various accounts, particularly for the paymeDt of 
** our forces abroad, were more than usually consider- 
'^ able. These immediate caases being combined with 
•• those which were invariable and permanent, produc- 
•* ed in this country very calamitous effects. Black 
•* cattle fell very considerably in their value; notwith- 
*• standing there were no buyers.' The price of wool 
•' was reduced in a still greater proportion. Rents fell 
•• every where; nor in many places was it possible lo 
•• collect them. An universal stagnation of business 
** ensued. Credit was very materially injured. Far-j 
** mers were pressed by extreme necessity, and man^ 
•* of them became insolvent. Numbers of niairufac* 
** turcrs were redilced to beggary, and would bav< 
** perished, had they not been supported by publi^ 
** charity. Those of every rank and condition werl 
" deeply affected by the calamity of the times. Ha 
•' the state of the exchequer permitted, grants miglj 
** have been made to promote industry, and^ to allevj 
*• ate the national distress ; but it was exhausted to 
** very uncommon degree. Almost every branch 
•* the revenue had failed. From want of money tj 



" militia law could not be carried into execution. We 
^' could not pay our forces abroad ; and to enable us 
^' to pay those at home, there vrea a necessity of bor- 
" rowing fifty thousand pounds from England. The 
" money which parliament was forced to raise, it was 
" obliged to borroir at aa exorbitant interest. Eng* 
" land, in its present state, was affected with the 
" wretched condition to which our afiairs were reduced. 
" lodiViduais there, who had estates in Ireland, were 
'* sharers of the common calamity ; and the attention 
'^ of iodividualn in the BHtish parliament was turned 
^ to our situation, who had even no personal interest 
* in this country/* 

C JEi A P» tX« 

^VF^HILE things were in iHis deplorable situation) earl 
Nugent, in the year one thousand seven hundred and 
seventy-eight, undertoolc the cause of the Irish, by 
moving in parliament, t^at their affairs sliould he taken 
into consiaeratton by a committee of the whole house« 
This motion being. agreed to almost unanimously, it 
iwas followed by several others, viz. That the Irish 
anight be permitted to export directly to the British 
plantations, or to the «etdemeots m the coasts ol 
Africa, all goods being ihe produce and manufacture 
of the kingdom, excepting only wool, or woollen ma 
nufactures, &c. That all goods, being the produc 
of any of the British plantations, or of the settlemem 
•n the coast of Africa, ^tobacco excepted, be allows 
to be imported directly from Ireland to.all places, e: 
cept Britain. That glass manufactur^l in Ireland 1 


picmiitted to be exported to all places, Britain ex- 
cepted.— With respect to the Irish sail cloth and cor- 
dage, it was mored, that they should have the samcT 
priril^e as for the cotton yaro^ 

These motionflpving^ passed unanitnously, bills for 
the relief of Ireland were framed upon them accord* 
ingiy. The trading and manufactanng towns of Edg« 
land, however, took the alarm^ and petitions against 
the Irish indulgence were brought forward fVom many 
different quarters, and x&cttiBei^ iostracted te opposs 
it. In consequence df thiH,' a wari^ Cont^t took place 
on the second reading of the bittd. Mr. Btirke sup- 
ported them with all the istf eingth df his eloquence ; 
and as the minister seemed to favour them, they were 
committed; though the' violent bpposition to them 
still continued, whicti mduce'cf niany of their friends 
at that time to desert itneir cause. 

I ' i < 

•f'" " * . 1 -, ••• ■»., ... . ..^ 

Though the efforts of those who iavoured thecause 
'* ' ■ '! ' '• ' ■ ■ u •' ' * .- 
of Ireland thus proved unsuccessful for the present, 

th^y, renewed their endeavours before the Christmas 

vacation. Thev now urged, that independent of all 

claims from justice and humanity, tlfie relief of Ire- 

land, was enforced by necessity. The trade with Bri)* 

Vol.. L t 


tish America was now lost forever; and it was indis« 
pensably requisite to unite the remaining parts of the 
empire in one common interest and affection. Ireland 
had hitherto been passive ; but there was danger that, 
by driving her to extremities, she would cast off the 
yoke altogether ; or even if this should not happen, 
the tyranny of Britain would be of little advantage; as 
on the event of a peace, the people would desert a 
country in which they had experienced such oppres- 
sion, and emigrate to America, where they had a bet- 
ter prospect of liberty. On the other hand, they in- 
sisted, that very considerable advantages must ensue 
to Britain by the emancipation of Ireland ; and every 
benefit extended to that country would be returned 
with accumulated interest. The business was at last 
summed up in a motion made by lord Newhaven, that 
liberty should be granted to the pe^tplfe'of Ireland to 
import sugars from the West Indies. This was car- 
ried ; but the merchants of Glasgow and Manchester 
having petitioned against it, it was again lost through 
the interference of the minister, who now exerted his 
influence against the relief he had formerly declared 
in favour of. Various other effortb, however, were 
made to effect the intended purpose^ but nothing 
more could be obtained than a kind of compromise. 


by which lord Gower pled^d himself, as far as he 
could answer for the coDduct of others, that duriug 
the recess, some plan should be fallen upon for acconi<" 
modating the affairs of Ireland to the satisfaction of all 

In the mean time the affiiir^ of this countr}' hastened 

to a crisis which forced the British ministry to give 

that relief so long solicited, and which they so often 

promised without any intention of performing their 

promises. As long as the affairs of the country were 

nnder consideration of the British parliament, the in- 

babitauts preserved some degree of patience; but 

when they found themselves deserted by the minister, 

tbeir discontent was inflamed beyond measure* The 

laws he had passed in their &voar, viz.. an allowance 

to plant tobacco, and a bill to encourage the growth 

of hemp, weFe considered as a mockery instead of rer 

lief; and it was now resolved to take such measures 

as should effectually convince the ministry that it was 

not their interest to tyrannize any longer.. With this 

view, associations against the importation . of British 

commodities, which had been entered into in some 

places before, now became universal throughout the 

Ungdom ;. and such as presumed to oppose the voice 

T 2 


of the people in this respect, had the mortification t« 
find themselves exposed to public obloquy and con- 
tempt on that, account. Thus the Irish msmufacturei 
began to revive; and the people of Britain found 
themselves obliged seriously to take into consideration 
the relief of that countryi and to look upon it as a 
matter very necessary to their interest* To this also 
they were still more seriously disposed by the military 
associations, which had taken pUce some time before, 
•and now assumed a most formidable appearance. At 
first, these were formed by accidental causes. The 
•ituatioq of Britain, for some time, had not admitted 
©f any effectual method being taken for the defence of 
Ireland. Its coasts had been insulted, and the trading 
ships taken by the French and American privateers; 
laor was it at all improbable that an invasion might 
soon follow. •' The minister (says Mr Crawford) told 
us that the situation of Britain was such as to render 
her incapable of protecting us. The weakness of go- 
vernment, from the following circumstance, was strik- 
ingly obvious. The mayor of Belfast having transmit- 
ted a memorial to the lord lieutenant, setting forth 
the unprotected state of the coast, and requesting a 
body of the military 'for its defence, received for an- 
swer, that he could not afford him any other assist- 


ance than half a troop of dismounted horse and half a 
company of invalids." In this dilemma, a number of 
the inhabitants of the town associated for the purpose 
of self-defence ; and on the same principle, a few vo- 
lanteer companies were formed in different parts of 
the kingdom. These cho?e: their own officers, pur- 
chased their own arms and uniforms, and, with the 
assistance of persons properly qualified, assembled 
regularly on the parade to acquire a knowledge in the 
military art. Their respectable appearance, and the 
zeal they showed in the service of their county, soon 
excited curiosity and attracted respect.. Their number 
increased every day; and people of the first conse- 
quence became ambitious of being enrolled among 
them. As no foreign enemy appeared, against whom 
they might exercise their military prowess, these pa-- 
triotic bands soon began to turn their thoughts towards 
a deliverance from domestic oppression. No sooner 
was this idea made known, than it gave new vigour to 
the spirit of volunteering ; insomuch that, by the 
eod of one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, 
the military associations were thought to amount at 
least to thirty thousand men. But while thus formi- 
dable from their numbers, and openly avowing their 
intention to demand a restitution of their righ s from 
T 3 


'the British ministry, they professed the utmost loyalty 
and affection to the king ; and with regard to sobriety 
and decent demeanour, they were not only unexcep- 
tionable, but exemplary. Instead of exciting disorder 
themselves, they restrained every kind of irregularity^ 
and exerted themselves with unanimity and vigour for 
the execution of the laws. 

That such a body of armed men, acting without 
«ny command or support from government, should be 
Hn object of apprehension to the ministry, is not to be 
wondered at. In the infancy of their associations in- 
deed, they might have been suppressed ; but matters 
had been suffered to proceed too far; and, as they 
stood at present, all resistance was vain. At the volun- 
teers could not be controuled, some attempts were 
made to bring them under the influence of the crown ; 
but this being found impossible, ministry thought fit 
to treat them with an appearance of confidence ; and 
accordingly, orders were issued for supplying them 
with sixteen thousand*stand of arms* 

The Insh parliament, thus encouraged by the spirit 
of the nation, and pressed by the ciifiiculties arising 
from the diminished value of their estates, resolved to 


exert tlietnselves in a becoming manner, in order to 
procure relief to their country. At their meeting in 
October, one thousand seven hundred and seventy- 
nine, an address to his majesty was drawn up; in* 
which it was expressly declared, that " it was not by 
** temporary expedients, but by a free trade alone, 
** that Ireland was now to be saved from impending 
" ruin.'* When this address was carried up to the 
lord lieutenant, the streets of Dublin were lined with 
volunteers, commanded by the duke of Leinster, in 
their arms and uniform* But, though a general ex« 
pectation of relief was now diffused, an anxious fear of 
disappointment still continued. If the usual supply 
was granted for two years, there was danger of the dis- 
tresses continuing for all that time ; and after it wati 
granted, the prorogation of parliament might put a 
stop to the expected relief altogether. The peopl^ 
however, were not now to be trifled with. As the 
tourt^party showed an aversion to comply with the 
popular measures, a mob rose in Dublin, who, among 
other acts of violence, pulled down the house of the 
attorney-general, and^did their utmost to compel the 
members to promise their countenance to the matter 
in hand. When the point therefore came to be de- 
bated, some espoused the popular side from principle^ 


others from necessity ; so that on the whole a majoritj 
appeared in &vour of it. A short money bill was pass- 
ed and transmitted to England ; where, though very 
mortifying to the minister, it passed also.. 

On the meeting of the British parliament in Decern- 
ber, the Irish affairs were first taken into consideration 
in the house of peers. The necessity of granting re- 
lief to that kingdom was strongly set forth by the lord 
who introduced them. He said, the Irish, now con- 
scious of possessing a force and consequence to which 
they had Hitherto been strangers, had resolved to ap- 
ply it to obtain the advantages of which the nation, by 
this spirited exertion, now shewed themselves worthv. 
Had they for some time before been gratified in Icssei 
matters, they would now have received with gratitude, 
what they would, as affairs stood at present, consider 
only as a matter of right. He then moved for a vote 
of censure against his majesty's ministers for tbeii 
neglect of Ireland. This motion was rejected ; but 
earl Gower, who had now deserted the cause of mini- 
stry, declared, that there did not exist in his miiid i 
single doubt that the vote of censure was not well- 
founded. He added, in his own vindication, that 
early in the summer he had promised that relief should 


be granted to Ireland, and had done every thing in hii 
power to keep his word ; but that all his efforts had 
proved fruitless. 

In the house of commons the minister found him* 
lelf 80 hard pressed by the arguments of the minority*, 
and the short money-bill from Ireland , that he was ob* 
liged to declare, that in less than a week he intended to 
move for a committee of the whole house to t&ke the 
afilairs of Ireland into consideration* On the thirteenth 
of December he accordingly brought forward his pro- 
positions in favour of this kingdom. The design of 
these was to repeal the taws prohibiting the exportatron 
of Ii ish manufactures made of wool or wool flocks i 
to repeal as much of the act of 19th George IL as pro« 
hibited the importation of ghtss^into Ireland, except of 
British manufacture, or the exportation of glass- from 
Ireland ; and to permit the Irish to export and import 
commodities to and from the West Indies and the- 
British settlements on the coast of Africa, subject to. 
such resolutions and restrictions as. should be imposed, 
by the Irish parliament. 

On these propositions his lordship ,made severdl re« 
marks. by way of explanation*^ One object of them, lie 


Baid, was to restore to Ireland the wool export bdi 
woollen manufacture. In sixteen hundred and ninetyb 
two, from jealousy or some other motive, an addrci 
had been presented by the English parliameDt, re»l 
commending a kind of compact between the two king^ | 
doms ; the terms of which were, that England should | 
enjoy the woollen manufa-^ture, and Ireland the linen> 
exclusively. But notwithstanding this agreement, it 
was certain, that England carried on the linen manu- 
facture to as great extent as Ireland, while at the same { 
time she retained the monopoly of the woollen* The | 
first step taken, in consequence of this agreemeDt, 
^as to lay a heavy duty, equal to a prohibition, upon 
all wool and woollens exported ; and when this act, 
hich was but a temporary one by way of experiment, 
expired, the English parliament passed a siioilar 
one, and made it perpetual ; by means of which and 
some others a total end was put to Ihe woollen trade of 

With regard to the trade of Ireland, hifr lordship 
observed, that, upon au average of the six years from 
1776 to 1772, the export to Ireland was somewhat 
more than two millions ;. and, m the succeeding six 
years, from 1772 to 1778, about as much more; 


learl y one half being British manufacture and pro* 
]uce ; the other half certified articlesy of which this 
ountry was themedium of conveyance. The native 
•rodace, on an average, was somewhat more than 
JOOjOOO ; but of this only j^200»000 were woollens. 
The woollen manufacture of Ireland would long con- 
nue in a state of infancy ; and though cloths had 
»eeD manufactured sufficient for home consumptiont 
et it could hardly be expected that Ireland would rw 
al Great Britain at the foreign niiarkels, when, after 
le expence of land-carriage, freight, insurance, and 
dctorage, the latter was able to undersell Ireland in 
ler own market on the very spot, eiten though aided 
y the low wages and taxes paid in the country. 

With regard to the linen 9 his lordship observed, that 
owever prosperous it might appear, yet it still was 
•pable of great improvement. The idea of extending 
:id improving the linen-manufactuve of Ireland ori- 
iiiated from a pamphlet written by sir William Tern- 
Ic ; and this gave rise to the compact which had been 

fL^rred to. But though this compact was now about 
be dissolved, it was his opinion that the bounties on 
iiiMorting Irish linens ought not to be discontinued ; 
auuse it appeared, that the Britieh bounties ha4 


operated as a great eocourag^ineiit to the Iris) 
manttfactures, at the same time that the sum ap 
propriated to thit purpose amounted to more thai 

With regard to the dissolution of the ciompact be 
C^ixt England and Ireland, he ohsenred, that, as \ 
snore liberal spirit had now appeared on both sides oi 
the water, he hoped both kingdoms would be perfect- 
ly contented. Ireland would never be able to riva 
England in the fine woollen fabrics ; but allowing th( 
Irish to manufacture their own wool, would put ai 
end to the contraband trade with France ; and it ougfa 
to be remembered, that whatever was an advantage t< 
Ireland, must, sooner or later, be of singular advau 
tage to Great Britain, and by the proposed regulation 
in their commercial connections, the two kingdom 
would be put more upon an equality. 

With regard to the glass manufacture, his lordshij 
likewise observed, that Ireland had been "very injurl 
ously treated. Before the act of J 9th George II. thej 
had begun to make some progress in the lower branch 
es of the glass manufacture ; but by that act they wer* 
oot only prevented from importing any other glass tliai 


JE^faat waft of British manufacture ; bat also from ex* 
porting their own glass, or putting it on a horse or car- 
inage with a design to be exported. Thid act had been 
complained of in Ireland as a great piece of injustice, 
-and U was the intention of his proposition to remove 
that grievance. 

With regard to the third proposition, his lordship 
observed; that allowing Ireland a free trade to the 
colonies mnst be consideted as a favour to that king- 
dom. Considering her even as an independent state, 
fihe could set up no claim to an intercourse with' the 
British colonies. By every principle of justice, of the 
laws of nations; and the custom of the other European 
powers who had settlements and distant dependencies, 
the mother country had an exclusive right to trade 
with, and to forbid all others from having any inter- 
course with them. Were not this the case, what na- 
tion under the sun would spend their blood and trea- 
sure in establishing a colony, and protecting and de- 
fending it in its infant state, if other nations were after- 
wards to reap the advantages derived from their labour, 
hazard, and expence. But though Great Britain had 
a right to restrain Ireland from trading with her colonies, 
his lordship declared himself of opinion that it would 
Vol. I. U 


be proper to allow her to participate of the trade* 
This would be the only prudent means of afibrding 
her relief; it would be an uhequivocal proof of the 
candour and sincerity of Great Britain ; and he had 
not the least doubt but it would be received as such 
in Ireland. Britain, however, ought not to be a suf* 
ferer by her bounty to Ireland ; but .this would be the 
case, should the colony trade be thrown open to the 
latter, without accompanying it with restrictions simi- 
lar to those which were laid upon the British trade 
with them. An equal trade must include an ec[ual 
share of duties and taxes; and this was the only pro» 
per ground on which the benefits expected by the Irish 
nation could be cither granted or desired* 

Having made some other observations on the pro- 
priety of these measures, they were regularly formed 
into motions, and passed unanimously. In Ireknd 
they were received with the utmost joy and gratitude 
by both houses of parliament. On the 20th of De* 
cember the following resolutions were passed; tiz* 
That the exportation of Woollen and other mauufiac« 
tures from Ireland to all foreign places will materially 
tend to relieve its distresses, increase its wealth, pro» 
m&tt its prosperity, and therefore advance the welfare 


t>f Britain, and the common strength, wealth, and 
commerce of the British empire; that a liberty to 
trade with the British colonies in America and the 
West Indies, and the settlements on the coast of Af* 
rica, will be productive of very great commercial bene- 
fits ; will be a most affectionate mark of the regard 
and attention of Great Britain to the distresses of the 
liingdom ; and will give new vigour to the zeal of his 
majesty's brave and loyal people of Ireland to stand 
forth in sQpport of his majesty's person and govern<« 
ment, and the interest, the honour, and dignity of 
the British empire* • The same resolutioiia were next 
day passed in the house of peers^ 

The highest eticomiumar wete now passed on lofd 
North. His exertions in favour of Ireland were de- 
clared to have been great and noble ; he was styled 
" the great advocate of Ireland ;*' and it was foretold, 
that he would be of glorious and immortal memory in 
that kingdom. . But while these panegyrics were sa 
lavishly made on the minister, the members in opposi- 
tion, in the British parliament, were spoken of in very 
indifferent terms. It was said, that while they thought 
the minister did not mean to go into the business of 
Ireland, they called loudly for censure against him for 
U 2 


not doing it ; but when it was found that he meant m« 
liouftly to take their affairs into consideration, they 
had then basely seceded, and wholly forsaken the in- 
terest of the Icingdom. These censures .were ao loud, 
that a member of the British house of commons wrote 
a letter to be communicated to his fnends in Ireland, 
in which he represented, that however politic it might 
be to compliment the minist^ on the present occasion, 
it was neither very wise nor generous in the members 
of the Irish parliament, to be so ready in bestowing 
inv<ative$ agaia«t their old friends in England. With 
ttg^vAXo the minister, it was alleged » that until he 
was driren to it by the measures adopted in Ir.etaiid, 
his conduct had been extremely equivocal, dilatory, 
and indecisive* The .iniaority had beisn justly ini^ensed 
agiUQst him for having so grossly aacrificed the honour 
of the nation and the dignity of parliament, as to re- 
fuse any substantial relief to the Irish, until their 
own exertions had made it appear that every thing 
wjbich could be done for them by the British parlia- 
m.ent was not a matter of choice but of necessity. The 
minority, it was said, had earnestly and reptes^tedly 
laboured to procure relief for the people of Ireland ; 
and if they had now contented themselves with a silent 
acquiescence in the minister*s propositions^ it was only 


UQtil they should know whether they would be satis- 
fiictoryto the people of Ireland; and because what 
was now done, appeared to be more an act of state 
than of parhamentary deliberation and discussion. . 

To the propositions already mentioned, lord North 
added three others. 1. For repealing the prohibition 
of exportiog gold coin from Great Britain to Ireland* 
3. For removing the prohibition to import foreign 
hops into Ireland, and the drawback oh the exporta-^ 
tion of. foreign hops. 3* For enabling his majesty's 
Irish subjects to become members of the Turky com** 
pany, and to export woollens in British or Irish bot« 
toms to the Levant. In support of this last resolution 
his lordship urged, that it was necessary, because the 
exportation of woollens having been granted to Ire- 
land, the Irish would naturally expect a share in the 
Turky trade; which, as matters stood, was impos« 
sible, it having hitherto' been a received opinion, that* 
no Irishman could be elected a member of the Turky 
company. Notwithstanding all the satisfaction, how- 
ever, with which the news of these bills was received 
in Ireland, it was not long before thoughts of a differ* 
ent kind began to take place. It was suggested, that 
a free trade could be but of little use, if held by a 
U 3 


precarious tenure. The repeal of tbe obiio^ic^ law^ 
wa« represented as an act of necessity, not of choke> 
on the part of the British parliament. When that ne- 
cessity, therefore, no longer existed^ the same parVjK 
ment might recal the benefits it had granted, and 
again fetter the Irish trade by restrictions perhaps more 
oppressive than before. Tp secure the advantages 
they nqw possessed^ it was necessary that the kingdom 
should epjoy the benefits of a free constitution. For 
this the pefDtple Iqoked up to the volunteer companies; 
and the jd^a of having such a glorious object in their 
power^ av^gmented the numbers of those which had 
also been incrcaseiil from other c^use^* They had now 
received the thanks of both houses of parliament, and 
thus obtain«d the sanction of the legislature. Thus 
n^any who had formerly scrupled to c<mpect them- 
selves with a lawless body, ma^e no scruple to enter 
their lists. Government also engaged several of their 
friends in th^ volunteer cause. New companies were 
t;herefore raised ; but whatever might be the political 
sentiments of the pQicers, the private p^en were uni- 
versally attached to the popular cause; The national 
spirit was likewise tept up by several patriotic publi- 
cations, particularly the letters signed Owen Roe 
O^Neilj which in ^n esjpecial manner Attract^ tbe 


public attentiob ; nor was the pulpit backward in coa«i 
tributiog its part iu the same caose. 

To givie the greater weight to their determinatioQBy 
the Yolanteers now began to form themselves into bat* 
talioQs ; and in a verjr short time they were all united 
ia this manner, excepting a small number of compa* 
nies> which, froneir accidental causes, continued sepa* 
rate* The newspapers were filled with resolutions from, 
the several corps, declaiing Ireland to be an indepen^ 
dent kingdom, intitled by reason, nature, and com- 
pact, to all the privileges of a free constitution ; that 
no power in the world, excepting the king, with th« 
lords and commons of Ireland, had or ought to have^ 
power to make laws for binding the Irish ; and that, in 
support of these rights and privilege, they were deter- 
mined to sacrifice their lives and property* 

Notwithstanding all this zeal, however, the repre«> 
sentatives of the people in Ireland seem yet to have 
behaved in a very supine and careless manner, and ta 
have been entirely obedient to the dictates of govern- 
Q^nt« One of the house of comm<:h3S declared in th& 
month of April seventeen hundred and eighty, that 
" ao power on earth, ej^oepting the king, lords, an* 


^* commons of Ireland, had a right to make laws to 
*' bind the people." " Every member in the house 
(says Mr Crawford) « ** one excepted, acknowledge the 
** truth of the proposition, either in express term?, or 
** by not opposing it ; and yet, however astonishing it 
*' may appear, it was evident, that had the question 
" been put, it would have been carried in the negative. 
*^ The matter was compromised. The question was 
'^ not put ! and nothing relating to it waa entered on 
** the journals.^* 

This inattention, or rather unwillingness, of the ma- 
jority to serve their country, was more fully manifested 
in the case of a mutiny bill, which they allowed to be 
made perpetual in Ireland, though that in England 
had always been cautiously passed only from year to 
year. After it was passed, however, some of the zea- 
lous patriots, particularly Mr Grattan, took great 
(»ains to set forth the bad tendency of that act. He ob- 
served, that standing armies in the time of peace were 
contrary to the principles of the constitution and the 
safety of public liberty ; they had subverted the liber- 
ty of all nations excepting in those cases where their 
number was small, or the power of the sovereign over 
them limited in some respect or other ] but it was ia 


rditt to think of setting boancU to the power of the 

ebief ma^strate, if the people chose by a statute to' 

bind themselves to give them a perpetaal and irresisti^ 

bleforce* The mutipy bill, or martial law methodi^^ 

ed, wa» directly opposite to the common law of the 

land. It set aside the trial byj iiry and all the ordinary 

steps of law; establishing in their stead a summary pro*' 

ceediag, arhitrary crimes and punish men ts, a secret 

seutence, and sudden execution. The object of this 

was to bring those who were subject to it to a state of 

implicit subordiaatioUf and render the authority of the 

sovereign absolute. Thepeople of Englandi therefore, 

from a laudable jealousy -on all subjects in which tbeVr 

liberty was concerned, had in the matter of martial law" 

exceeded their usual caution. In the preamble to the 

mutiny act, they recited part of the declaration ^f 

right, " that standing armies had martial law i^n timar 

" of peace, without the consent of parliament, are ille- 

*' gal.*' Having then stated the purity and simplicity 

of their ancient constitution, and set forth the great 

principle of magna charta, they admitted a partial and 

temporary repeal of it : they admitted an army, and a 

law for its regulation^ but at the same time they limit* 

ed the number pf the former, and the duration of 

both ; confining the existence of the tro«^s themselvej^ 

198 llfiVIEW OF THE 

the law that regulated them^ and the power that com- 
manded'^m^, to one year. Thus were the standing 
forces of Eiigtand rendered a parliamentary army, a ncl 
' the military rendered effectually subordinate to the civil 
magistrate, because dependent on parliament. Yet 
the people of England considered the array, even thus 
limited, only as a necessary evil, and would not admit 
even of barracks, lest the soldier should be still more 
alienated from the state of a subject ; and in this state 
of alienation have a post of strength, which would aug- 
ment the danger arising from his situation. When tlie 
parliament of Ireland proceeded to regulate the army, 
therefore, they ought to have adopted the maxims of 
the British constitution, as well as the rules of British 
discipline. But they had totally departed from tlie 
Viaxims and example of the English, and that in the 
most important concern, the government of the sword 
They had omitted the preamble which declared the 
great charter of liberty ; they had left the number o{ 
forces in the breast of the king, and under these circum- 
stances they had made the bill perpetual. 

It is probable that the bulk of the Irish nation dit 
not at first perceive the dangerous tendency of the bil 
ta question. The representations of Mr Grattan anc 


others, however, soon opened their eye^^ and a gene* 
ral dissatisfaction took place* Thi» was xnnch increas* 
d by two unsuccessful attempts in the house of com- 
inoDs ; one to obtain an act for modifying Foyning*s 
aw ; and the other for securing the independency of 
he jud^s. A universal disgust against the spiritless 
oDduct of parliament now took place; and the hopes 
r the people were once more set on the volunteers* 

As it became now somewhat probable that these 
oQipanies might at last be obliged to assert the rights 
'f their countrymen by force of arms, reviews were 
ijflged necessary to teach them bow to act lu larger 
odies, and to give them more exact knowledge of the 
-e of arms. Several of these reviews took place in 

c summer of one thousand seven hundred and 
ij^bty. The spectators in general were struck with 
le nov^elty and grandeur of the sight; the volunteers 
Lcame more than ever the objects of esteem and ad- 
i ration, and their numbers increased accordingly, 
lie reviews in the following year exceeded those of the 
rmer ; and the dexterity of the corps who had asso« 
tted more early, was now observed to be greater thau 
at of tbe rest. More than five thousand men were 
viewed at Belfast, whose performance were set off 


to peculiar advantage by the display of thiiieea pieces 
of cannon. They showed their alacrity to serre their 
country in the field, on a report having arisen that the 
kingdom ivas to be invaded by the combined fleets of 
France 'and Spaing and for their spirited behaviour on 
4)n this occasion they received a second time the thaQki 
4>f both houses .of parliaoient 

Such prodigious military preparations could not but 
alarm the British ministry in the highest degree ; and 
it was not to be doubted that the Irish yolunteera 
«wonld come ta the same extremities the Americans I 
had done, unless their wishes were speedily complied 
wiilh. Still, Iwwever, it wus imagined possible to sup- 
press them, and it was supposed to be the duty of the 
lord lieutenant to do so. It was during the admini- 
stration of the duke of Buckingham that the voluni 
steers had grown into such consequence : he was there«< 
fore recalled, and the earl of Carlisle appointed in hi^ 
place. Though H was impossible for the new govemol 
to suppress the spirit of the nation, he found it ni 
clifltcult matter to obtain a majority in parliamei: 
Thus fevery redress was for the present efiectually d< 
nied. Neither the modification of Poyning*s law, nl 
the repeal of the obnoxious parts of the mutiny biO 


could be obtaiDed. The volunteers, exasperated at 
this behaviour, resolved at oace to sbew that they 

were determined to do themselves justice, and were 
conscious that they had power to do so* At a meeting 
of the officers of the southern battalion of the Armagh 
regiment, commanded by the earl of Charlemont, the 
following resolutions were entered into, December 
28th, one thousand seveu hundred and eighty-oue.-~ 
U That the most vigorous and effectual methods 
ought to be pursi^ed for rooting corruption out from 
the legislative body^ 2. For this purpose a meeting 
of delegates from all the volunteer associations was ne- 
cessary; and Dungannon, as the most central town 
in the province of Ulster, seemed to be the fittest 
place for holding such a meeting. 3. That as many 
and lasting advantages might attend the holding such 
a meeting before the present session of parliament was 
much farther advanced, the 15th of February next 
should be appointed for it. 

These resolutions proved highly offensive to the 
friends of government, and every method was taken 
to discourage it. On the appointed day, however, 
the representatives of a hundred aud forty-three volun- 
teer corps did attend at Dungannon ; and the result* 
\ouh X 


of thar deliberations were as follow t**-**!. It havmg 
been asserted) tbat vdlanteers, as such, cannot With 
propriety" debate or pubH^b their opinions on poHtiClil 
snbjectSy or on the condu<^ of parliament, or pitbiic 
men, it was resolved unanimously, that *at!iti2ent^'b;^ 
learning the use of avme, does not abandon nn3^of fait 
civil rightsr 2. That a ckim^^fofn any' bbdjof men, 
otrber than the king, lords, and cotnittons' of Ireland, 
to make laws to bind tt^c people, is illegal, unf'onstir 
tntional, and a j^rrevanee. X Resolred,' wftb one dis^ 
senting voice only, that the powers 6*erci*edJI>y the 
privy oonneil of both kingdoms, nndef eoloor or pre* 
tence of the law of Poynlng's, at^ tlttCOttstitutiodal 
and a grievancte, 4,* Resolred nnanitftrdftsly/ tliat the 
ports ^f this country are by tight open to tfTl fcreTgn 
countries not at war ^ith the king ; and that any ' IJtio* 
den thercBpon,\6r obstruction thereto, ^exceptthg otily 
by the pcitiiament of Ireland, afe uncohstitulfcnil and 
agrietmnce. 6, ResoWed^ <tkh one dissenting 'vbke 
only, that^a mu^tiny Wll, not limited %|^iht oifdftra^ 
tion from session to session, is un^nstttutlondl and a 
grievance. 6, Resolved tinaniwteugly*, tliat the*ibde-p 
pendence of judges ife equally es«teiHial't6 tlird itti^ar- 
tial admintstmtion i>f jastii^e iin Ti^latkd as in Eo^^and, 
l^nd that the reftisal or delay- of this right. Is in itself 


nncopstitatioaal aod a grievaoee. 7. Resolved, with 

elevcQ di^sentiog yoicev oi»]y» tbal it k the decided 

and noalteTable determiiiatioji^ 9f the volanteer associ^ 

atiotig to se^ aredrese of tbone grieyances ; and they 

pledged themfieltes ta . thftijr oottattfi and to each 

^ei^ 39 lreeboU|^% feUiiir-citiaen9» aod men of ho* 

noaty ;that ^y woold^ at every ensuing Section, 

support ernly. those who had supported theoi^ and 

wQatd ^n^port them tberein, and that they wouki use 

all eoi;^itiition^l oteanf t9 make such partuit of re<- 

dress /ipi^y. and effectual* 8* Re* 3d, with only 

one dis^ntipg voice, that the minority in parliament, 

who had aappqrted, those constitutional rights, arein-* 

titled to the jiu^t grateful tbatks of the volunteer 

compffuie^ and that an address to the porpoae be 

«igned by the chairman, and published with^the reso* 

lotions, of the present meeting. 9. Resolved unani<« 

noosly^ that four laembers from^ each county of the 

province of UUter, eleven to be a quorum, be ap« 

pointed a caunmttee till the next general meeting, to 

act lor the volunteer corps^ and to cip»l} general meet-^ 

ings 1^ the province as occasion requires. 10. The^ 

committee beii^ appointed, and tjie time of general 

meetiui^, and sotoie ether afi^rs of a similar nature 

settled, it. was rei^olved unaa\aiously» that the court of 

X 2 . 

204 REVIEW OF THE, kc. 

Portugal having nnjostly refused entry to certain Irish 
commodities, the deleg^ates would not consdtbe any 
wine of the growth of Portugal, and that they would 
uae all their influence to prfevent the u^e of the said 
wine, excejiting What was then in the kingdom, until 
such time ad the Irish expor/s a^uld be received into 
the kin^doiii of Portugal. II. Resolvcfd, with only 
tvfro dissentirig voices, that they hold the right of pri- 
vate judgment ih ihatters of religion ekjtially sacred in 
others as in theniselves; arid that they rejoiced iii the 
relaxation of tlii^ peuat laWsagaiiU^t the KoinsTh Ca'tho- 
1i(^8, di Pi xd^ixxte fr^ii^ht with the happiest cbh^^- 
4uehce^ to the lihion and jirospferity of thi iiJh«tbrfant» 
oflVelarid. • ' ..-wi.(j 

■ '- h.l. ••-•jh,;... . 


W^HILE these proceedings took place at J>uugan« 
noo, the nfiimstry carried all before them in parlia- 
ment, la a debate coiicerniug the exclusive legitila- 
tire privileges of Ireland, a law memher, speaking of 
the arbitrary acts of England^ asserted, that ^* power 
^* constituted right f and a motion that the commons 
Bhoold be decliired the representatives of the people, 
was carried in the negative. These scandalous pro- 
ceedings could not but hasten the rvin of t%eir cause. 
Tlie ve^ltttioiis entered into at the Dungannon meet- 
ing were received throughout the kingdom with the 
utmost applause* A, few days afler, Mr. Grattan, 
whose patriotism has been already taken notice of, 
moved in the house of commons for a long and spirit- 
ed address to his majesty, declaring the rights of the 
kiogdoDij aud asserting the principle which now be» 
X.3 . 


gan to prevail, that Ireland could legally be bound 
by no power but that of the king, lords, and comatons 
of the country ; though the British parliament had 
assumed such a power. This motion was at present 
rejected by a large majority ; but their eyes were soon 
enlightened by the volunteers. 

These having now appointed their committees of 
correspondence, were enabled to communicate their 
sentiments to one an6thev with the ntmosC ffttitky^and 
quickness* An association was formed' in the mMOQ^ of 
the nobility, representatives, freeholders^. mA inhiiu* 
tants of the county, of Armagh^ wheretqtbey set- forth 
the nectssity of declaring therr seiitisieiiA;« openly,, re- 
specting the fundiMnental and undoubted rights of the 
nation. The? declared, that in every aittMMioik'in Kle, 
and. with all; th9 n^eans ip their power, tlvey would 
njaintain the constttutiioknAl r»ghl of the kiag^Jomt^^be 
governed only by the king and parliament of Irdand ; 
and. that they would* in every iia^tance^ unifonnly su^d 
strenuously o^ppose the exiicution of any slatulet^ ex« 
ceptingftuch as derived their ttutborityiffioin thejpaiv 
liameht just mentiotied; and they pledged thepaaelvea 
to support wii^ ihey uov declared with their li;ires and 


ThU declaratioD was quickly adopted by M th« 
otW CQUBties^ and nonlar seotisMaU became univer^ 
^llj, Bfiomti tbeottgbiHit the kiBgdom. The ehan^ 
ia tbe Biitifthi imoiatry ib tin ^Mriog of oae thoiisaod 
seven luunb^ s^ eighty-two, feciUtated the wiabe» 
of the people, "fhe dake of Portland, who came over 
as lord lieutenant in April that year» seat a mo0t wel* 
^^e jjSkeip^g^ to parliament*^ He informed theio^, that 
'* his miyeatj^, ^^9c» conceroed to find that discon« 
**M^^i»^ j<^oiittip» were prevailiBg. amon^ his loyal 
*^ sobj^t^. i& Ir^i^i^ q({pn.niattet& of great weight 
" auQd.iippQ^uce»i ^he recoauAended it to parliament 
*' totaketlie.(Ssuxie into their i«ogts?rioufl considera^i 
" tioojt, iojoideis to epcb ^finaj afd^u^linent as^might/ 
" ^ve* mutual' 89ili9&^i.on. tq. bift* luiA^gdoi^af Great 
'' Bpitaio mi Ir^b^/' 

Mi.Grait4i»».^bo8e f«irioti0^artalMulDft¥^beeiL. 
sladoptted^^ooNv Yentured to |m>pose a second time ia 
parUamsDt, i^m address which bad bee» rejected be* 
fore. OnA^ l6th «f April l» bega» a^speech to this 
pwri^iie, w«th^Aa.di«gaat panegyric-on the volunteers, 
&odtheilatec«Hiducto0the people^ Tbe Irish, besaid, 
wer<2nolongpera divided colony, but a« united lat^d, • 
nuoifesting itself to the rest of the world in signal in* 


stances of gl^ry. Iii the rest of Europe, the aucient 
spint was c^xpiiod ; liberty was yiel*ied, or empire lost; 
nations were IJ -i^g upon the memory of past glory* or 
under the care of mercenary armies. In Ireland, how- 
ever, the people, hy departiog from the exfimapleof 
other nations, had now become an exaqiple to them. 
Liberty, in former times, and in other aaticms, was 
recovered by the quick feelings and rapid impulse of 
the populace* But in Ireland, at the pi:eseot period^ 
it was recovered by an act of the whole nationt reason- 
ing for three years on its sitoatioa, and^then rescuing 
itself by a settled sense of right pervading tb^l^. 
The meeting of the delegates at DungannoA w«s an 
CMriginal measure ; and like all of that kind, oontinued 
to be matter of surprise^ until at last it became matter 
of admiration. Great measuxes,suchaflthe meeting 
of the Englith at Runny**mead, and of the Insh at 
Dungamion, were not the oonsequences of precedent, 
but carried in themselves both precedent and princi« 
pie; and the public cause in both instances would in« 
fsllibly have been lost had it been trusted to parlia- 
ment. The meeting at Dungannon had resolved, that 
the clam of the British parliamient was iilegal; and 
this was a constitotional declaration. The Irish volun- 
teers were associated for the preservation of the laws^ 


hut tbe conduct of the British parliament subrerted 
all law^» ' England^ however, bad no reason to f^r'thft 
Irish volunteers; they would ■ sacrifice their lives in 
her cause. The two fiatious formed a general confe- 
deracy. Tlie perpetual annexation of the crovrh was a 
great bond, but magna cliarta was still a greater* It 
would^ie easy for Ireland to find a king; but it would 
be impMosstble to find a nation who could comrauDicat^ 
to^Mt^u^li a charter *» magna chatta; and it wa» 
thi^'whrefa^nade their natural connection with Eng* 
hiddf '<TH^'Iri«bii4tioii wcr« loo high in pnde» elOh 
MOtery> asd^pchfor^ 4r> suiNr atiy other oatioD to mak^ 
iM^ te^s^. EiBgland had itideed brought forward tto 
(taeHib#»"il««>9itly by mbking^hrtrrfbr Irebod the pr6* 
ceding ieftsfODy' but by enabling his idajesty to repeal 
i^ri^ iatr# whldi England had- made for Ameiicit 
Jiald'she oobstfif ed to repaal the declaratory kiw agaiiist 
Ame^a:? ^lii-^iMddshe'refuite tb repeal that aginntft 
If^Mndf » IHie Irish nati«h wepetneapableof aubmiiK 

tingto stt^adtetinctioAv - - 

* '. * . • ' ^ 

MfhGl-dttati-iiotr #tttid Ma elo»qaen«e^ much'morfe 
po^teffu! fhHh' ftriVi^ly.- • ^e motloa which> during 
this T^ry swsi^; h^d h^eti .ri»jfect^ by a grtat majo- 
nt5% Vr^s rfow agrebd' to ^rtdr a sh<$tt dtbat^i and the 


address to his majesty prepared accordingly. In tlii^, 
sfber thanking his majesty lor \m gracious message, 
and declaring their attachment ta his person and go^ 
vernment, they assured him^ that the subjects of Irer 
land are a free people ; that the crown of Ireland is an 
iBipenal crown, inseparably annexed to that of Br^ 
tsin, on which connection the interests and happine® 
of both nations essentially depend: bot the kingdom 
of Ireland is difttinctf with a parliament of its own ; 
that'there is no body of men competent to make laws 
to bind IreUndy except the king, lords, and commons 
tbeyeof}' nor any other parliament that hath any power 
or aallt^vity of any sort whatsoever, in this country, 
except the parliament of Ireland* They assured hw 
majesty, that they handyTy conceive, that in thiB right 
the very essence of tli^ir liberties did exiist; a righc 
whidi they, on the part of all Ireland, do claim as their 
biTth«>right, and which they cannot yield but with 
thdr li^ies^ They assored his majesty, that they had 
seen with concern certaiii claims advanced by the par- 
liament of Great Brkaiti, in an act iutitled, *^ For the 
" better secairing the dependency of Ireland ;" an act 
containing matter entirely irreconcileaWe to the fun- 
dafiaentdl rights of the nation. They informed his ma- 
jesty, that they conceived this act, and theclumsit 


advanced, to be the great and principal canse of the 

discontents and jealouaies in the ki^^om. They as-i 

sured him, that fai« commons djd nutst sincerely vieb* 

tbat all the biHs which become law in Ireland, should 

receive the approbation of his majesty onder the seal 

of Great Britain ; but yet^ that they conceived the 

practice oF suppressing their bills in the council of Ire* 

land, or altering them any where» to be another jnst 

fause of discontent and jealousy. Tliey further aasniw 

ed his majesty, that an act intitled, ^* For the better 

*• accommodation of his majesty's forces," beiogun** 

limited in duration^ and defective in some.pthereir* 

'■ ,»t^ . ' • ' • 

cumstances, was fmother jost cause of jealous miA 

discontent* These, the principal causes of jealoueue 

.•\ 'I \* . • 

and discontent in the kingdom, they had submitted to 

his majesty^ in humble expectation of redress; and 
th^y concluded with an assurance^ that they were 
more coufidenii in the hope of e-btaiuing redre^^, «s the 
people of^ Ireland had beeu» andjijKere, pot more dis- 
posed tOjslvare the freedom of Eoglapd* th^n tosup** 
port her in her diflScnlties, imd to slu^re her,fat«* . • 

To thi^ jemarVable address ^^ ro<ist graf^ipus answer 
V99.% eiveo. In a few days tl?e lord lieutenant made a 
speech to both houses; in which he informed them. 


that by the magnanimity of the king, and wisdom of 
the British parliament, be was enabled to assure them, 
that immediate attention had been paid to their repre- 
sentations, and that the legislature of Britain had con- 
curred in a resolution to remove tti'e causes of their 
discontents, and were united in a desire to gratify 
every wish expressed in the late address to the tl»"on€ : 
and that, in the mean time, his majesty was graciously 
disposed to give his royal assent to acts to prevent the 
suppressing of bills in the Insh privy council, and to 
limit the nQuliny>bill to the term of two years. 

" The joy which now diffused itself all over the. king- 
dom was exti^me. The warmest addresses were pre- 
sented not only to his majesty, but to the lord lieute- 
nants The commons instantly voted a huudred thou- 
sand pounds to his majesty, to enable him to raise 
twenty thousand men for the navy ; and soon after» 
five thousand men were likewise voted from the Irish 
establishment. The volunteers became in a peculiar 
manner the objects of gratitude and universal praise ; 
but none was placed in so conspicuous ci light as Mr 
Grattan* Addresses of thanks flowed in upon him 
from all quarters; and the commons addressed bis 
majesty to give him fifty thousand pounds^ as a recom- 


{tense of bis services; for fvhieh they promised to make 
profision. \, 

This request was also complied with ; but still the 
jealousies of the Irish were not completely eradicated. 
As the intended repeal of the declaratory act was found 
to he simple, without finy clause expressly relinquish* 
iDgthe claim of right, several members of the house of 
cemmons were of opinion, that the liberties of Ireland 
were not yet thoroughly secured* The majority, how- 
ever, were of opinion, that the simple repeal of the 
obnoxious act was sufficient ; but many of the nation 
at krge held different sentiments. Mr Flood, a mem-> 
her of the house, and a zealous patriot, now took the 
lead in this matter ; while Mr Grattan lost much of 
hiS'popularity by espousing the contrary opinion. The 
' matter, however, was to appearance finally settled by 
the volunteers, who declared themselves on Mr Grat- 
tan^s «ide. Still some rourmurings were heard ; and 
it must be owned, that even yet the conduct of Bri- 
tain appeared equivocal. An English law was passed, 
permitting importation fiom one of the West-India 
islands to all his majesty's dominions ; and of course 
including Ireland, though the trade of the latter had 
been declared absolutely free. This was looked upon 
V o L. I. Y 


in a very unfavourable light* Great offence was al^o 
taken at a member of the English house of lords, for 
a speech in parliament, in which he asserted, that 
Great Britain had a right to bind Ireland in matters 
of an external nature ; and proposed to bring ia a bill 
for that purpose. The public discontent was also 
greatly inflamed by some circumstances relating to 
this bill, which were particularly obnoxious. Lord 
Beauchamp, in a spirited letter addressed to the first 
company of Belfast volunteers, was at much pains to 
show that the security of the legislative privileges ob- 
tained from the parliament of Britain was insufficient. 
The lawyers corps of volunteers, in Dublin, who also 
took the question into consideration, were of the same 
opinion ; but the circumstance which gave the greatest 
offence was, that the chief justice in the English court 
of kiu^'s-beuch gave judgment in an Irish cause, con- 
trary to a law which had limited all such judgments to 
the first of June, All these reasons of discontent, how- 
ever, were removed upon the death of the marquis of 
Rockingham, and the appointment of the new mini- 
stry who succeeded him. Lord Temple went over to 
Ireland, and his brother and secretary, Mr Grenville, 
went to England, where he made such representations 
of the discontents which prevailed concerning the in- 


sufficiency of the declaratory act« that Mr Towns* 
hendy one of the secretaries of state, moved in the 
house of commons for leave to bring in a bill to remove 
from the minds of the people of Ireland ail doubts re- 
specting their legislative and judicial privileges. This 
bill contained, in the fullest and most express terms, 
a relinquishment on the part of the British legislature, 
ofall claims of aright to interfere with the judgment 
of the Irish courts^ or to make laws to bind Ireland in 
time to come. 

The short, but highly useful, administration of lord 
Temple, was followed by that of the earl of Northing- 
toD, on the third of June, seventeen hundred and 
eighty-three. The expected dissolution of parliament 
(which immediately took place) had created an univer- 
sal ferment in the minds of the people. The volun- 
teers again showed themselves the worthy guardians of 
the liberties of their country. Delegates from forty- 
five companies in the province of Ulster, met at Lis- 
bum on the first of July, to deliberate on the most 
effectual means of bringing about a parliamentary re- 
form; and, appointing a committee. of correspondence 
^'ith other associated corps, requested a general meet- 
ing of delegates of the province on the eighth of Sep- 
Y « 


tember. The representatives of two hundred and 
seventy-two companies accordingly assembled atDun- 
gannon, on the day specified. Impressed with a high 
sense of their own strength, and animated with the 
love of liberty and independence, they published se- 
veral resolutions concerning the parliamentary repre- 
sentation of the people ; and electing five persons to 
represent each county in a national convention, which 
they appointed to be held in Dublin in the month of 
November, they sent pressing solicitations to the other 
provinces to join in a measure, which they hoped 
vould be attended with conseq^iences so salutary. 
Their chief complaint was, that of three hundred 
members who composed the house of commons, only 
s^venty^two were elected by the voice of the people ! 
jfifiy^three peers having it in their power to nominate a 
hundred and. twenty-four members, and to influence 
the election of ten ; and fiftj/^two cororooners to no- 
minate ninely'One^ and influence the election of three ! 

In the hew parfiaraent (October) the thanks of both 
houses were voted to the volunteers, for their spirited 
support of the execution of the laws ; and resolutions 
were passed, " That in the present state of the kiog- 
^* dom, it'was expedient that there be a session of par- 


** liament held every year.*' But when the delegates, 
in compliaoce with the invitation from Dungannon, 
met in a national convention in Dubljn|_and appoint- 
ing a committee for the purpose, digested and pre« 
seuted a plan of parliamentary reform, by which every 
protestant freeholder, possessed of a freehold to the 
value of forty shillings, should be entitled to vote for 
the retnm of a member to parliament for any city or 
borongh where he might reside ; by which any mem- 
ber of parliament who should accept a pension or a 
place from the crown for life, should be deprived of 
bis seat; by which every member should make oath* 
that he had not, directly nor indirectly, given any con- 
sideration to procure the su£Prage of an elector; and 
by which the duration of parliament should be limited 
to a term not more than two years ;— this very parlia- 
ment rejected the proposition, by a majority of one 
hundred and fifty-eight to forty-nine ; and presented 
an address to the king, in which they pledged them- 
selves to defend the present constitution with their 
lives and fortunes* 

The convention, on the second of December, voted 
an indefinite adjournment, after resolving to carry on 
individually such investigations as. might be necessary 


to complete the plan of parliamentary reibrm ; anilto 
address the king, expressing their duty and loyalty, 
and imploring his majesty, that their humble wish to 
have parliamentary abuses remedied by the leglislatare 
in a reasonable degree, nugh^ not be esteemed as pro- 
ceeding from a spirit of innovation, but merely from 
the sincerest attachment to, and a desire to support 
the principles of the constitution, to secure the satis- 
faction and loyalty of their countrymen, and to render 
the cordial unanimity and co-operation of the king- 
doms of Great Britain and Ireland perpetual. Thus 
tamely concluding a business which appeared so for- 
midable at its commencement, and surrendering all 
hopes of reaping any further benefits to their ccHiittry 
by their exertions. 

Among the various spirited modes of forwarding po* 
litical innovations in these busy times, was the forming 
of popular clubs, which, under different appellations,, 
were rapidly established in the metropolis and else- 
where. The principal of these, intitled the Whig 
Cluby was distinguished by the acquisition of many 
persons high in rank, in tsilents, and in the estimation 
of their countrymen. It has been contended, that a 
majority of the members of this club, wished merely 


to bring about a reformation of the political system » 
and to obtain a more equal representation of the peo- 
ple in parliament. Many of them, howerer, appear 
to have aimed at the accomplishment of a greater ob- 
ject, a revolution ; which was to overturn the existing 
government, and to establish a democratical common* 
wealth in its place. These formed connections with 
the Whigs of the Capital, another revolutionary asso* 
ciation, who were evidently bent on a total subversion 
of the government, and with several other clubs of a 
similar description ; till at length arose that extraor- 
dinary and highly formidable society, distinguished 
by the title of United Iriihmefu 





PART 11. 

Froui the ^fiormatkn (^ the Society of United IrUh^ 
men^ kkthe Yetkf seventeen hmdrei ond, ninety ^ fpt 
the concluiUm of the R(^beUij9iK in. s^ent^en hujur 
dred Qn4 ninety^eight. 


l^y^E come now to trace the devastnttog progress of 
the late rebellion ; and as Us origin may not improperly 
be dated from the formation of the society of Unitei 
Jr'ishment we have commenced this part of ouQr work 
nvith stating the rise of that celebrated body. 

In the month of October^ seventeen hundred and 
ninety, thig famous association first Speared in BeK 
fast, a town which, like Shefl&eld in England, and 


Boston in Americay has been long justly famed for 
hs ealightened and patriotic inhabitants. The first 
society, in which were inrolled some men who 'after- 
wards shone conspicuous as principals in the rebellion, 
had no sooner published their political principles and 
views, than three similar clubs were immediately or- 
ganized in Belfast, from whence their sentiments were 
diffused, and their measures adopted, wijth great rapi- 
dity throughout the province of Ulster. In the fallow- 
ing year the united societies appeared in Dublin, and 
were soon increased and promoted by some most re- 
spectable names and characters, and by men possessed 
of the most splendid talents. 

The immediate view of this extraordinary combina- 
tion, was to consolidate into one great political body 
the whole of their countrymen, without regarding any 
of those religious distinctions which had hitherto kept 
them from acting in concert ; *^ fot the purpose of 
** forwarding a brotherhood of affection, a communion 
*^ of rights, and a union of power, among Irishmen of 
•' every religious persuasion, and thereby to obtain a 
V complete reform in the legislature, founded on the 
" principles of civil, political, and religious liberty." 
The emancipation of the catholics, that is, the aboli- 
tion of distinctions between the romanists and the pro- 
testants, and the attainment of a thoroughly demo- 
cratic house of commons in parliament, were the avow- 
ed purposes for which they were associated. In the 
plan which they submitted to the public, they pro- 
posed that the parliament should be annual ; that the 


whole kingdom should be divided into three hundred 
electorates, all as equal in populiitioti as possil-ie ; that 
neither the elector nor the representative should be dis- 
qualified by want of property ; but that every man, 
twenty one years of age, and possessed of his reasoning 
faculties, should be entitled to vote, provided he had 
been resident in the plate during the last six months 
previous to the election ; and that to be qualified for a 
representative, it was only necessary to be resident 
within the kingdom, to hold no place nor pension un<- 
der government; and to be of the full age of twenty- 
five years ; and that each representative should be al- 
lowed a reasonable salary for hit» attendance in parlia- 

In the year seventeen hundred and ninety-two, a 
sabscription was set on foot to raise money for the 
purpose of arming and embodying a number of men in 
the metropolis, under the denomination of national 
guards. The uniform of these guards was green, the 
national colour of Ireland, with buttons on which was 
inscribed the harp, also the armorial ensign of that 
country; but, to denote their wished-fbr overthrow of 
monarchy, divested of the crown, with which it had 
lieen hitherto accompanied. A day of general muster 
(December 9.) was appointed for these guards, appa- 
rently with^ intention to make an ostentatious display 
of their strength, in hope's of inspiring their friends 
"with still greater confidence and courage, and of strik- 
ing tenor and dismay into their enemies ; or pei haps 
"with a determination even then to raise the standard of 


open rebellion, to seize the capital, and to commence 
immediately all the active operations of an offensive 
civil warfare. Meantime government, wisely deter- 
mining to crush every appearance of insurrection in its 
infancy, prepared to act with vigour in the impending 

The cloud of disaffection which had gradually deep- 
ened its shade, and continued to spread its influeiv- 
over the political state of both kingdoms, seemed no\> 
ready to explode with* dreadful eflRects in Ireland. Ti 
prevent, if possible, the further extension ofthee\i 
the lord-lieutenant, on the eighth of December, tV.t 
day immediately preceding that of the intended mu- 
ter, issued a proclamation peremptorily prohibitim 
all seditious assemblies, or armed associations not au 
thorised by the supreme power of the state ; and com 
manding the magistrates, should admonition and gen 
tie measures not be found sufficient to disperse ai 
euch, to employ the utmost efforts of military fon 
without hesitation in order to effect their purpose. Tl: 
national guards, alarmed by the determined and me 
nacing language of this proclamation, and intiniidatt:< 
by the formidable appearance of the garrison of tb 
city, who were drawn up in martial array, deferred thei 
meeting, which they never afterwards had opportunit 
or inclination to attempt* The principals of thesociet % 
however, assembled on the Ibarteentb, and publish h 
ed a counter-manifesto or proclamation, in whieh tht 
called upon the volunteers again to take arms, forth 
purpose or defending the country against all enemit- 


inietnuX or foreign, and of preserving tranquUlitfy and 
warmly fidvi^ing proteBtanU to choose deputies for pro* 
Tinctal asoembltes^ previons to a geoesal conrenttont 
wbiah they declared was absolutely necessary to fom 
a commoa cause with the Roman catholics. Archi- 
bald Hamilton Hoirao, a gentleman of respectable for«» 
tune and family, illustrious ibr his philanthropy, anfl 
amiable for his priiiaite character and deportment, bar* 
iDg acted as secretary at the above meeting, wds, on 
account of this manifesto, arrested in the ensuing 
month} and being brougKt to trial ii^ January aeven<« 
teen hundred and ninety ^-four, and found guil- 
ty of the charges brought Against him, wa3 sentenced 
to pay a fine of five hundred pounds, to be imprisoned 
two years, and, before his liberation, to give a. secu- 
rity of foorvthousand pounds for his good behaviour 
daring seven years. On the political pHnciples of this 
gentleman, we consider it unnecessary to animadvert. 
That he was a warm friend -to humanity, a strenuous 
advocate for the liberty of mankind, is juMcient for 
us: let. the feelings of his countrymen decide whether 
he espoused the right side of the question or the reverse. 
Doctor WiUiam Drenuan, who had been chairman of 
the fame assemMy, being brought, to trial in June, 
was acquitted ; and James Napper Tandy a citizen of 
Dublin, so celebrated for his.activity in firomoting the 
views of the political societies, having been arrested^ 
gave faoil for his appearance, and made his escape out 
of the kingdom, A clergyman named WilliaiA Jack^ 
son was alg» arrested, charged with being engaged in a 
tFeasonable correspondence with France. Aud Mc 
Vol. I. Z 


Rowan, as he was deeply implicated in this corrfs- 
poadence, afraid of being again brought to trial and 
capitally convicted,' contrived to escape from prison, 
and preciptately fled the kingdom. Mr Jackson was 
found guilty, but evaded the shame of a public execu- 
tion by swallowing a dose of poison, in consequence of 
which he expired in the bar before sentence was passed 
upon him, in presence of a vast multitude of specta- 

Edwurd Byrne merchant, with several others, mem- 
bers of a secret committee of Romanists, which for se- 
veral years had subsisted in the metropolis, issued 
writs to the catholic parish priests throughout every 
county, and many towns and districts in the kingdom, 
desiring the holding of elections of deputies to compose 
an assembly representative of the whole body of Irish 
Romanists, The elections (according to the repub- 
lican plan adopted in France) were to be held in the 
catkolic chapels of each district. The writs were im- 
mediately obeyed ; the elections were made with the 
utmost celerity, and the Catholic Cmivention assembled 
publicly on the third of Decenriber seventeen hundred 
and ninety-two, in the Tailors-Hall, Dublin. The 
chiefs of the Romanists, encouraged by the very fa- 
vourable declarations of several protestant associations, 
by the conduct of the highly celebrated Edmund 
Burke and his associates in Britain, together with the 
oppositionists in parliament, and by the society of 
United Irishmen, formed this particular plan, to asso- 
ciate by themselves, apparently withi design to co-ope- 


rate with the conductors of the general associations, 
who were endeavouring with all their influence to root 
out religious distinctions^ and to unite zealously their 
countrymen into one great political phalanx. The 
protestants, alarmed at this bold and determined mea- 
sure of Byrne, in issuing writs for electing a popish 
convention, were encouraged by the conduct of govern- 
ment to enter into strong resolutions condemning it in 
severe terms ; and strenuously declared that they 
would uphold the constitution, as it then stood, 
against all attacks from the democratic or republican 
principles then aiming at its overthrow. The catholics,* 
meanwhile, retorted with much acrimony of invective ' 
on the resolutions of the protestants, aad assembling 
in many counties, districts, and towns, defended 
Byrne's elective plan with great spirit and resolution. 
On the seventeenth of September they submitted to 
two barristers a case on the legality of the measure*, 
and obtained from them their opinions in the affir- 
mative. This they circulated with the greatest indus- 
try in the public prints, in order to inspire with confi- 
dence their adherents, and to encourage their agents 
in all parts of the kingdom to fresh exertions in stirring 
nptbeseeds of disaffection among the people. 

The Catholic C<mv€ntiony however, was so disgraced 
by the intemperate and illiberal proceedings of many of 
its own body, as to cause near seventy of its members, 
among whom were lords Kenmare and Fingall, toge- 
ther with many other gentlemen of rank and respecta- 
bility, whose names would h^ve conferred lustre an/^- 


added weight to thdr deliberations, to secede with di9« 
gQst. It continued, notwithstanding, to direct vHk 
absolute sway, the affairs of by fiir the greater part of 
th6 catholic body of Ireland. 

After having prepared a petition to the king, and 
iftominaf ed nine of their number to form a permanent 
committee for the management of the projected plans, 
ttie convention closed its session. Sir Thomas French, 
Christopher Bellew, James £• Devereux, Edward 
Byrne, and John Keogh, esquires, the delegates ap- 
pointed to convey this petition to the king, having 
proceeded to Belfast, on their way to London, were 
received there with every mark of attentiod and re- 
(ipect. Immediately on their arrival at the Donegal 
Arms being known, a number of respectable inhabi- 
tants waited on and breakfasted with them. They 
remained in town about two hours, and on departing, 
were drawn in triumph, not by that class of people 
usually employed on such occasions^ but by a party 
9f the Belfast volunteer artillery, all persons in good 
circi;,mstances, who had in the mean time assembled, 
and fixed the drag-ropes of their field-pieces to the 
carriage of the delegates, amidst an astonishing crowd 
ef spectators* In this manner were they drawn quite 
through the town and along the bridge on the road to 
Donaghadee, where the horses were again put to, 
amidst continued acclamations from the surrounding 
multitude, who repeatedly cheered the travellers 
i^ith shouts of ♦' success attend ypul"— " union'/* 
— *•* equal laws !".— and ** down with the atcendaacy !'* 


The delegates politely returned thanks for the gene- 
rous treatment they had experienced, and declared 
their determination to promote and maintain, by every 
means in their power, that union which formed the 
strength and security of Ireland. When one of them 
offered a sum of money to be distributed among the 
populace, it was peremptorily refused even by the 
poorest of the people. " Since you refuse any gra- 
•" tuity,** said the person who offered it, '* should your 
" delegates arrive in Dublin, on any similar occasion^ 
" we.shall give them a pull also ;" which was returned 
by a general shout of " Union ! union ! — May we be 
" always found to- pull together !" and the carriage 
moved on amidst reiterated cheerings and huzzas. 
This ia a remarkable instance of the total extinction 
of all religious animosities in that part of the king-^ 
dom, where little more than a century ago, the most 
.horrid atrocities were reciprocally committed by botb 
cath»>lics and protestants oa the persons and proper- 
. ties of each other. Now, delegates from the catholic 
body, dispatched for the purpose of obtaining the en- 
tire emancipation of their sect, while passing through 
alarge and populous protestant town, are received 
with the utmost applause, and cinsiderecl, not as meii 
possessing different religious sentiments, and therefore 
unworthy of confidence and support, but as ftllow- 
countrynien, engaged in forwarding the happiness and 
prosperity of their country, — an unequivoral and irre- 
fragable proof, amongst^uany others, that tl:e j)rote- 
stants, at least, had no object in view but the ciiilVir 


sion of a more liberal and eactentiVe tfystem of ciril 

Id consequence of the petition ftom tbe Romanists, 
bis majesty, in seventeen hundred and ninety-three, 
Hiras pleased to recommend to parliament to take Ihetr 
situation into consideration ; and» in compliance with 
this injanction, the whole of tbe restric^Te laws were 
repealed) except those by which they were excluded 
from sitting in parliament, and from holding about 
thirty great offices of state, which are immediately 
concerned in the confidential department of the exe- 
xutive goternmeut. This apparent lenity of the admi- 
nistration, however, was merely a continuatiott of 
that detestable system of policy, with r^aid to the 
affairs of Ireland, which first began to exert itself in 
the reign of Elizabeth, to foment the internal dimmion 
of the Irish ; that so they might be kept in a state of 
greater weakness, 'and thus their dependancy on Eng* 
land be more secure. But an effectual bar to the 
meeting of conyentions, or other assemblies, was en^ 
acted by a bill styled the " convention bill," proposed 
by ti^ :Jord chancellor, Fitzgibbon, earl of Glare, 
professing to " prevent the election or other appoint* 
•« ment of conventions, or unlawful assemblies, under 
*♦ pretence of preparing or presenting public, petitions, 
•* or ojtiffr addresses, to his majesty or the parliament." 
A nationM^assembly, intended to have been convened 
in the month of September, was thus prevented from 
meeting; the proceedings of which^ at that time, 


might have been attended with the iiM»t fenaidablt 

Had the pretestant eondoctotii of the Society of 
United Imhmen, towards the close of the year seven- 
teen hundred and ninety-two, sncceeded in their at* 
tem\ii to overawe the government by their intended 08« 
tentatiotra display of strength at the appointed general 
muster of the national guards, whidi appeared to ba 
the object they had then most immediately in view» 
sndtfaenGe to proceed by slow and cautions, but bold« 
er and bolder measures to effect a revolution, the prin^ 
cipals of ^le Romanists, who were also members of that 
association, would have had opportunity to put in ex« 
eeetton their own scheme whatever it might be. Ba 
that 89 it may, the lower daas of Romanists appear 
eridently to have aimed at nothing less than the exclu^i 
tive establishment of their own system of religious 
worship. Enraptured by the hopes of so desirable a 
shange, they could not conceal their sentiments. An 
alarming ferment rapidly prevailed. Songs, scurri- 
lomly abusive of the protestant religion, were public* 
ly sung in the streets, and by tiplers in pnblic houss. 
In seventeen hundred and ninetythree, a considerabla 
body of insurgents, with a design to liberate some pri* 
ssners confined in the goal of Wexfbrd, assembled and 
tnmultuously attacked that town. Though they were 
in number about two thousand, and though they were 
spposed by the fire of about only thirty-fire soldiers, 
yet, so little had they been used to meet an arnied ene- . 
»y, so grossly deficient were they in military skill, that 


they were repulsed with considerable slaughter. In 
this futile attempt major Vallottony a brave and wor- 
thy soldier, was slain on the part of the king^s troops. 
Several other trifling insurrections, particularly about 
the collieries in the counties of Kilkenny and Wexford, 
were suppressed with ease. 

Many of the heads of the Romanists are said to have 
regretted * the loss of this opportunity of striking 
home by a general insurrection, when government was 
.not prepared for the blow. In the year seventeen hun- 
dred and ninety-iive, however, an ample field was 
opened to their hopes of success. By order of their 
permanent committee, petitions, on a model by them 
prescribed, were addressed by the whole body to par- 
liam^at, demanding the complete emiancipation of the 
catholics. Earl Fitzwilliam, the lord lieutenant, an 
associate of Edmund Burke, was a bitter enemy to 
the French republicans ; and though the Romanists 
of Ireland chiefly depended on them for assistance in 
a revolution for the establishment of their church ; yet 
by a strange infatuation (unless we suppose he him- 
self to have been tinctured with papacy) was he stre- 
.nuously attached to the latter. Before, however, he 
could gratify their wiiihes, he was superseded by the 
earl of Camden as lord lieutenant. The- discontents 
were consequently rapidly, augmented ; many sediti- 
ous speeches and resolutions, by authority, of the com- 
ra\ttee» were published ; the Romanists were invited 
to assemble at a chapel in Dublin^ and disturbances 
cyery where increased. 

Snch was the ditappointinent of the Rommistoi and 

sruch the implacable resentment wtth which the lower 

dasses among them were inapired agaiot their protea« 

tant feilow-stibjecta, and the gofemmeut by which 

they covcetTed themsehrea so grievoualy oppressed^ 

that they proceeded immediately to plunge into the 

greatest esceaaea. The deatractire rage of a partj 

calling themaelyea defenders^ in particular, manifested 

itself by the desolation of many parts of the kingdom^ 

especially in the counties of Duhlin, Meath, West* 

uieathj Kildare, KiogV and Queen's Counties, Louth, 

Armagh, Monaghan* Caran, Derry, Donegal, Roa* 

common, Leitrim, Longford, Sligo, and part of that 

of Down* The hoasea of proteatants were plundered 

fur the purpose of procuring arma, often burned ; and 

not nnfrequently auoh of their inmates as made any 

resistance were slain. Such of th«r aggrieved country* 

men as daned to prosecute, or to assist the civil roagt«> 

ttmcy in the execotion of the laws, were barbarously 

massacred* The cattle were most imprudently and 

inhamanly houghed or destroyed, and letters, threa« 

tening these and other most direful effects of their re« 

sentment, were wrote to compel persons to comply 

with their requisitions* The peaceable inhabitants 

were compelled to abandon their houses, in many of 

the diaturbed districts, and to fly, in all the wildness, 

trembling, and^ agony, of affright and consternation, 

to their respactire county towns, or to the metropolia^ 

for refage. 

On ^e arrivd of lord Gamden aa goYemor [Apri^ 


179s] he was immediately waited on by the officers of 
state, and by many of the nobility and gentry. But m 
the return of the lord chancellor, his carriage was tu- 
multuously attacked by the mob. The machine was 
nearly battered to pieces by repeated vollies of stones, 
and it was with the utmost difficulty his lordship «- 
capedy after receiving a severe contusion on the fore- 
head. After assaulting the primate in the same' out- 
rageous manner, the same party, proceeded with ala- 
crity to the house of Mr John Claudius BeresfonJ, ne- 
phew to the marquis of Waterford, which they vigo- 
rously attacked. One of them, however, being killed 
by a shot, the remainder fled with precipitation* 

During this universal agitation, the United Irishmeo 
were assiduously employed in bringing over to their 
views persons of activity and literary talents through- 
out the kingdom ; in disseminating the popular work of 
Tomas Payne iutitled The Rights of Man^ and other 
similar publications, and even began to assume with- 
out disguise, a decided revolutionary character. The 
declaration presented to each member for signature 
on his b^ing admitted into this society was *' I * » * * 
" in the presence of God, do pledge myself to ray 
*' country, that I will use all my abilities and influ- 
" ence in the attainment of an impartial and adequate 
** representation of the Irish nation in parliament ; and, 
" as a means of absolute and immediate necessity in 
" the establishment of this chief good of Ireland, I 
" will endeavour as much as lies in ray ability to for- 
*^ ward a brotherhood of agection, an identity of inter 


" ests, a communion of rigbtS) and a union of power, 
" among Irishmen of all religious persuasions, with- 
" out which every reform of parliament must be {)artial 
'^ not national ; inadequate to the wants, delusive to 
*^ the wishes, and inaufficient for the freedom and ' 
" happiness of this country." In the new test, or oath 
of admission, which they now adopted, however, theii 
ultimate iutentions were more openly avowed, " In 
** thcawfdl presence of Ainighty God, I » * ♦ * do 
" voluntarily declare that I will persevere in endea- 
" voariog to form a brotherhood of affection among 
" Irishmen of every religious persuasion ; . and I will ' 
** also persevere in my endeavours to obtain an equal, 
" full, and adequate representation" (the mention of a 
parliament is here carefully omitted) " of a// the people 
** of Ireland. I do further declare that neither hopes, 
" fears, rewards, or punishments, shall ever induce • 
** me directly or indirectly, to inform on or give evi- 
" dence against any member or members of this or 
" similar societies ; for any act or expression of theirs 
" done or made collectively or individually, in or out 
" of this society, in pursuance of the spirit of this ol>- 
*' ligation.'* In their original declaration are the fol- 
lowing words : '* In the present great aera of reform, 
" when unjust governments are falling in every quar- 
" ter of £urope ; when religious persecution is com- 
" pelled to abjure her tyranny over conscience ; when 
'* the rights of men are ascertained in theory, and that 
" theory substantiated by practice ; when antiquity 
•' can no longer defend absurd and oppressive forms 
" agaiastthe common sense andxommon interests of 


<m the twenty-fourth of August. Many of the soldiers 
on that day deserted from thetr regiments, and joined 
the insurgents ; and a mob who. met the castle gaard 
on Essex-bridge, were so confident of being joined by 
the party, that one of their leaders made, an attempt 
to wrench the celonrs from the officer who bore them, 
•s a signal for a general insurrection. Another monnt- 
id on the bridge, and began in an inflammatory ha- 
vangue, to exhort the populace to. rise and take arms; 
but was silenced by a blow from the sword of a dra- 
goon, which inflicted on him* a most desperate wound. 
Another dragoon, however, who was dispatched with 
intelligence to the lord lieutenant, wa^ seized and 
beaten, and narrcfwly escaped . meeting with imme- 
diate death. This intemperate and premature zeal of 
the insurgents was attended with consequences highly 
injurious to their own cause; for, had they deferred 
the execution of their plot till night, it is probable 
that they would have acquired an absolute command 
of the city. 

On the twenty-fifth of March, seventeen hundred 
^ and ninety-five, the following paragraph appeared in 
the Northern Star ; a newspaper apparently conduct- 
ed by the master of no common pen, and admirably 
adapted to forward the views of the United Irishmen : 
at least so far as regarded constitutional reform : . ** It 
** cannot but be matter of proud exultation to t)|e so- 
** cieties of United Irishmen, that the whole people of 
** Ireland, with exceptions scarcely worth mentioning, 
^' are now of those very opinions which they broached 


" three years ago ; and which were then considered 
^ by the wt&e, the constitutional , the moderate, and 
** tile cautious, as symptoms, not only of madnestf» 
*^ but even of wickedness in the extreme,** 

The aesoetation, meantime, extended in Dublin 
and the northern counties, with a rapidity equally asto- 
luabiBg* and unprecedented. The ministerial measure 
of a war with France, a measure extremely unpopular 
10 the British empire, and undertaken apparently con- 
trary to the dictates of reason, sound policy, and even 
of right, lidded greatly to the number of malecontents 
in both islands, and particularly contributed to the 
successful acquisition of fresh members to the society. 
This predisposition to union was increased by the dis- 
orderly and rapacious conduct of the soldiers, an evil 
of great magnitude; but which had most uowise))F 
been suffered to proceed in a trfun of growing enor- 
loity, without one salutary attempt at restraint* Dur- 
iug the march of troops, on chiinge of quarters, they 
Were suffered most unjustly to carry to unreasonable 
distance the horses of farmers and peasants, which 
they seized jTor the conveyance of. baggage ; and also 
to abuse them without mercy, unless considerations 
in money were given by their owners to procure better 
treatment. Carts were frequently lost or destroyed, 
and various other inconveniencies incurred, to the great 
detriment of tillage. On a halt, the military spread 
themselves over the adjacent country, seizing every 
horse with which they met, not to 8up|>ly their own ne* 
cesaities^ but to enforce payment ot money lor their 


velease*. The practice of accommodatiDg soldiers by 
liilletug, neas asiso attended with elTects most giieirous 
and distressing. 

The militia bUl was a further cause of much discoD" 
tent. That the raiung Orf adefeiij&ive army by bitilot 
is an expedient attended by many salutary coase- 
queocesy and that may in many instances be uoavoid* 
able, cannot be detiied ; but it i^ an expedient tliat 
/>nght as seldom as i^ossible to be reported to ; and when 
it is, might surely be so ameliorated, as by provisions 
to make the iavotuntary soldier feel as lightly as possi- 
ble the change in hi$ situation. It is a melancholy con- 
sideration that 4naay thousands of industrious, well 
disposed, and highly ^useful members of the communi- 
ty, thus compelled to enter into a sphere of life iu 
which iheiff affe too apt to consider themselves as es- 
tranged from the rest of their countrymen, have, by 
this degrading consideration, by the x:onse%uent de- 
basement of every sentiment of dignity, by the state 
of almost abject slavery to which ipilitary men are re- 
duced, and by the pernicious examples of others, been 
returned to society depraved in their mfurals, bereft of 
all manly prmciples, halatuated to indolence and in- 
clined to debauchery, and ready to perpetrate any 
crime, however great, rather than endeavour to sup- 
port theiiistflves by that honest industry in which they 
bad formerly spent their time. This bill enacted that 
each man ballotted to bear arms should be compelled 
to enlist for a term not exceeding four years^ to find a 
substitute, or to pay a £ue. Many, iitiable to pay 



premiums fersnbstitiites) sustaiDed the tetzare and fbr« 
feitnreof th^r goods. Others venting their indigna« 
tion against a measure which they conceived to be most 
unjust and oppressive, in expressions rather incempe« 
rate, were committed to goal ; and nearly all joined in 
execreting what at first view appeared to thera to 
strike at the last root 6f the personal liberty of the 
subject. ' 

Vol. L B b 



The heads of the United Society, not relying 
wholly on its own strength, had applied to the French 
government for assistance^ and in April seventeen hun- 
dred and ninety-six, received a promise to be assisted 
by an iovasion of French troops, in order to subvert 
the power of Britain, and to procure a political separa- 
tion of the sister inland from her. 

The vigilance of the -government enabled it to pene-^ 
trate this plan of internal hostility and external alli- 
ance ; and the most effectual measures to circumvent it 
were takpji into consideitition* As the existins^ laws 
were inadequate to put a stop to the evit, new and ex- 
traordinary powers were vfested in the executive part oF 
the administiation. By. suspending the Habeas Cor- 
pus Act in particular, Or in other words by suspendingF 
the privileges entailed upon the subject by the consti^ 
tnt'on, the revolutionists were many of them consi- 
derably deranged and intimidated ; the civil magi— 
fetrutti being by that means empowered to seize on the 


persons of suspicious indinduals, without assigning any 
reason why» and to retain them in ccistody without be* 
ing obliged to bring them to trial, during an indefinite 
period. But the most effectual blow levelled at the re« 
TolntioBtsts was, the passing of a law termed the In* 
surrection Act, in the the spring of seventeen hundred 
and ninfrty-six : it was most immediately intended to 
arrest the progress of the defenders, who infested the 
counties of Roscommon^ I^eitrim, Longfordi Meath, 
and Kilkenny, robbing the peaceable inhabitants dur- 
ing the ^mght of their arms, and frequently of their 
money and most valuable eifects. The lord-lieutenant 
meoandlwas by means of it authorized to proclaim » 
OB the requisition of seven of its magistrates assem- 
bled at a sessionBof the peace, any particular county 
«r diatriet in a state of insurrection, which thereby em- 
powered the magistrates to seize, imprison, and senijL^ 
aboard. his M t mj e tiij' s fleet,^ any persons who might be 
fonpd at^^Mikc^fal assemblies, or actfhg in any man« 
ner whatsoever that might disturb the tmnquiUity of the. 

In. consequence of this law, many diatricts in the 
north were proclaimed, and numbers of the poorer dis- 
affected inhabitants conyeyed on board the king^sship^ 
A great many in respectable situations of life, being 
privately informed against as members of the conspira- 
cy, were arrested and committed to prison, where se- 
veral lay for a considerable time, without being brought 
to trial. This unhappily gave too many opportunities 
for the e^rcise of private revenge. 
Bb 2 


A trial of otreagth seamed 04>v to bi^ve iak^ pbce 
bfiwren IKk Society of United Irish ai^I the gov^v* 
Kent* . Any vigorous measure eoforctid oo th£ osm 9^€ 
wa» immediately opposed by the one which ^biwld 
serve at ao antidote to the other. The lower ebi^ctfi 
<tf the ««9oei«tio& began now to f arnith theoiselvea mtk 
anna, ' by aisembUogy like the defendera^ and ploM'' 
4erii)g the hoaxes of 'all tbo»e who^i they imagined iA> 
be disaffected to their cause* G,rea^ parties {aii}ouat<^ 
ing sometimes to alvenJ tfaouaa&ds)^ assembled on the 
Hiost trivial oQcasioDs and pretexta, io or^er 1^ acquire 
8 fturiUty of repairing to places of rendeevou^ to e»eon» 
mgie their own party» and to dtsoonmgtt tMr adrena- 
rita. "Bnherf and menaces were employed to letad the 
epMcntion of the laws* Magistrates who exerted tbom- 
selves to stiflethe members of the conspiracy were peis« 
^ggSgatedjwi tJKHi t BAercy» and sometiinca ev«o assaosi* 
8«ted» The same mea^ires WiP^ adoptcd^sbgauidS wk^ 
neeses who appeared against thei» io couriy and jnrocs 
who fottikd them gmky. 

Notwithstanding a proclamation i^ued on the sixth 
of November, seventeen Hundred and ninety-she, - by 
the )ard4ietttenanty strietly commanding alt magi* 
strates and loyal subjects to nse th^ir best endeavours 
A»r the prevention and punishment of all treasoo able 
proceedYRg9> and notwithstanding the military had 
been previously ordered toaseist the civil officers i« the 
execution of this duty ; yet the United Irish in Ulster 
would haveobtaioed a general insarrectioii in the norths 
had the troops embarked at Btest for the invasion of 



Ireland effected their debarkation at Bantry bay, oa 
the coast df wbicfa they arrived in the end of December* 
But this annamenty stated to have contained fifteen 
tfaoTisand men, was dispersed by a storm* and the at* 
tempt rendered abortive. The association in Ukter^ 
also, was for the present completely checked by the 
prompt proceedings of the king*s troops ; who collect* 
ed vast quantities of rebel aras» and by the prudent o^ 
fer of pardon to all who would surrender witlun agiveil 
time. The inferior societies in general discontinued 
their meeting. Ulster ceased to be completely represent* 
ed iQ tbfi proviacial commitee* and order wa» to r^stoi^ 
ed tbroQg)ioiEit the provitice^ that the execution of the 
law, by the end of Angu^i^ uu^ia^neral restoced ta 
the dnl power, the longer interference. q£ tbe inllR4^ 
ry heiog fi>iwi4 unoece9s«rr» 


W^HILE the society of United Irishmen received 
so severe a check iu the northern counties, it wat ex* 
tendinST with Was^f sfrtdea its improved system of orga- 
nization in those of the south ; in order thoroughly to 
understand the nature of which, it wilt be neceiisarj 
to review also its complete civil structure. ' 

This organization & men, associated for the osten- 
sible purpose of procuring a constitutional reibnn t^ 
government, was effected by the following very 8ur» 
prising scheniie :— -It consisted of an immense number 
of societies, "linked closely together, and asceodinf^ 
•• in gradation, like the component parts of a pyramid 
•^ or cone, to a common apex or point of union,*' 
The inferior societies at firet consisted of thirty-six, 
but were afterwards reduced td twelve mensibers; as 
nearly as possible of the same neighbourhood. When- 
ever they exceeded that number, the &uperabQnda.iit 
members were dismissed, with orders to make fresh 
proselytes, and to form thereby a new society. £acrh 


sonety chose a secretary and treasurer, and five secre« 
taires formed what was called a lower baronial com.* 
mittee, which had the im.sediate direction and super** 
intendance of the five societies who contributed to its 
institution. From each lower baronial committee 
thns constituted, one member out of the. five was de- 
legated to an upper baronial committee, which in like 
manner assumed and exercised the superintendance 
and direction of all the lower baronial committees in 
the several counties. The next superior committees 
were, in populous towns, distinguished by the name 
of district committees, and in counties, by the name 
of county committees, and were composed of mem- 
bers delegated by the upper baronials. Each upper 
baroaia] committee delegated one of its members to 
the district or county comniiittee, and these district or 
county committees had the superiutendanee and direc* 
tion of all the upper baronials who contributed to 
their institution. 

Having thus organized the several counties and po- 
pulous towns, a subordinate directory was erect e^l in 
each of the four provinces, composed of two or three 
members, according to the extent and population of 
the district which they represented, who were dele- 
gated to a provincial committee, and had the imme- 
diate direction and superintendance of the several 
county and district committees in each of the four prp- 
vinces ; and a gener^id exiTutlve directory, composed 
of five persions only, was elected by the provincial di- 
rectories, to whom the supreme and uncontrolled 


<!iDmmaDcl of the wb^le of this comptejc Tttachine was 
<!oniinitted. Tlie election of these five dWectors was 
Conducted in a very ttingular manner. They were bal- 
loted from the fn-embers Of the provincial committees, 
the flecretaries of which alone knew the f>er60nsoQ 
whom the election devolved, and notified the ap- 
pointment to no one except to the directors themselves. 
The manner of commnnicating ttie orders issued by 
this hidden direclirtg power, was peculiarly dsdculated 
to baAe all attempts at discovery^ being conveyed by 
not very easily discoverable chains Of communication 
through the whole orgiftnized.body. One member 
alone of the executive communicated to the secretary 
of ^ach pi'ovincial committee the mandates of himself 
and his colleagues ; by each secretary the order was 
transmitted severally to the secretaries of the district 
and comity committees ; by the latter to those of the 
tipper baronial committees ; from the upper baronial to 
those of the lower baronial committees ; and by them 
they were communicated to the twelve members of 
their respective inferior or simple societies. 

The military organization of this artfulTy-cotsatltnted 
union, was engrafted on that of the civil. The secret 
tary of each subordinate society was appointed its nonn 
commi<<sioned officer, serjeant or corporal, having ^ 
military command over twelve men; the delegate of 
five simple societies to a lower baronial committee was, 
for the most part, captain of these five, that is, of a 
company of sixty men;* the delegate of ten lower baJ 
ronial Committees to an upper or district cdtntditteeJ 


^na generally cdkmel, ercofninaiiderof « body oftix 
hoDdredraeii» composed of tfae fifty simple societies 
iiDder the direction tif this upper committee. Tlie co» 
lonels of battalieiis in each county transmitted to 
^he executive direct<H'y the name6 of three persons of 
the union* one of whom was by them appointed adj vrtant- 
^neral of the county, whose doty it was to receive 
and communicate military orders from the directory 
to the ct^onels of battaUons» and in general t6 act as 
-officer of the revolutionary staff. They were obliged 
to inform theasselves of Hie state of the rebel regiments 
witfafB their respective districts, and to report the 
'same to the principals ^ the union ; together with the 
Aumber of mills, 1^ roads, rivers, bridges, and lords* 
the military positions, the capacity of the towns and 
tillages to receive troops, to communici^e every move^ 
tnentofthe enemy ^meaning th^ kings troops) ; to an« 
nouttoe the first appearance of their allies, the French i 
and immediately to collect their force. The plan of 
irarlike preparatioo was completed by the appointment 
«f a military committee, who were to devise the Inost 
efipectual means of assisting th^^rench, or, in case of 
an unaaded rebellion, to direct the exertion of the na« ' 
tional force. The directory issued orders that every 
person, connected with the association, who could*, 
fihould furnish himself with fire*arms and ammunitionp 
and if circumstances would not allow that, to provide 
himself with a pike ; and that monthly subscriptions^ 
according to the Zi^al and ability of the members^ 
ftbould be collected in the societies, in order to form a 
fund for the expeaces of the assodation* The nume» 
You L C c 


rous emissaries dispatched throughout thekiDgdotn 
for the purpose of extending the union, were support- 
ed from this fund. These emissaries were instructed 
to address themselves to, and to rouze^ by erery pogsi* 
ble means, the passions, the prejudices, the hopes, 
and the fears, of the lower classes with whom they 
had commuaion. ' 

The Northern Star, and another newspaper, intitled 
the PresS'— former published in Belfast, the latter 
in Dublin — together with the Union Siar^ notwithstand* 
Uiglthe greatest precautions taken by the government 
to circumscribe the publicati<fh^of inimical literary 
productions, continued to empk^ ev^ry m^ans in their 
power to injiame the public discontent. The Union 
Star which Was privately printed, and circulated with 
the greatest industry, besides being pasted frequently 
on the walls, that as many as possible might have m 
opportunity of catching its spirit, was conducted in a 
manner which the following extract may convey some 
ideaof to our readers :-~ 

** Let the indignation of man be raised against the 
•* impious wretch who profanely assumes the title of 
** reigning by the grace of Gody and impudently tells 
•* the world he can do no wrong*— Irishmen 1 Is grant- 
** ing a patent, and offering premiums to murdcTers, to 
*< depopulate your country, and take your properties, 
•* no wrong ? Is taking part of the spoil, no wrong ? 
' •* Is the foreign despot incapable of wrong, who 
*• shsgrpens the sword that deprives you of life, aiid ex- 


** poftes yourxhiWren to poverty and all its consequent 
•'calamities? O maul or rather lesSf O Viug'l 
•* will the smothered groeins of my countrymen, whb 
** in thy name fillth^inxlamerable dungeons you haVe 
" made, for asserting the rights of man, be considered 
" no wrongs ? Will enlightened Irishmen believe you 
'* incapable of wrong, who^offefup the most amiable 
*' of mankind daily on the scaffold. Or the gibbet, to 
** ttiy insatiable ambition ? Is burning the villages Of 
^' what you call your people, and shooting the trem* 
** bhng sufferers, no wrocfg ? Is taking the church 
*' into pajtnefdhTp, and «ttcotara^ng its idle voluptuous 
'^ drones to despoil industry of its- reward, and teach a 
** lying doctrine to sanctibn their injustice, no wrong ? 
*^ Aretfaetro&^vud wars you engender and provoke, to 
^ destroy mankind, no wroi^ ? Ga, itnpioiM hlaspfh4« 
** mer, and yoUt hypocritical sorcerers, to the fate, 
^^ philosophy, justice, and liberty, consign thee. It 
** is inevitable ; thy impositions are detected. Thy 
^•kiudhav^ been brought to justice; The first pro* 
** fessor of thy trade has recently bled for the crimes of 
•* the craft : his idle and vile followers, who escaped the 
^ national axe, are walking mimiorials of justice, beg^ 
** S»^nS *^ uiiserable. livelihood over those countries, 
** whose tottering thrones^ encourage but an uncertain 
** asylum. Ere- the grave, which ie opening for thy des-^ 
" pieed person embosoms thee, make one atonement 
'' for the vices of th} predecessors ; resist not the claims* 
" of a people reduced, to every misery 'r in thy name 
** give back the properties that thy nation wrested 
** from a suffering people ; and let the descendants 
C c 2 


^ of those Engliih ruffim restove to IriiihmeB.ldieir 
'^cOjBDtfy, ondto tbeir ,co«ntiy, liberty: ^tis rather 
^ late to trifle ; one fbrtaoate^ breeve may do it i 
** iU)d then» woe to bim who wai a tyrant) or who m- 

♦* HI^IMt I" 

Of the Pre88» which was ioterdicted under a new 
act of perliainenty the foUovsiug may serve as a spe- 

** The rule of right is a n;^ ;lbat iir morals should 
<* never vary ; bvt^in these Idnc^ins to preach up rm^ 
««€i^iir»i is the best mie ; and the wisdom of govern^ 
«*tpieo( projiects tbiqse.who epibrace. this right side 
«< of the question, while it pxuushes with eqfxaX recti- 
<* tude ^^ifi^ J(vh<» oiaint4in that a repuhlk i» the ooly 
\^* right forp of gpreffjosent ; — L^et us apply this rule 
<< to the eontinenV^ France is not a nation of fools ; 
<< and sone lucnQiig them have as mv^ch souse (God fbc- 
•* give them) as ♦ * ♦ ♦ t,-^bnt no matter. The fooU 
** pf France tell you that monarchy ia a coat of anns» 
<< whose sapporters are the church ^d thearktocraey-— 
<< its crest» the bloody hand— and its motto, Odi pro^ 
**fiman pvlgus ; hot that democmcy, not possessing 
V these rampant wits is the, aegis of vyiiKlnm, whose 
*< right rule should govern the world* Now these are 
** tvio rules ^ rights both pronounced to be the very 
'* best for the government of man^ and each declared 
*' superior to the other in excellence ; yet a man shal 
*• be punished alternately for observing this or that, ac-- 
** cording to the air which he breathes*'' 


TWsuiipTesnoti of these fMtpere tbwards the end of 
seventeeii Imndred and nfnety-«even having deprived" 
tbe headsof theUmon of so valuable a channel of com* 
manicationy at a tune when tfw peasantry in the mid- 
dle and southern counties were generally preparing for 
insurrection, hand-bills were substituted as the meant* 
of conveying intelligence. By these and by verbal 
messages, instructions were conveyed through the 
ivholebody of the association to abstain totally from the 
use of spirituous liquors* In one of them, after bint* 
ing at a speedy insurrection is the following :— . 

s , 

" In the preparative interim let sobriety be national 
" and unchangeable ; by abstaining totally from the' 
** use of spntiious' Hqnors you will destroy the excise, 
** which 18 the only branch of revenue remaitmig^ 
'' whence ia produced ^e principal strengtk of govern'* 
'^ment; you will prevent the distiHation of grain, 
" which ceuMimes near double the quantity that is other- 
**wise used for the necessaries of life ; you will conse* 
** quently make bread one-third cheaper, benefit the 
'^ comameSty, and embairass your enemies/* 

This «>rder was obeyed ta a degree no less sur- 
prisingthan unexpected. From habits of drunkenness 
and debauchery, the people suddenly became perfect* 
Ij sober and eautious of taating drink ; a strong proof 
ofthesiiieerity of theu'^ttachment to tbeit cause. Ano* 
Iker order, communicated biy hand-biUs, instructed 
them to reffaio Mok thepurchase of the quit«rents of 
Cc 3 


the crown r by which they hoped to embarnus gPYem- 
nent aod prevent the raking of snppliea :— » 

" Whereaa it has been psopofed by Hke-dtmcelbr of 
'* A£ exchequer to sell the fiiif rents of the crownf in or- 
** der to raise new supplies lor the proAe«iitioi» of thi9 
«< unjust* Kuinecessoffy* and nunovs war : now w^^the 
" United Irishnien, impelled by a sense of fniblicdnty,. 
'* and sincere regard to the r^bts o( p»op«i!ty^'thiDk 
** fit to give you this public C8i^ti.^Qi, that no such firau- 
** dulent traDsaction, eoosuoiing by imliiBi(M|tion the 
^* resources and fntvre revenues of the nation^ will*be 
<' sufficient to stand good in the event of a revohitioQ 
** and a fiiee legislature ; a ftur and solid bargahsi.saii6t 
** have the sanction ol^ due authority : but this, as well 
<< as every other loan or contract, now in ag»tation> is iu 
** itself invalidated by the nefwousness of its object, 

. ** and the iucompetoacy of the present porliaraent to 
«< bind the nation by any act whatsoever, asi& lA note- 
*^ rions to the whole world tha^ it was nasnied by the 
** crown under Ae terr&rs of murti^ hm ;. that there 
** exists in it no freedom of acUoi(-«4iut. that it is 
** the bought base instrument of supporting an exter- 
^ minating governn^ent and foreign doounian. 4ft^^ 

' ** iliiSi lett^e dupes blame tkemsekfee*'* 

The attempts of the heads of the Union to piievent 
the circulatipn of baak-notes> however, proved unauc- I 
cessfuK Bank-notes being legul pay menk^ the refusal 
to take thetn as suchy cancelled the debt : such as de- 
clined parting with their goods for them were liable to 


be faeatrily inwieoed hf ihxi qwrUnag oi wMk^t^ 'm 

their houses* 

*^ ThMe 9^ffoiaMk by yf it to snperinteBdycmr kite^ 

*' restet bave frtm time to time sent you such sdvice 

" orinlbviDM^ioii a« they were envied* from reflection 

^ or ifiqiury» to oAr for yoor advantage ond the geoe* 

«^iBlgo0d. StiH Actuated by tbe aow^ pripciple of 

^^ jeal iaad fidelity, tbey deem it their duity to ca«4ioR 

^'^Ottdgvmnt.tbf iouiieose quoblity of bamk-notes^ 

'*< wMi^govieromeftlift&ibficatiog without, b^^ Wo 

.*** ileed.»o£ tdll you tbol Ibe value of oay boaU-oote 

'^* reiC»«qpoD die cndk of bim wbp iBanea it. And m 

^ Mt opimon the issoev of thi» pa^er U a baakropt 

** who» in ail UkeKbood» must ahortlj shut up oad 

** rm tEwa^M The jfMresent conveQieaco of circo* 

■ ^ latioa viil be but poor amends, {or the aobsequent 

^ b^^(ary and rain it m\i\ bring oo the ^hiodders ; fot 

** yoa \mm that it will be waate-paper>. and muat atop- 

*^ soine whero, as soon as there is a ImraU and that tfao 

'^ posae^sor (God k^^ him J will be robbed of so muck 

*^ propeftf da be has takeait foc^'* ^ 

To Aeae aiere added soMcitationa fts^ eshorlatioiio 
to tbo army to revolt from their allegiance, Altempta 
of thb kind had been made so early os the year seven- 
teen hundred and ninety-two^ but had been generally 
abortive* Onev^f themt dated the twenty-^seyettlh 
of Maircbi seventeen himdrod and ni^e^-eighi# aiui 
aigjied Shamr^c, runs aa follows :-^ 

•* My conntrymenj what can you say when you hear 




•f of scenes of blood acting on the spot were your fmtiYe 
** hamlets once 6tood, hut now n^ more : their owners^ 
'* your friends, either sent to seek repose in the gra^e by 
^ the hands of these viiranous Orange mnrderei^, or 
** immured in the damp and dreary dungeons of the 
** bastiles of this country : pining in chii> despondency^ 
** waiting for a trial seldom obtained » and when oli- 
«* tained, acquitted, after years of dreary solitary con* 
<< finement ! ! Some hurried on board prison-ships-r- 
** some actually transported to the settlements on the 
•* coast of Afrtca— others sent to serve in the West In- 
•• dies, certain victtms to the climate, or left to rot, 
cf" chained- in the hold of a frlthy eoasting Tessel ! Your 
*« wives despoiled to gratify lihe tnsatidble lust of these 
«* ravishers I — And these scenes,, my countrymen, suf- 
** fered to go unpunished by those in power, whom 
•* you protect ; to whof«e frowns your array adds ter- 
f« ror J to whom you give your support : for unless j'ou 
♦* please, they vanish J without your protection these 
*^ despots fall— these desolators, that each day refine 
*• on such bloody deeds, would perish, and your coun- 
** try be free* My brave countrymen ! do not let the 
** world call us dastards : no, let us shew the world we 
"are men, and, above all, that we are Irishmen. 
** Let every, man among yoU' feel the injuries )'our 
" country, yourselves, have suffered ; the insults you 
** have received, the stripes that have been dealt with 
*^ an unmerciful hand on those bra^e comrades who 
** dared to think and feel for their country— If you do, 
** the glorious work will be complete, and in the union- 
" of the citizen and his brave fcllow-soldier, the world 



** (bidiertotaiiglitti^lookdowa upon us with 96atempt). 
^ will «ee th^ we can .toMMieipate our country ; we will^ 
** coiivhice surromiding nations that Irish soldiers h^ve 
" avowed and adopted a maxim they wHl maiDtain, or 
'* peiish-«imme1y, that every man shoukl be a saldieit 
^ m defence of his Kbertyy but n<m€ to take away 
•^ the /a«f^ of others J* 

C H A P. ir. 

Since the failure of the Frencli espedrtioiS ta Ban^ 
try, which we' have already mentioned, the directory 
had continued to keep up the spirits of their party 
with assurances of speedy assistance from the same 
power. To expedite »the departure of this seco nd 
armatnent,^ Mr Lewins, a confidential agent pf the 
Union, t»as dispatched to Paris with the most pressing 
solicitations. Leaving London in* March, seventeen^^ 
hundred and ninety-seven, he passed through Ham- 
burgh, and arrived about the end of May in Paris, 
where he remained as ambassador from the Irish Re- 
public to the French Directory. In the summer of 
the same year, alarmed lest a premature insurrection 
jn the north, before the arrival of the troops from 
France, should be forced by the vigorous conduct of 
government in Ulster, they sent Doctor William 
James M'Nevin, an active member and secretary of 
the ruling power, in June, with orders to press for- 
ward the French preparations with redoubled ardouu 


Tliedifiicikltyof pFocnring a passport at Hftmburgh* 
induced this gentleman to deliver a memorial to an 
agent of tbe French republic whom he met there, and 
by whom it was forwarded to the directory at Paria^ 
nvhere be himself^ having been permiUed to coatrattc 
his journeys afterwards delivered a second* lu the 
farmer of these memorials, the firm resolutions of the 
Irish revoltttiooists, and their great anxiety lest the 
measures of government should disconcert their pro- 
jects were couspicuoofi* In it weie also made a state- 
meat of the situation of the United Irish and of the 
condition ef the kingdom at large, for the reception 
of their allies ; a promise, of reimbursing the French 
republic for the expeace she might incur, not only in 
fitting out the arpiament now demanded, but also 
what she had incurced for- the former whic-h miscar- 
ried; and A demand of a body of troops not exceeding 
ten thousand men^ nor falling short of 6 re thousand, 
together with forty thousand stand of arms, and a pro- 
portionate supply of artillery, ammumtioo, engineers^ 
and experienced ofiicers, for the use and instruction 
of the insurgents. The second memorial endeavoured 
to prevail on the French not to delay in sending off 
tiiese suce^urs, when the minds of the Irish were so 
favourably disposed towards them. The agent was 
also authorised to negotiate a loan of half a million, or 
at least three hundred thousand pounds, with France 
or Spain«' in which, however, he failed- The assist- 
ance of a military force was nevertheless conceded. 

Though the Irish were so solicitous to obtain a sup- 


jAy of well disnpliDed troops and experieaccd o£cert> 
^et they were justly alhifd of introdaciiig too gmt % 
hody of foreign troops into ^le kiogdooiy who might 
-at a future period •coatribnte to impose on them a yoke 
still heavier than that which they intended to remove. 
But the French, on the other hand» wished to send so 
great an «rroy as might not only insure the success of 
the enterpnsey but as ml^it enable them to retain 
^possession of Ireland as a conquest. They insisted, at 
«ny rate, on sending fifteen thoosand men, who were 
accordingly embarbed on board a Dutch fleet at the 
Texel, under the ^omximtmd ^'general Daendels. 

On the receipt of this inteltigenee by the Irish, 
igreat preparsttoas were made for their reception; and 
It was announced to the different societies that the 
fleet was on the point of sailing. Notwithstanding the 
troops on board this fleet had been disembarked, from 
fear of the British navy, which was then superior in 
>strength ; yet they wene .again forced, at the instance 
■of the French directory, to put to sea, contrary to the 
judgment of the I>utch admiral, wbicfh led to the de- 
<:isive victory of the gallant admiral Duncan, a Scots- 
man, off Camperdown, witti « squadnon ef British 
•ships under his commands The expence of these ar- 
maments was to have been defrayed by ecde^tiastical 
^nd otSier lands, designed for conflscation by the revo* 

"Even aAer this second disappointmeDt of foreign suc- 
'Qours^ thelieadsof the conspiracy sedulously encou- 


ra^ hopes of fresh assistance; and they in fact re- 
ceived a promise from France that in April an inra* 
sioD shnuld take plaCe in their Ikvoiir: but notwith- 
«tanding the rebellion broke out in the May following, 
the French government failed in fulhlling this pro- 
mise. . 

In the month of Tebfuary, seveilteen hundred and 
ninety-eight, instructions were issued by the military 
committee to the adjutant-generals, direct;^?g th'em to 
hold" themselves in readiness for open warfare against 
government, and to the several, ^egim en ts coi>ceruing 
their arras and appointments. To extend the organi* 
nation, to increa^^e the quantity of military stored, and 
to consolidate more and more the strength of the con- 
spiracy, continued to be the principal care of its heads 
till the arrival of their allies should take place ; and 
the system of terrot which had been practised in the 
north, was adopted in the south. Arms were plun- 
dered daring the*night, individuals were sometimes 
assassin atet!, and outrage of every^ description put in 

Meantime government was labouring to disorganize 
the whole system ; and to destroy the strength of tlie 
conspiracy before the irrival of their expected allses. 
Forthiseod, some districts, in the northern and midland 
counties were accordingly proclaimed ; m'auy persons 
suspected of tnasoaable designs were imprisoned ; and 
other acts of -power enforced to throw them into con- 
fusion. But the most severe wound inflicted an 
Vol., L D d 


the union was the arrest of the thirteen members com- 
pesin^ the provincial committee of Leinster, vith other 
principals of the conspiracy, at the house of Oliver 
Bond, Bridget-street, Dublin, on the twelfth of March. 
This arrest was grounded on the inform^ttion of Thos. 
Reynolds, a Roman catholic gentleman of a place 
called Kilkea Castle in the county of Kildare, colonel 
4Dfan United Iri«h regimenf, rebel treasurer for the 
county in which he resided, and provincial delegate 
A>r Leinster, who, deserting what he must have con- 
sidered tlie cause of his eountry, had continued for 
sometinM3to disclose, for the use of jgovernment, all 
ke knew of the conspiracy. Intelligence being thus 
given that the Leinster delegates, thirteen in number, 
were to meet at Mr Bond*s on the twelfth of March, 

, justice Swan, at'tended by twelve sergeants in coloured 
clothes, repaired to the sfJot whilst they were sitting 
in council, and sehzed their persons and papers. Tn 
this arrest were included the most able aiid intrepid 
leaders of revolt 5 Thomas Addis 'Emmet, a barrister 
4Df greilt talents, William James M'Ncviri, Messieurs 
^ond, Sweetman, Henry Jackson, and Hugh Jacksoo. 


Found upon John Lynch: hmtd writing of Wiliiam 
Mithael Byrne* 
** The county W w. C — inform their constitu- 
ents that, by the advice they have received from the 
provrocial, it appears that very flattering accouuts 
hjive been received from abroad, v hich will in a very 


tew days be offioially haoded dowB. The provincial 
retttras of men have only increased a /etc thousands 
s'mce the last reports ; as the pew county members 
have not yet come in, in consequence of the new elec* 
tioQs, which each barony- will take noti^ mast be on 
or before the fifteenth of February next. 

** The coanty comne agahx earnestly recommend U>' 
thehr constituent^, to pay no' attention to any flying 
reports^ as they know to a certainty, false emissaries' 
are encouraged to disseminate such liews'as may tend 
to disanite or lead them astray. . 

** The C. C. hear with regret the dissatisfoction of 
the baronial committee of Newcastle, with respect to 
their not being as yet fully supplied with arms,kc.- 
They assure them that every exertion^lias been used to 
that purpose, and that quantities of pikes are now 
ready manufactured for delivery ;'but at the same time' 
would recommend to have as many made as possible - 
in eacb barony, as they will thereby come infinitely 

" Th< county committee cannot be accountable for 
any money in the hands of a baronial treasurer ; and of 
course cannot account for any, but such as has been ' 
paid into them, of which there appears a correct state- 
ment in the retufos. 

•' They feel with (:once1rn the apathy^of their fellow- • 
citizens of the co. W. who refuse so silaall a pittance as ' 
Dd 2 ' . 


one peniti/ per id an 9 to alleviate, in some degree, the 
distresses of their saffering brethren now in W« gaol, 
ivhpre there are many innocent cit. in want of the com- 
mon nebessaiies^cf life; but who, though famishing^ 
scorn to betray the ttust refused in them. 

: " The county cotne Tpform their constituents, th^ 
so fiir from having a -fund ki * Hands, they are ni>w in- 
debted to one.of tl> members (No; 3.] wlio hfts kind- 
ly advanced XQ\, 49. 2d. for the relief of prisoners ; the 
county members are therefore intreated to. forward to 
him, without* dtlay, as much 'mon^ as can be col- 
lected in their respective baronies ;. as' there appears to 
be now. in gaol; from Arklow barony Jhur^ from Shil- 
lelah ^ve, from Ballinacoor fourteen, and one from 
Talbotstown fifieen, and from Newcastle two, in all 
forty-ttcOy without the smallest fund for the ensuing 
.mo* • 


** Resolved, that a subscription be instantly com- 
menced, for the purpose of forming a fund for the em- 
ploying and^ retaining counsel ; which shall be taken 
as a voluntary contribution, according to the circum- 
stances of individuals, to be lodged i^n the hands of a 
treasurer chosen by the' county co. 

" Resolved, that it is. requested that the next meet- 
ing may be yif% a^^encfcd, as there, is business of the 
utmost importance to be taken into consideration. 



**^C. C. Jany. 2«, 1798. 


, prisonerB. 



20 9 IQ 

119 » 

LowD. 706 



•12 10 

3 '35 15 





22 1^^ 







37 19 

3 83-5 



35 15 


19 6 

5 162 3 4 



13 15 

_ *• 


• .. 



8 2 

85 10 

11 245 4 8 



719 3i 

__ or 1 A 11 

Rest to 


■"■ 00 iU 11 

18800 162 3 4 

___ fEA t*9 K. 

►— • 159 17 5 • 

73 4 6 1 

38 18 


73 4 



P. s. 


• Ps. 


B. lb. P. . 



78 66 




8315 . 75 



85 68 




8050 . 590 



41 • 20 



5965 169 



^ 94 63 




500 '17 


298 216 




22830 761 . 



75 62l 




►At - 





No. L . • 

Hahd'Writifig of John M^Can, 

"I, • do solemnly declare, that I 

came duly elected. . 

Nb. XL 

. Hand-writing of John ]\PCan* 

l^h>February, 1758: 
Kildare - 10863 In Treasurer's hands 20 18 3 
Dd 3 



Brought oTei 


Wkklow . 




Po. City 


Qu^n^B CO. * - 


King's CO. 




Kilkenny . 




SO 18 3 

20 — — 

" Resolved, that the colonels in each county sball 
make out a list of three persons to ]>e acljutants-gene* 
ral for said counties. Tlie lists to be transmitted, 
sealed, either through the provincial; or any other 
authentic channel, to the executive, who will nomi- 
nate one of the three to the employment. 

** Resolved, that our treasurer be allowed tp pay \G 
guineas to the delegate to buy a horse, which, whea 
che entire county is organized, is to be sold, and the 
money paid back into the hands of the treasurer. 

** Resolved, that the ex. commebe requested to ac- 
count for the expenditure of 60 giyneas voted them. 


" Resolved, that jeach co» who have not paid in any 
finance, shall be requested to pay in 70I. immediately, 
except the co. Carlow^ which shall only- pay 40l. 



Hand'tDfitihg noi knoton* 

" I, A. B. do solemnly declare, that I will perforin 
my duty, and be obedient to all the lawful commands 
of my officers, while they act in subordination to the 
d uly-elected com vai ttee* 

Hand'-writhg of John M*Can. 
** Resolvedj that we wilf pay no attention whatso- 
ever to any attempt that may be made by either house 
of parliament, to divert the public mind from the 
grand object we hare in. view,, as nothing short of the 
complete emancipation of our country will satisfy us. 


«0 IS 9 

ftO — . -»• 




In hands- 

W. " 




D. * 

- • 









K. g. 
















^7295 40 18 3 

Ten in the morDing this day three weeks. 

Nft. IV. . 

Hctnd-writing, of John M* Cq:iu 
'*^ Resolved, that it is the opinion of this committee, 
t.hat if the other Ps. be in an ec^ual state of prepara- 



tion as Leinster, as soon as we can procure the iDfoT« • 
matioD of their state, and their determination to act in 
concert with the nation, we should immediately pro- 
ceed to act ; and that the exeve be requested to take 
such steps immediately as will tend most expeditiously 
to bring about an union of the different provs. 

" Resolved, that the select coib« of five be request- 
ed to prepare a military test, to be laid before the 
provl. at the next meeting, for their approbation. 

Extracts from ihepoc^'book of John M^Can^ found 
at Mr. Bond's. 

Pi C. [Provincial Committee.] 

20th February f 1798' 

£20 18 
104 6 





Dublin > 


Do. city 


Queen's co. 


King's CO. 


Caiv'oM^ - 







£145 4 8 


Subscriptions >— 

Feby.gfli, I7g8.- 

Feby. i6th. 

Fcby. 35, 

No. 8 8- 

1 1 1 



S 1 1 



9 2 S| 



4 11 





1 1 



7 . 1. 1 


. 61 


. «i 


9 4 8i ^ 

10 11^*^ 

« 8j fl 9 



6 6 

12 ■ ■ 

. 6i&9 sj 

3 gi 

£107 1' 7 1 - 15 • 

C. C» [Cout>ty committee.] . , 

February igth, 1798. 

1 819 . Sd. 8 111 

f 865 19- 15 I 

3 500 913 6UFour<}ivi8ion8 ofthecity of Dub. 

«i77 £^0^ ^ sj, ; 



u 1 


4 11 



3 19 












1 IS 





1 19 




1 6 



* 70 


19 > 


1 11 




In baadft jC"] i6 o^ 

4 4 

3 3 

4 4 

1 1 

1- 75 

3 Si 

X9 16 ♦ 

D,.C. 8th March, 98. B. C. [BfeTOnial committee/ 

Na 1 



3 6i 




3 3 













15 9 










8 3 




4 9 








11 6 




7 8 




7 8 

SthMsuxb, 179^* 


£2 17 > 









Extract of a letter fotmd upon Oliver Bimd, signed 
H. W. \Hugh WH$ony] dated Cork, 6th, 1798. 

" I have been so cooped up since I came here, that 

Jjad I known the situatitfti of the place, my mind 

iioold never have been so abominably closeted, for any 

emolament that I may derive before a change in the 

present government takes place. 

" Yon can but feintly imagine how things are going 
on here: give the people but. a little time, and rest 
assured the progress science is making will astonish 
the world. The enemies of the human race are much 
iarmed, and the revolt V the Dublin county militia 
'ias increased their fears. Mr Finlay says, they are 
•ill assassins, and he is almost afraid to trust him- 
self with them. I hear they are to be dispersed among 
'lie Highlanders through the country. Numbers of 
iJieachers of the true gospel are better than few, 
aud those dispersed grains may not fall upon rocky 

" When the news came this morning of the Spanish 
fieet being out, the aristocrats seemed happy, saying9 
lieir doom was at hand, Jervis being after them. 

** With best regards to Mrs Bond, and all friends, 

^ I am sincerely yours, 

H. W.'* 


The seizure of these papers betrayed so much of the 
plot to government, and the loss of some of their best 
leaders, threw the society into such consternation, that 
although the vacancies thus made in the directory and 
other committees were instantly filled up, (but by 
men of very inferior abilities) an immediate rising was 
judged necessary to prevent the total overthrow of thf 
system. To prevent as much as possible the fatal 
effects of the despondency into which the memliers 
were thrown, a hand-bill, dated St Patrick's dav. 
March 17» was in the meantime circulated, of which 
we shall give the following extract : — 

<* For us, the keen but momentary anxiety, occa- 
** sionedby the situation of our invaluable friends, sd>- 
** sided, on learning all the circumstances of the case, 
" into a calm tranquillity, a consoling conviction if 
" mind, that they are as safe as innocence can makf* 
** them now; and to these sentiments were quiclily 
** added a redoubled energy* a tenfold activity of ex- 
" ertion, which has already produced the happirsi 
*' effect3. The organization of the capital is perfect . 
*' No vacancies existing, arrangements have \,ee; 
"made, and are still making, to secure for our o|>' 
" pressed brethren, whose trials approach, the beiulV 
** of legal defence ; and the sentinels whom 3-ou bavi 
** appointed to watch over your interests stand firm a 
" their posts, vigilant of events, and prompt to olv. 
" you notice and advice, which, on every occasion u 
" all requiring it, rely on receiving. — ^This recital 
•* Irishmen, is meant to guarcT those of \ou who ar 


^ remote from the scene of the late eventsy against 
" the consequences of misrepresentation and mistake. 
*< The most unfounded rumours have been set afloat, 
** fabricated for the double purpose of delusion and 
*^ intimidation. Your enemies talk of treachery, in 
" the vain and fallacious hope o{ creating it; but you, / 
** who scorn equally to be their dupes or their slaves, 
*• will meet their forgevies with dignified contempt, in- 
=*' capable of being either goaded into untimely vio- 
^* lence, «r sunk into pusilanimous despondency. Be 
*« fircn^ Irishmen — but be cool and cautious; be pa- 
" tient yet a-while; trust to no unauthorised commu* 
** nications ; and above all, we warn you — agaiu and 
•* again we warn you— -against doing the work of your 
** tyrants, by premature, by partial, or divided ex- 
** ertion. If Ireland shall be forced to throw away the 
-«* scabbard, let \i be at her own time, not at theirs." 

Meantime the military committee had digested a 
plan of insurrection which was to take place on the 
twenty-third of May. It was intended to seize Dub- 
lin, the camp at Laughlinstown, and the station of 
artillery at Chapelizod, on that night; in which the 
United in the counties of Dublin, Wicklow, and Kil- 
dare were to act ; and the rebellion being thus cooa-^ 
menced in the metropolis and its vicinity, the north 
and south were to rise immediately on the detention 
of the mail coaches. Government, however, were er- 
ceediugly active in precautionary steps: — On the 
tweaty-eighth of February, Arthur O'Councr, James 
Quigley, John Binns, and two others, were arrested 
Vol. L E e 


at Margate, whil^ preparing to depart for France la 
order to hasten the intended invasion. Great quautl- 
ties of pikes were every night discovered and seized by 
the activity of the magistrates in the metropolis. The 
Jord lieutenant, on the thirtieth of March^ issued a ^ 
proclamation, commanding his majesty's military offi^- 
^jers to employ the forces with the utmost vigour and 
decision. The inhabitants of Dublin were requir- 
ed to give in lists of all strangers who resided in their 
houses^ many of the disaffected having fled thither 
from $iU parts of the kingdom, to secrete themselves 
from the arm of justice. On the tenth and eleventh 
of May, justice Swan, town-n^iajor Sirr, and Captain 
Ry?in, seized five hundred pike handles and five pieces 
of cannon ; ^nd on the twelfth. Swan seized a large 
quantity of arms in a house on the custom-house quay. 
On the thirteenth and fourteenth, four pieces of canr 
non and a swivel were taken ; and on the fifteenth, six- 
teenth, and seventeenth, immense qua-ntities of arms 
,of various de^riptiopi^ but chiefly pike^. 

Lord Edward Fitzgerald having absconded since 
4he tweltth ^f March, and government having received 
,undoubted intelligence that lie was principal leader ol 
the conspiracy, very just apprehensions were enter- 
tained, that wherever he plight be, he was labouring 
with assiduity to forward the views of the conspiracj';. 
^rd Edward had served during part of the American 
war in his majesty's forces, and was distinguished by 
hit» daring and intrepid courage, honour, humanity, 
4:andour, soldier-like deportment, and above all, by 


ois saperior knowledge of military affairs. At the con« 
elusion of the war he retired on the half-pay list, but 
again entering into the service, he was promoted to^ 
the majority of the fifty-fourth regiment. On the re- 
turn of his regiment to England, his loi-dship pro^' 
ceeded to Paris, in l!be beginning of the year seven- 
teen hundred and ninety-two, where he imbibed prin*-" 
tiples of a highly republican cast,' the tdb'open and 
eandid avowal of which induced th^ ministry to dig* 
miss htm from the service ; as a man unworthy of the 
trust reposed hi him. During his residence in France, 
his lordship married a lady of the royal blood of the' 
Capets,' daughter of the last duke of Orleans, who 
eontributed to inspire him with revolutionary ideas. 
As lord Edward was eminently qualified for the excite* 
ment and direction of rebellious commotions, govern- 
ment on the eleventh of May had issued a proclama- 
tion, offering one thousand pounds for his apprehen- 
^on ; and in consequence received intelligence on the 
eighteenth that he would that night pass through Wat* 
Kng-street, preceded by a chosen band of insurgents 
as an advanced guard, and that he would be accom- 
^nied by another. Mujor Sirr accoMingly repaired 
to Watling-street, attended by captain Ryan and Mr 
Emerson, together with a body of soldiers in coloured 
clothes ; and having met the party preceding lord Ed- 
v?ard, attacked and put them to flight, taking one of 
their body prisoner. Next day Sirr, captain Ryan, 
and justice Swan, with eight soldiers disguised, pro- 
ceeded to the house of a Mr Murphy, merchant, in 
Thomas-street, where they were informed his lordshi|^ 
£e 2 


himself was concealed. While they were disposing the 
Boldiers so as to prevent an escape. Swan perceiving a 
woman run hastily up stairsy followed her with preci- 
pitation, and rushing into an apartment, found lord 
Edward reclining upon a bed ; whom he instantly in- 
formed that he had a warrant against him, and that 
it would be vain to make resistance, but at the same 
time assured htm he would be treated with the utmost 
respect* His lordship, however, so far from surren* 
dering, instantly sprung from the bed, and endeavour- 
ed to force his escape with a courage deserving of a 
better fate. His pistol having missed' fire at Mr Swan, 
the only weapon left him was a dagger, with which he 
closed with his adversary, and inflicted on him many 
wounds, particularly a deep and dangerous one undev 
the ribs, which bled profusely. At that instant cap- 
tain Ryan entered ; and having missed fire at lord Ed- 
ward with a pocket pistol, made a lunge at him with 
a sword cane, which bent on his ribs. The pain of 
this (flight wound, however, was such as to make hinei 
fall on the bed, where 'captain Ryan threw himself 
above him ; and during the scufBe that ensued, the 
captain received a plunge of his lordship's dagger in 
the side ; after which they both fell to the ground, 
>vhere Ryan received many desperate wounds, espe* 
cially one in the lower part of his belly, so large that 
bis bowels fell out on the fioor. Notwithstanding this 
deplorable situation to which tliese two gentlemen 
were reduced, thty continued to hold his lordship by 
the legs ; and to impede his progress towards the door, 
whither he was advancing, when Sirr entered the 


room ; to whom he surreDdered himself, after receiving 
a mortal wound in the shoulder from the major's pis- 
tol ; of which be expired in great agony on the third 
of June. 

Several papers found in lord Edward's possession at 
the time of his arresty betrayed the nature and extent 
of the intended insurrection; and contained a plan for 
the capture of Dublin. In his lodgings at Mr Mur- 
phy's were also found a green uniform, turned up with 
blacky and a curious cap of the same materials, id 
which he meant to have been dr^t when he headed 
the insurrection ; together with the official seal * of 
the Irish union. '^ 

One of these papers^ found in lord Edward's writ- 
ing boX) the plan for defeating the king's troops at 
the intended Yittack of the insurgents upon Dublin,, 
contains observations so judicious, and appears so well 
adapted to answer the purpose for which it was intend* 
ed, that we have given it to our readers entircr 


" If ever any unfortunate cause should put our city, 
with the other parts of the country, into the possession 

* We have not been able to procure a description of this seal. 
The foUowinp^ is that of the secretaries of the united societiy of 
Dahlia :^A harp^ at the top, ** I am nm strung y** at the bot^ 


of a cruel and tyrannical enemy, whose government, 
by repeated oppressions, might drive us into the last 
stage of desperate resistance, our conduct then should 
be regulated in a manner best calcu-lated for obtaining 

The foltawing thoughts are humbfy offered for the in- 
spection of evert/ real Irishman,- 
" It is supposed that the enemy have a well-appoint- 
ed and disciplined standing army. — 

** In auch a case*, every man ought td consider bow 
that army coulil be attacked or repelled, and \vhat 
advantage their discipline and nUtnbers might give 
them in a populous city, acting iu concert with the 
adjoining counties. 

** It is well known, that an officer of any skill in hW 
professfon, would be vefy cautious df" bringing the 
best-disciplined troops into a large city in a estate of 
insurrection, for the following reasons- :-'-*• 

** His troops,' by the breadth of the sti'eets, are 
obliged to have a very narrow front ; and however nu- 
merous, only three men deep can come into action^, 
which in the widest of our streets, cannot be more 
than sixty men, as a space must be left on each side 
or flank for the men who discharge to retreat to the 

ttom, *^ I will be heard -^^^ and on tile exer^e,^ ** Socteii( of Uvitei 
Xrishmen of Dublin,^ 

. 3^BJ:tLI0N IN IRELAND. 27t 

-rear, that their places may be occupied by the next ia 
succession who are loaded ; so, though there are a 
thousand men in a street, not more than sixty can 
act at one timej and should ^hey be attacked by an 
irregular body armed with pikes, or such bold wea-^ 
pons, if the sixty mep in front were defeated, the whole 
body, however numerous^ are unable to assist, and . 
immediately become a small mob in uniform, from 
(the inferiority of number in comparison to the people 
rand easily disposed of. 

** Another inconvenience might destroy the order of 
'this army. Perhaps at the same moment, they may 

be dreadfully galled from the house tops, by showers 
x)f bricks, coping-stones, &c. which may be at hand ; 
^without imitating the women of Paris, who carried 

the stones of the un paved streets to the windows and 

tops of the bouses in their aprons. 

** Another disadvantage on the part^of the soldiers 
.would be, as they are regulated by the word of com* 
'mand, or .stroke of the drum, 4hey miist be left to 
their individual discretion, as such communications 
^Qst be drowned in the noise a^d clamour of a popu« 
lar tumult* 

^* In the next place, that part of the populace who 
4:ould npt^t into the engagement, would be eraploy- 
^ed m uopaving the streets, so as to impede the move^ 
ments of horse or artillery ; and in the avenues where 
the »r.«iy were likely to pass, numbers would be en- 


gaged in forming barriers of hogsheads, carts, cars, 
•counters, doors, &c. the forcing of which barriers by 
the army would be disputed, while like ones were 
-forming at «very twenty or thirty yards, or any conve- 
nient distances situation might require, Should such 
precautions be well observed, the progress of an army 
through one street, or over one bridge, would be very 
'tedious, and attended with -great loss, if it would not 
he destroyed ; at the same time the neighbouring 
counties might rise in a mass, and dispose of the troops 
-scattered in their vicinity, and prevent a junction or a 
passage of any army intended for the city ; they would 
tear up the roads and bamcade every oonvenient dis- 
tance with trees, timber, implements of husbandry, &f. 
^t the same time lining the hedges, walls, ditches, and 
houses, with men armed with muskets, who would 
iceep up a welUdirected iire. 

•* However well exercised standing armies are sup- 
posed to be, by freqi\ent reviews and sham battles, 
they are never prepared for broken roads, or enclosed 
fields^ in a country like ours, covered with innumer- 
able and continued intei-sections of ditches and hedges, 
everyone of which are an advantage to an iiTegnlar 
body, and may with advantage be disputed against an 
army, as so many fortifications and entrenchments. 

" The people in the city would have an advantage^ 
by being armed with pikes or such weapons ; the firsl 
attack, if possible, should be made by men whos( 
pikes were nine or ten feet long, by that meaos thtj 


could act io ranks deeper than the soldiery, whose 
arms are much shorter; then, the deep files of the 
pikemen, hy being weightier, mubt easily -break the 
thin order of the army. 

" The charge of the pikemen should be made in a 
smart trot, on the flank or extremity of every rank ; 
there should be intrepid men placed to keep the fronts 
even, that at closing every point should tell together ; 
they should have at the same tirne, two or three like 
bodies at convenient distances in the rear, who would 
be brought np, if wanting, to support the front, which 
would give confidence to their brothers in action, as 
it would tend to discourage the enemy ; at the same 
time, there should be in the rear of each division some 
men of spirit, to keep the ranks as close as possible.^ 

" The apparent strength of the army should not in- 
timidate, as closing on it makes its powder and ball 
useless; all its superiority is in fighting at a distance; 
all its skill ceases, and all its action must be suspend- 
ed, when it once is within reach of the pike. 

" The reason of writing and printing this is, to're« 
mind the people of discussing military subjects/' 
VoL.L Ff 



Three papers fmmd m the possession of Lord £dv»ard 
Fitzgeraldy when arrested. 


** T. Keathy, JSuTerness feneibles 

Suit, Londonderry ... 

Naas, Armagli ... 

Gr«en horse . - - 

Counel - . . . - 

Clane, Armagh ... 

JVarragh Rabn. Ks. county M.") 
f Longford I 
^ 6th dragfiotts f 
(.Loath M. J 

KUkea, Do. Do. Do. 

Kilculen^ fgth dragoons > 

j Tyrone M. J 
"S Sttffolk 
{^Orange Yeo. 

Carbcry, Invernegs fenciblcs 

€>)»hHia sundrs. 

County sundry returns 


- 47 

- 22J 

iritfa 1 BaUa.«f 









2319 with 10 bats, of 

J 500 

No. IL 


So chains of 6 foot long, with 50 ]|«dlA)cks^ 
1000 spike nails, 4,, 6, 8 inches. 
900 round staples. 
. 20 cramp irons, "^^ in tliis form. 


The person (William Oir) whom the Irish are in 
the foregomg address emphatically called on to re* 
member^ had been of staunch revolutionary principle, 
and possessed of considerable abilities. He was a man. 
of respectable character and connections. Being 
found guilty of high treascm, he was, to the unspeak- 
able grief of his partj^ executed at Car riekferg;av 

C II A P. \\ 

By these arrests, however,, and otlier precauttonarj 
steps of the govenmient, the insurrection i« Dublin^ 
which was to commence on the twenty-third of Maj*, 
by an attack on the army encamped at Lauchlinstowu, 
and on the artillery stationed at Chapelizod, was frus- 
trated. Notwithstanding this, and the disorganizJi- 
tion of the confetleracy which ensued by the judicious 
arrangements of the troops in the most advantageous 
positions about the caprtal, the appointment for insur- 
rection was observed by many in the neighbouring 
counties ; and the mail coaches on the northern, south- 
ern, and western roads, destroyed, as a signal to the 
rest of the kingdom. The western coach was inter- 
rupted between Lucan and Leixlip ; the northern at 
Santry, only three miles distant from the metropolis ; 
and the southern near Naas, which is fifteen miles 
distant. Great multitudes of insurgents assembled, 
and proceeded immediately to efforts of strength,, par- 
ticularly in attacking the towns of Prosperous, Naas, 
' Claine, Bally more-Eustace, and Kilcullen, 


lorormbtion was received on the twenty-third of 
May, by. the garrison at Naas, that an attack was 
that eveiBiig meditated to take place npon the town» 
and steps were consequently taken for immediate and 
efiPectual resistance* The greatest anxiety prevailed 
during that niglit and part of the succeeding morning ; 
which was much increased by the intelligenee announ- 
ced lyy a dragoon, that the rebels were advancing . 
against the town in considenJile force* Large parties 
(some of whom stole unnoticed into the very centre of 
the town) accordingly made an attack at an early- 
bour, and engaged a party of the Armagh militia ; by 
whom they were repulsed, after having sustained" 
three vollies. In their flight, a great many piked • 
were dropped : three prisoners were taken, and we.ce • 
inmediately hanged in the streets* 

The attack upon Prosperous, on the same day, was 
more successful. The centinels were kiUed, and the 
barracks assaulted while the soldiery were' asleep. 
Rushing into the building, the rebels immediately 
put to death captain SwaUie. The soldiers, iiowever, 
in the opposite apartment, succeeded in expelling 
them; after which a fierce conflict ensued, but was 
terminated by the rebels setting fire to a qua^ntity of 
straw which happened tcT be in the under-ground 
office* The soldiers, almost in a stale of suffocation, 
retreated to the upper storeys, which they were quick- 
ly obliged to abandon by the rajiidity of the flames. 
Some of them, leaping out of the windows, were re- 
ceived on the pikes of the assailants : the remainjJtf.r, 
G^ 3 


making a desperate sally, endeavoured to force them* 
selves a passage, but were nearly all of them slain in 
the attempt : the.deputy barrack-master, who, together 
with his family, had concealed himself during this 
scene of carnage, was saved, after coming out and 
surrendering, by the unexpected clemency of the 
rebels* Mr Brewer, an Englishman, remarkable for 
humanity, but who had unfortunately incurred the 
enmity of the insurgents, was piked to death in his 
own house. Mr Stamers also, who delivered himself 
up for the purpose of sSiving a house and its inhabi- 
tants, who were threatened with extermination, was^ 
notwithstanding 3. promise of safety, treacheroo&ly 
shot in the street. In this aflkir the king's troops are 
said to have lost about seventy men. t 

The attack upon Clane commenced by a- consider- 
able body, who stole iiUo the town unperceived by all 
but a drtfrnmer and trumpeter, who succeeded in 
alarming the garrison. The houses in which the sol- 
diers were quartered were surrounded, singly, by 
bodies of pikeinen ; so that the military were obliged 
to tight their way individually through t^e assailants. 
With the loss of only two men, however, and five 
wounded, they succeeded in assembling, and, not- 
withstanding the surprise and confusion, gallaDtly 
repulsed the insurgents. In a second attempt which 
Mas made, six rebels, mounted on horses of the Ancient 
Britons, and dressed in their clothes, entered the town 
with a design to impose themselves on the yeomen as 
friends. One of them, however, having madt a cut 


«t captain Jephsoo with a sword, was iostantly shot, 
And his' companions obliged to fly with many wounds* 
Aboat half past three in the mooting, captain Grif- 
fith, having ^en. informed at his seat that a body of 
rebels bad attacked the guard of Clane, arrived in 
the town. He there fouad that the steady valour of 
part <^ his troop had so far checked the enemy, as to 
give time for about forty of the Armagh corps to turn 
out; that the yeomen and militia had nt>t fired above 
three rounds when the insurgents'were dispersed ; and 
that they were hotly pursuing them and burning such 
houses on the common as they suspected to afford 
them shelter. Six prisoners were taken ; one of whom 
was executed at Clane, the other ^ye on the same 
day at Naas. About five o'clock intelligence was 
brought him of the defeat of the troops at Prosperous. 
The captain had hardly time tor draw up his men, 
when a party of rebels, mounted on the horses, and 
well furnished with the arms. and accoutrements of 
the Antient Britons, made a charge ,into the town. 
One volley brought six or seven of .them to the ground. 
The remainder made a precipitate flight, and took 
shelter behind a strong bo<^ of infantry which was 
advancing against th^ town from Prosperous. The 
little army of captain Griffith, not being strong 
enoagh to march against this numerous body, whose 
appearance *was rendered formidable by the scarlet 
clothing and arms of the military massacred at Pros- 
perous, retreated to an elevated ground near the com* 
ujon, wl\ere they could not be surrounded or outflank- 
'^» Thehr the insurgents quickly commenced a smart 


firing upon them, which, however, the height of the 
ground rendered loefFcctive; while they -retura^ a 
galling fire that killed and wounded considerable nnm-* 
bers, and at length compelled them to disperse in the 
utmost confusion. They were pursued with slaugh- 
ter, and in their flight dropped great quantities of 
pikes and other arms. On captain Griffith's return to 
Clane, he was secretly informed that Dr Esmond^ a 
lieutenapt of hVs corps, who had attended the muster 
with alacrity, in order to^resist the rebels there, had 
led the insurgents in the attack upon Prosperous. 
The captain haTtiig been ordered to march to Naas, 
prudently took no notice of this intelligence until he 
arrived there ; when, drawing up his men in front of 
the goal, he immediately committed the lieutenant. 
He was afterwards conveyed to Dublin, where he was 
tried and executed as a traitor. He was brother to 
sir Thomas Esmond, of a very ancient popish family 
in the county of Wexford. He was a taan remarkable 
for the beauty of his eountenance, the handsomeness, 
of his figure, the highly convivial qualities of his dis- 
position, and the greatest knowledge of his profession ; 
to which he added humanity and honour in his con- 
duct in private life. • ^ 

On the tenth of May, captain Beevor had been or- 
dered to Ballymore-Eustace, with detachments of the 
ninth dragoons, and of the Tyrone, Antrim, and 
Armagh militia, in order to compel the United Irish- 
men in that quarter to surrender their arms, by living 
among them at free-quarters. As the captain in this 


lervice bad about three thousand stand of arms of va-^ 
nous descriptions surrendered to him.; and as, on the 
twentj-third of May, four sergeants of United Irish* 
men marched in with their complement of men, eleven 
to each, and surrendering their arms, received protec* 
tions, he imagined that he had completely etfected 
the object of his mission; and accordingly sent off/ 
pne hundred and twenty of his men, retaining only 
about forty, in order to, lighten the burdens of th^- 
people who were obliged to maintain them.. 

The imprudence of this step, however, was quickly 
felt. The soldiers were quartered in eight diiferent 
houses,, which a. body of rebels, to the amount of- 
eight hundred, attacked early in the morning of the 
twenty-fourth, one hundred men surrounding each 
house. About one o'clock, captain Beevor was awak-. 
eaed by the cry of a person, that the rebels would, 
have his blood. He instantly got out of bed, when 
he perceived two men rush into the apartment, the 
one armed with a. pistol, the qther with a pike. As- 
the former fired at and missed him, the captain seized^ 
a pistol which lay by his bedside and shot hiru through 
the body. He instantly received a slight wound in 
the shoulder from the pike of the other; but as he was 
reaching for a second pistol, the pikeuian closed with 
him, and seizing him in his arms, carried him towards 
the top of the stairs, where a number of rebels were 
ready to receive him on their pikes. By a violent 
effort of strength, however, the captain succeeded in 
getting himself extricated, when he dragged his ad- 


yenary into a room w-bere he was mn through the 
body by lieutenant Patrickson. Meantime the dra* 
goons, who were rallying round the captain*s quartetB^ 
attacked and killed many or the insurgents, who 
maintained a desperate confii<H: for nearly two hours. 
In other parts of the town, the enemy had set fire to 
several houses in which the soldiers were quartered ; 
killed seven dragoons and wounded three: the Ty- 
rone militia also had four killed and two wounded^. 
BTut captain Beevor, with twelve dragoons, sallied out 
and routed them in every direction, with the loss of 
three- of their captains and a consideraale number of 
men. Amongst the losses of the military was lieute- 
nant M*Farland of the Tyrone militia, who was shot 
through the body.. 

At seven in the raornihg of the Wenty-fourtli., 
general Dundas, having received information that a 
body of rebels had assembled the preceding night at «' 
place called the Rath of Gilhown, and that dieir in* 
tention was to attack Kilcullen that day, ordered 
forty of the ninth dragoons and the Romneys, and 
twenty-two of the Suifolk fencibles, to march, against 
them. The general, putting himself at the head of 
the cavalry, found three hundred of the enemy strong- 
ly entrenched in the church-yai'd, whom he immedi- 
ately attacked, without waiting till the infantry came 
up, though the ground was broken and uneven, and' 
though many of the rebels, armed with long pikes, 
had formed themselves into a strong* phalanx in a road 
elpsQ by the church-yard, in which not more than Wi 


'i^Ae dragoons coald ^charge in front. The cbargCt 
however, was made with great spirit ; but the horse 
were instantaneously repulsed. Thrice they were 
urged by the general to renew the charge, and as often 
were they furiously driven back^ with the loss of cap- 
tains Erskioe and Cookd and twenty-two privates who 
were killed ; besides ten so desperately wounded that- 
^ost of them expired soon ai^er. 

The general, after this defeat, retired with his shat- 
tered force to the village of Kilcullen-bridge« where 
he halted for some time. But the victors,' determined 
to follow up the successful blow they had struck, 
though they were conscious they could not force the 
strong and narrow pass of Kilcullen-bridge, took a 
circuitous route, in whicKtheir number was increased 
to several thousands, and took a position between 
KilcuUen and Naas, in order to intercept the general 
in his retreat. In this extremity he resolutely put 
himself at the head of twenty-seven of the Suffolk fen- 
cible infantry, with his cavalry in the rear, and boldly 
marched up to the rebels, by whom the attack was 
vigorously begun^ but who were broken by three de- 
structive and *^ell-directed voUies from the infantry ; 
after which the cavalry charged, put them completely 
to the route, and pursued them with so terrible a 
slaughter, that their loss is stated to have amounted 
^0 about three hundred jnen. After this decided ad-^- 
vantage, the general marched to Naas, in order to 
"Concentrate his forces as n«ar as possible to the metro?» 


*po1is, being jnstly apprehensive that the enemy me^ 
ditated to make an attack upon it in great force. 

About two o'cloclc on the twenty-tliirdy geperal 
Wilford, who Commanded atKildare, received an or- 
der from general Dandas to march with his wbole 
force to his assistance at Kilcullen. On leaving the 
^own, he sent orders to captain Wilson at Monaster- 
even, to follow him; and, on his arrival at Kildare, 
^o set fire to the camp equipage lodged there. From 
the execution of this mandate, however, he was di- 
verted by the solicitations of Mr O'Reilly, who repre^ 
sented to him the danger of setting fire to the town 
'by such a step. No sooner had the military left the 
town, than the market bell was rung by the inhabi- 
tants as a signal for a general rising *; and about two 
thousand rebels, led by one Roger M*Garry, marcbed 
into the town, and seized all the officer's baggage, 
the catnp equipage, and an immense qusmtity of pikes, 
fire-arms, &c. which had been surrendered a few days 
before. Most, of the ptotestant inhabitants, appre- 
hensive of being massacred, fied with preciyntation to 
Naas and Monastereven, leaving behind Ihein their 
property, which, together with their houses, was de*- 
£itroyed and plundered by the rebels. 

Early in the succeeding morning, M*Garry, with 
about twelve hundred insurg^ents, marched against 
Monastereven, the garrison of which consisted of about! 
one hundred men composed of yeomanry infantry aricli 
cavalry. As soon as intelligence was received of th 


tipproach of the enemy, the garrison made circuits 
through the circumjacent country> that the inhabi- 
tants might have an opportunity of retreating into the 
town. During these excursions they met with npme-i 
rous parties of rebels, hastening to join their leaders^ 
with whom they had frequent skirmishes. In one of 
these conflicts they liberated a small party of the An- 
cient Britons, who had been taken ^irisoners: one of 
their own troop was wounded in the action. Abqut 
four o'clock in the morning of the twenty-fourth,, the 
garrison wai^ attacked by the rebels, who, however, 
were repulsed with slaughter, carrying with them their 
dead and wounded, though not before tiiey bad set 
fire to the town. Nine loyalists, two of whom were 
volunteers, were slain. 

The neighbourhood of Rathangan, on the twenty- 
fourth was in a state of insurrection, and the town it*> 
•self was taken possession of on the twenty^-siKth by the 
rebels. They retained it until the twenty^^ninth, whe» 
they were dislodged with slaughter by colonel Long- 
field, with the city of Cork militia, a detachment of 
dragoons, and two field-pieces. 

Of the intended surprise of Carlow, the garrisou 
^as apprised, both by an intercepted letter, and by , 
the intelligence of lieutenant Roe, of the North Cork 
militia, ,who had seen the peasants assemble in the 
evening of the 24th of May. The garrison, consist- 
ing of a body of the 9th dragoons, the light company 
of the North Cork militia, under captain Heard, some 
Vol, I. Hh 


of the Louth militia, under lieutenant Ogle, the yeo- 
men infantry of Carlow, under captains Bttrton and 
Eustace, sir Charles Burton's yeomen cavalry, and 
about forty volunteers ; the whole about four hundred 
and fifty in number, under the command of colonel 
Mahone of the 9th dragoons, was judiciously placed 
at various posts for the reception of the . assailants. 
The plan of assault was ill contrived or ill executed. 
Diiferent parties were appointed to enter the town at 
different avenues ; but only one attempted an entrance ; 
the rest being deterred by the incessant firing of the 
troops* This body of rebels, amounting to a thou- 
sand or fifteen hundred, assembled at the house of 
sir Edward Crosbie, a mile and a half from Carlow, 
and marched into the town about two o'clock in the 
morning of the 25th of May, with so little precaution 
as to alarm the garrison at a quarter of a mile's dis- 
tance, by the discharge of a gun, in the execution of 
one of their own deserters, . Shouting, as they rushed 
into TuUow-street, with that vain confidence which i^ 
generally followed by disappointment, that the town 
was their own, they received so destructive a fire from 
the garrison, that they . recoiled and endeavoured to 
retreat; but finding their fiight intercepted, numbers 
rushed into the houses, where they found a miserable 
exit, these being immediately set fire to by the sol- 
diery. About eight houses were consumed in this 
conflagration, and for some days the roasted remains 
of the rebels were falhng down the chimnies in which 
they had perished. Their loss is estimated at upwards 


of four hundred; while not a man was even wounded 
on the side of the loyalists. 

After the defeat, executions commenced as else* 
where in this calamitous period, and ^hoat two hlin*^ 
dred were in a short time hanged or shot, according 
to martial law. Among the earliest victims were sir 
Edward William Crosbie, and one Hey don, a yeo- 
man. The latter is believed to have been the leader 
of the rebel column ; to have conducted them into the 
town, and on their ill success to have abandoned them. 
He had certainly in that crisis taken his place as a yec* 
man, and joined in the slaughter of the asiailautf. 

A pamphlet has since appeared, intitled, ** A Nar- 
" rative of the Apprehension, Trials and Execution 
" of sir Edward William Crosbie, Bart. ; in which the 
" Innocence of sir Edward, and the Iniquity of the 
*' Proceedings against him are indubitably and clearly 
" proved.'* 

The tyranny and injustice too frequently exercised 
hy those intrusted with power by the administration 
in this lamentable struggle was never more fully ex- 
emplified than in the proceedings which this publica- 
tion narrates. Witnesses in favour of sir Edward, 
though protestants, and well known to be loyal sub- 
jects, were forcibly deterred from entering the court 
by military terror. Tortures and flogging were mer- 
cilessly inflicted on Roman catholic prisoners, to com- 
pel them to give perjured evidence against him ; and 
Hh 2 


they were even promised their own livea if ^he shoaTd 
be conyicted by their ineaiss. Still, notwithstanding 
these infamous and arbitrary measures^ adopted with 
evident intention to cnrerwhelm an itinocent man, no 
charge could be proved against him ; but yet,, to the 
indelible disgrace of those concerned rn this iniquitous 
procedure, he was condemnt?d and executed ^vith cir- 
cumstances of particular atrocit}^ The court by which 
lie was tried was moreover* irsegnlarly constituted and * 
illegal, being destitute of a judge-advocate. The 
sentence was executed tit an unusual hour,, and so sen- 
sible were his judges of their own injustice, that in 
defiance of a special act of parliament,, a cpi^y of the 
proceedings was ceiuaed to his widow and family* Af- 
ter penreing actions such as these, we view with in- 
dignation the shainefnl accounts of atrocities com- 
mitted by the rebels, written by men who support the 
proceeditigs of another party, and basely prostitute 
their talents to exalt ev^/y action of the loyal troops 
and subjects, however reprehensible their conduct; 
\s(hil8t the proceeding's of their opponents are painted 
with every appearance of brutal ferocity that rancoor 
and prejudice can suggest. 

It is not our intention to specify individually all the 
atrocities and murders committed by the inferior actors 
in the rebellion. Many of these were undoubtedly 
the result of private antipathies ; others dictated hy 
the ferocity of ungovernable mobs; and are all of 
them, perhaps, what would have taken place in simi- 
lar circumstances among^it the most enlightened and 


bamane people on earth. Of this the revolution in 
France affords a melancholy example. Popular re- 
sentment, once roused, cannot be restrained within 
dae bounds, or directed only against proper objects ; 
and sach is the want of subordination in tumultuary 
assemblies of armed men, that even their leaders are 
often compelled to yield to the torrent, and to suffer 
themselves to be hurried away by the impetuous pas- 
sions of the mass. 

Mr. Elliot, going from Carlow, after the repulse of 
the rebels, to visit his house three miJes from town, 
6a^T a number of peasants assembled in the road at 
the end of his avenue* He was advancing without ap- 
prehension of danger, when observing two guns level- 
led at him, he galloped away and escaped both shots. 
On his returning soon after with a body of yeomen, 
the peasants fled to places of concealment. When 
this gentleman, however, quite contrary to their ex- 
pectations, rested satisfied with dispersing the insur- 
gents, instead of burning their cabins and inflicting 
on them any severe punishment, as was usual, they 
returned to their habitations, and continued to re- 
main perl'ectly quiet instead of being driven by des* 
perat!on to join the rebel armies. 

The Queeu*s County rebels were to have joined 
those of the county of Carlow at Graigue-bhdge ; but 
having heard that there were two pieces of canuou 
posted there, they changed their route; and, headed 
hy two leaders of the names of Bedmood and firen- 


nan, who had been yeomeo^ they homed several 
houses, beloDging t» protectants^ in the vilUge of 
Ballyckmodler ; and attacked the house of the B.ev^ 
John Witty, a pfotestant GlergyKian, near Aries, 
about five miles from Carlow ; but it was bravely de- 
fended by himself and eleven friends, wh6 kepft up a 
constant fire, killed ti^enty-one rebielsV ^nd baffled all 
Jheif attempts to storm or to bnm iK The coniiict 
continued from three till six oVlock in the mbrning.. 

On the SOth of May, a number of rebels, headed 
^y one Casey, attacked and bnrned'the chafter-schoot 
at CastlecaVberry, afber having plundered all the pro- 
perty of Mr Sparkff, the tnasten, which ^vas consider* 
able* The school had beeff defended by a party of 
fencibles till the 24tlV of May ; but when they were 
withdrawn, MrSparkls ai^diiis family were obliged to^ 
abandon it; and the cfiildfen iobk refuge iii line Bog 
©f AlleUy and in sotoc neighbiurhfig Cabins^ 

On the same day that the Charter-school was attack* 
ed, a great number of rebfels encamped on an island 
in the bog of Tiinahoe, and at Mucklin and Drihid p 
and for sbme time continued to plunder the houses of 
' protfestants, and Carried off aTl the horses and cattle 
they could find. Government having received intel* 
ligence of these proceedings, sent general Champagne, 
on the 5th of June,, to attack' the enemy witH the fol- 
lowing forces: — a detachment of the Limerick ipilitiflr 
commanded^y colond Gough ; the Canal Legion, by 
lieutenant Williaras; the Ccolestown Cavalrjr by 


captain Wakeley; the Clonard Cavalry^ by lieute«^ 
nant Tyrell; and ihe BaHina Cavalry, by captaia 

The general disposed tlie cavalry so as to surround 
the bog, while the infantry attacked the camp on the 
island. The contest lasted some time, as there were 
but a small number of infantry ; however they at last^ 
iorced the camp and dispersed the rebels, of whom. 
great numbefs were slain in theic flight by the cavalry*. 

A detachment of the- Lim^ick,. the Coolestown^. 
the Canal L*egion, , and a party of Northumberland 
fenciblbs, attacked about six hundred rebels, who 
were posted on Foxes-hill ; and whom they entirely 
touted with considerable slaughter*. 

No whefe did the rebels-shew more fully their want 
sf prudence,, and their vain confidence, than in the 
attack which they made upon Hacketstown in the 
county of Carlow, forty-four miles from Dublin. On 
their approach to the town, the gaigi-ison, which con- 
«8ted of a. detachment of the Adtrim^ militia, undeB 
lieutenant Gardiner, and a j^ody of yeomen under 
captain Hardy^ marched out; to meet them ; but ter» 
rified by their numbers (a^bout three thousand) they 
retreated and took shelter ini the barrack- Exulting 
at their imaginary victory,, the rebels raised it trium- 
phant shoiit, and rustied forward with impetuosity, but 
ill the utmost confusion. In this situation they. were 
dexterously charged by captaia Hume^ \v.ho moH f«r- 


tuuately arrived at that instant with thirty of his yeo- 
men, completely routed and disperired, with the loss 
of two hundred men. Lieutenant Gardiner received 
a violent blow on the breast with a stone ; and only 
one soldier was hurt. 

On the morning of the twenty-fourth, the officers 
of the Navan cavalry, John Preston, ew]. captain, dis- 
patched intelligence by letter to the officer command- 
ing the garrison at Kells, to request he would send 
them such troops as he could spare for their protec- 
tion ; as they had been informed of the insurrections 
at Dunboyne and Donshaughlin, and that the rebels 
had planted the tree of liberty at the latter. Captain 
Molloy, immediate] ]r on receipt of this intelligence, 
marched the yeomen infantry and cavalry to their 
assistance; but on his arrival, finding that the town 
■was not in immediate danger of an attack, he returned 
to Kells for the protection of its inhabitants, and of a 
large depot of ammunition there, which was endan- 
gered by his absence. A detachment was then order- 
ed to proceed towards Dunshaugliiin, and to recon- 
noitre the enemy. As they returned with information 
that the mass of ihe people were in arms, Mr Barry, 
lieutenant of the Navan troop, dispatched the follow- 
ing notice to captain Molloy at Kells : — 

** Sir,~Prepare your yeomanry immediately, as »n 
** insurrection has appeared from Dublin to Dun- 
** shaughlin, and numbers have been murdered. Conw 
" muoicate this to all the other officers." 


Of this >ntelli<;eQce captain Molloy apprized the 
different yeomen officers ; and strenuously recom- 
mfoded to them to h»ld themselves in readiness for 
action. Captain Preston of the Nairan cavalry, un- 
derstanding that the Rea fencibks were to be in Na* 
van on the night ©f the tw«jnty-(ifth of May, resolved 
to obtain their assistance in an attact^ upon the rebel 
station at Dunshaiightin. His demand ef co-opera* 
tioD having been agreed to, and all the yeomanry in 
the adjacent country having joined them» they pro* 
ceeded at day-break en the twenty-sixth to Dun« 
shaughlin ; which, however, the rebels had previensly 
abandoned, and strongly postec^ themselves on the 
iull of Tarah in the county of Meath^ eighteen mile* 
northward of Dublin, an eminence well adapted for 
defence against an attacking foe ; but s» situated as tc^ 
he extremely unfavourable to a retreating army^ espe- 
cially if pursued by cavalry. The hill is very steep> 
snrrouiided at the top by three circular Danish forls^ 
with ramparts and fosses; and on. the summit is the 
church-yard, enclosed by a high wall. The kingV 
troops, consisting af two hundred and ten of the Rea 
fencibles, with a battalion gun, lord Erngall^ troop of 
yeoman cavalry, those €>f captain Preston, lower 
Kells, and captain Molloy^s company of yeoman in«» 
fantry, amounted in all to about four hundred men* 
The rebels, who were perhaps about three thousand 
iu Burober, no sooner perceived the king's troops ad- 
vancing, than they uttered loud shouts of exultation,, 
aud immediately began the attack, firing, briskly as. 


they advanced. The royal infantry, with the cavalry 
on their flanks, retained their fire till within about 
fifty yards of the enemy, when a desperate cnnfiict 
ensued. The rebels made three furious onsets, in 
the last of which, with daring resolution, they seized 
upon the cannon, but before they could completely 
surround her, the officer who commanded had applied 
the match, and the succeeding discharge destroyed 
ten or twelve of the assailants and dispersed the re- 
mainder. The whole body of rebels, by the steadiness 
and valour of the king's troops, were at length routed 
in all directions, with the loss of about four hundred 
in killed and wounded, and three hundred horses cap- 
tured; together with all their arms, aramonition, bag- 
gage, and provisions. Tite *vtctors lost about forty 
men, and had expended their whole ammunition be- 
fore the rebels were put to flight. In the pockets of 
some of the killed were found popish prayer-books, 
beads, rosaries, crucitixes, pious ejaculations to Christ 
and to the Virgin Mary, and a variety of republican 

This signal victory laid open the communication be- 
twixt the capital and the northern parts of the king- 
dom, as that at Rathangan did betwixt it and the wea^ 
tern. Discouraged by these and other defeats, many 
of the rebels began to wish for leave to retire in safety 
to their houses, and to return to their peaceable occ.a- 
pations. General Dundas, on the twenty-eighth of 
May, received at his head-qiiarters at Naas, by Thomas 


Kelly Esq. a magistrate, a message from a rebel chief 
named Perkins, who commaDded a body of two thou- 
sand men at KDOchawlia-hill, ou the border of the 
Curragh of Kildare, a plain twenty-two miles south 
westward of Dublin, expresssing a readiness to sjir- 
render their arms, provided they were allowed to re- 
tire unmolested to their respective houses, and that 
Perkins' brother, then in thejail of Naag, should be 
liberated. The general not considering himself au- 
thorised to conclude a treaty with the rebels,' sent to 
Dublin for instructions ; and having received permis- 
sion, proceeded to Knockawlin on the thirty-first ; 
^bere, after he had received the personal surrendry 
of Perkins and a few of his associates; he granted 
pardon to the restf who immediately dispersed with 
•bouts of joy, leaving behind them thirteen cart-load» 
of pikes. 

This peaceable dispoiiition, however, was unfortu- 
nately bUisted three days afterwards by military licen- 
^ousness and want of that strict attention to discipline, 
80 indispensibly requisite when a country is in a state 
ttf insurrection. In order 1o open the communication 
betwixt Dublin and Limerick, major-general DufF 
fftd made a rapid march from the latter with six hun- 
F^d men, and received intelligence that a very consider- 

Ele hody of rebels had assembled at the Gibbit-rath, 
ti\e Currah, for the purpose of availing themselves 
the permission to surrender which imd been granted 
P theon by general Dundas. Unfortunately general 


Dundas was not present to receive the submission of 
this body himself. General Duff's troops were ac- 
cordingly ordered to approach them for this purpose. 
On the advance of the military, one of the rebels 
thoughtlessly sworq he would not deliver up his piece 
l<iaded> and, presenting it with the muzzle upwards, 
discharged its contents in the air. The troops, with a 
thirst fbr carnage disgraceful to themselves, and teo 
frequently displayed by the royal forces in the course 
of the rebellion, affecting to<'on8ideT this innocent bra- 
vado Us an act of hostility, instantly fired amongst the 
rebels. Panic-struck by this unexpected act of trea- 
cherous severity, the astonished multitude fled in all 
directions without offering to make the least resistance. 
Notwithstanding this, however, a company of fenci- 
ble cavalry, denominated lord Jocelyn's Fox^hunters, 
eager to show their valour in the slaughter of an unre- 
sisting foe, pursued them with dreadful havoc, till a 
retreat was sounded, which general' Dundas, wlio was 
apprehensive of such an accident, perhaps from hij» 
knowing wen thedisposition of the military, had sent 
an express from his quarters at Kilcullen to order. 
Upwards of two hundred rebels fell on this occasio n ; 
and perhaps a far great number would have shared the 

same iate, had not general Dundas^s wise n>easnr( 
put a stop to the fury of the troops. We cannot bet- 
ter shew our approbation of the conduct of that gentle* 

man, than by inserting the following address from tht 
corps of Athy loyal infantry, which reflects infinite 
credit not only on the general himself, but also on th( 
corps by which it was presented : 


*^ To Lieutenant'General DundaSf Sfc* 
«« Sir,— The arrangements, which follow the termi- 
*' nation of a glorious war, being likely to deprive us 
** of the man whose wise and humane conduct saved 
** the lives of thousands, we cannot suffer the oppor- 
** tunity to pass, without expTessing to our brave g«- 
" neral the sentiments of gratitude with whicb our 
** hearts are filled* 

"Placed at the bead of our district, during ape- 
" riod most eventful and calamitous, your command 
" has been distinguished by the zeal of your conduct, 
"and the ^humanity of your counsel, surrounded by . 
" armed bands of eur misguided countrymen* You 
"first fiubdued them by your sword, and then dis- 
" armed them by your clemency. In you, sir^ we 
" have seen the brightest ornament of the soldier'« 
" character — Jmrnta/dty^ united tvith true courage. And 
"when the unprejudiced historian shall write the 
" events of the day, the name of Dundas will be ap- 
" planded by rising generations. 

^* Your kind partiality and attention to the Athy 
" yeoman infantry, raised on'the spur of the moment, 
" have induced them to offer this (the only tribute irt 
" their powef) to their revered general. Wherever 
" you go, you will carry with you their invariable at- 
" tachraent, and the applauses of all true lovers of 
"** their country and ofTiumanitt/, 

" For the corps of Athy loyal yeoman infantry, 

^%, 1st Jaru 1802. T. I. Rawson, Captain* 

Vol. L li 


Though the conduct of this general officer, espe- 
cially in the affair at Old Kilcullen, where he injudi- 
ciously ordered the cavalry to attack the rebel pike- 
men, has been severely censured by many persons; yet 
it ought to be taken into consideration, that that error 
by no means attaches to him individually, and is no 
proof of his deficiency in military skill. It appeal's to 
bave been an universal opinion, until fatail experience 
brought conviction to the contrary, that cavalry were 
of greater service in the attack of men armed with 
pikes than infantry. Of this the formation of so many 
Ibodies of yeomen cavalry, and the paucity of infantry^ 
is a convincing proof. The general's conduct appears 
to have been no less satisfactory to the loyal inhabi- 
tants of the district in which be commanded, than to 
the corps of Athy loyal infantry. This they gratefully 
acknowledged in an address, published in the Dublm 
Evening Post, accompanied with the pvesentation of a 
piece of pi ate^ as a testimony of their respect ^and-ve- 

Besides these attacks made en various places by the 
insurgents, and engagements betwixt them and the 
•royal troops, commotions took place in the neighbouT* 
diood af Dunlikviiu The garrison in the town cojisist- 
•ed of a corps pf yeomen cavalry, commanded by cap- 
tain Ryves, and the light company of the Wicklow 
militia. At the head of a company of cavalry, the 
•captaia marched against the rebels, but was obliged 
to retreat, after some of his men had been kfUed by 
pikes» "On his return, the number of prisoners under 


suspicion of treason being greater than that of the gar- 
rison, and apprehensions being entertained that thej 
^ould co-operate with the rebels in case of an attack, 
it was determined by a council of officers^ who ought 
to have been well convinced of the guilt of the suffer- 
ers before they proceeded to so severe and arbitrary a 
measure, that such of the yeomanry as had been im« 
pnsened on suspicion should be put to death. In con- 
sequence of this determination, nineteen of the Saun- 
ders-grove corps and nine of the Narramora were led 
out and shot ! 

These open acts of hostility had been met by a pro- 
xlamation of the lord lieutenant, on the twenty-fourth 
of May, giving notice that orders had been sent to all 
his majesty's general officers in Ireland, to punish with 
death, or otherwise, all persons acting or in any man- 
ner assisting in the rebellion. The proclamation had 
^Iso been notified to both houses of {)arliament by a 
message from his excellency, who received their thanks 
iHid approbation of the measure. 











IN THE YEAR 1798, &c. 


Ah Impartial Narratwe of the Proceedingi 



Erom the Year 17S3 till the total Suppression of the Insurrection; 






VOL. 11. 





Jrom the format'i<m of the Society of United Irish- 
mefh in the Year seventeen hundred and ninetift to 
the concliLsion of the Rebellion in seventeen hun^ 
ired and ninety-eight — continued. 


^^HTLE a comraunication was, by the means al- 
ready mentioned, nearly laid open between the metro- ' 
polis and the rest of the kingdom, the flames of civil 
war were kindled, and began to blaze in a quarter 
where insurrection was least expected. The county 
of Wexford had enjoyed a greater portion of social 
comfort than perhaps any other part of the province 
of Leinster. Gentlemen of landed property in it 
were less addicted to the shameful practice of absent* 
Vol. II. A 


ing themselves from their estates, so prevalent in other 
quarters of the kingdom* Improvements ^ere made 
by them, which would have been overlooked in thdr 
absence. The farmers followed the example of their 
landlords; and the peasants were consequently em- 
ployed with regularity, which introduced amongst 
them habits of industry and order* Rents were com- 
paratively low. From all these causes this county was 
very slowly and rmperfectly organized by the United 
Society. Besides conducting themselves in the mo^1 
peaceable manner, the Roman catholics had addressed 
the \otd lieutenant through the medium of lord 
Mountnorris, professing their loyalty, and ofFtTing to 
arm themselves, if permitted, for the preservation of 
trunquillity. Government was so wfll convinced by 
these circumbtances of the well affected state of the 
county, that not above six hundred soldiers were sta- 
tioned throughout the whole of it; its defence being 
abandoned chiefly to the yeomanry corps and their 
supplementaries. The members who composed these 
corps of protestant yeomanry, inflamed by religious 
prejudice and the reports of atrocities committed by 
the Romanists in former times; or perhaps presump* 
tuous from their imaginary superiority over the catho- 
lics, imprudently, treated the latter with contumely 
and outrage. Tlie magistrates, with equal impru- 
dence, and that tendency to the abuse of power, so 
natural to weak and little minds, employed themselves 
iu whipping and imprisoning numbers of persons whom. 
they thought proper to suspect of disloyalty, often 
without sufficient grounds to authorise such proceed- 


ings. The body of six bnndred regulars and militia^ 
also ill commanded, and for the most part ill officered, 
contributed, by previous insult and subsequent timi- 
dity, to forward the work of rebellion* Those who 
insult and tyrannize over the peaceable and submis- 
sive, are for the most part the first to shrink at the ap- 
pearance of danger, and to fly from the presence of 
such as, by their own -imprudence, and by repeated 
injuries, they have roused to resentment and to ven- 
geance. The system of imprisonment and of flogging, 
however, appears to have been principally the cause 
ofdisaflection : " 1 am well informed, that no flog-^ 
** gings had place in^ the town of Wexford, nor in the 
*• barouics of Forth and Bargy ; and that in those ba- 
" ronies no atrocities were committed before or since 
"the rebellion*." Whatever might have been the 
state of this county, whether it would have continued 
in a state of tranquillity or not, had not these rigorous 
measures been adopted ; certain it is, that after the 
insurrection did commence, the number of insurgents 
was greatly increased by the lawless conduct of strag- 
gling parties of yeomen, who too frequently shot un- 
armed and unofiending persons in the roads, in the 
fields at work, and even in their houses. 

On the night of the twenty-sixth of May, the stan- 
dard of rebellion was raised for the first time in this 

♦ Note of the Rer. Mr Gordon —See his History of the Rebel- 
lion in Ireland in 1798, &c.' p. 103. 


county, by father John Murphy, Romish priest of 
Boulavogye, coin id only called Father John, a man 
of mean intellects, and a fanatic in religion; but at 
the same time eminently qualified to roune the igno- 
rant multitude to tumult. He kindled a fire on a hill 
called Corrigrua, as a signal for his associates to assem- 
ble, which was answered by another fire on an emi- 
nence contiguous to his own house ut Boulavogue. 
This risipg was communicated to the garrison at £a- 
niscorthy by a female named Piper, the daughter of a 
widow whose house the insurgents had assaulted, and 
from which she had escaped by leaping out at a win- 
dow, and flying to Enniscorthy on horsebacks The 
house was situated at a place called Tiucurry, about 
four miles from Enniscorthy. The insurgents wound- 
ed the widow, broke the arm of one of her daughter, 
who was with child, and slew her nephew, a youDg 
man named Candy. . 

Murphy, having burned spme protestant houseS) 
proceeded to a place called the Harrow ; where he en- 
gaged and defeated a party of the Camolin yeomen 
infantry, commanded by lieutenant Bookey, who was 
slain in the commencement of the action while advanc- 
ing before his men to harangue the insurgents. This 
beginning of hostilities, and the success by which it 
was attended, brought great numbers to join the re- 
bels, so that on the succeeding morning, Whitsunday, 
[May 27.] two very considerable bodies had collected, 
one on the hill of Oulart, about eleven miles to the, 
south of Wexford ; the other on Kilthoiuas hill, aal 


inrerlor rid§e of Slyeeve Bwee mountain, about nin^' 
niijes westward of Gorey. These bodies of insurgents • 
were mixed multitudes of persons of both sexes and 
all ages. Against the rebels assembled at Oulart, > 
commanded by father John Murphy in person, was^ - 
detached, under the command of lieutenant-colonel 
Foote^ one hundred and ten chosen men of the North 
Cork miUtia« On the advance of the king^s troops, a 
party descended from the southern side of the hill, ap« 
parently with intention to have engaged them. These 
were broken and dispersed at the first onset, and fled 
with pjrecipitation to the northern side of the hill, 
whither they were pursued with so little stpprehensioa 
of resistance, that no rank or order was observed. On , 
reaching the northern summit, they were informed 
that' a considerable body of cavalry had that morning 
been observed approaching the hill, in the direction 
whither they were flying, and that their intention was 
either io intercept them in their retreat, or to co-ope- , 
rate with the infantry in a joint attack. As thty werc- 
yet so unskilled in military affairs as to regard jm at- 
tack from cavalry the most formidable that could be 
made upon them, and as Father Murphy ejcclaimed 
they most either conquer or ioevitably perish, they 
iirned again upon their pursuers, w1k> bad by this 
lime, breathless with rupniug, nearly gaintd the top. 
3nly about three hundred of the rebels, however, 
ventured to make this desperate attack, whiclj was>so 
budden and impetuofis, that the whole of the troops, 
except the lieutenant-colonel, a Serjeant, and three 
.rivates, were killed ahnost^in an instant j includiugj 
You II. ' B 


one major,' one captain, two lieutenants, and one 

The body of cavalry, for fear of whom the insurgents 
were driven to this desperate exertion of courage, had 
that morning early left Gorey with intention to attack 
them; bat after they had proceeded, about thirteen 
miles, the number and position of the enemy was such 
as to induce them to retreat, which they accomplished 
after killing, some unarmed stragglers and several old 
men whom they found in. the houses. They were ig- 
norant that the North Cork militia had that morning 
marched to attack the same body. 

Against the rebels assembled at Kilthomas bill, con- 
sisting of between two and three thousand armed men, 
besides women, children, &c. a body of about three 
hundred yeomen, iniantry and cavalry, marched, and 
were more successful than their brethren at Oulart, , 
The infantry of this little army, flanked at a consider- | 
able distance on the left by the cavalry, advanced up 
the hill against the rebels, who were posted on the 
summit, with the utmost intrepidity; and the insur^i 
gents were so panie^struck by ft few discharges of mus- 
ketry, that they fled, and were pursued with the loss 
of about a hundred and fifty men. The victors also, 
in the course of seven miles march, burned two catho 
lie chapels, and about a hundred cabins and farm* 

Meantime the victorious body of Oulart, undei 


father Murphy, elated with their success, marched 
and took possession of Camolin, a town six miles west- 
ward of Grorey, whither its "loyal inhabitants had fled 
for refuge. The whole country presented the most 
rueful aspect of civil warfare — ^houses- in flames, part 
fired by the rebels, and part by the military ; while the 
frighted inhabitants were flying in all quarters; the 
protestants to the towns, the Romanists to the hills, 
or to join the rebel parties of their persuasion. From 
Camolin, the rebels advanced to Ferns, two miles fur- 
ther, from whence the loyalists had fled toEnniscorthy, 
six juiles to the south. On the same morning the gar- 
rison of Carnew, nine miles from Gorey, consisting 
of three yeomanry corps, in all about two hundred 
men, attacked a large body of rebels who were prepar- 
ing to assault that town, and compelled them to fly 
to Ferns, with the loss of . nine killed and two taken 

Father Marphy found himself now in sufch strength 
that he determined, on Monday the twenty-eighth, 
the day after his victory at Oulart, to bassard an at- 
tack on the town of Enniscorthy, which was garrison- 
ed by about three hundred men; as by the following 
return: — 

North Cork militia. 

Capts, Subs, Sergs. Drums, «. § F. 

Capt. Snowe^s company, i i ^ 3 9 56 

Capt. De Courcy'B do. o 1 s ^ 24 

TQtal of North Cork, i 9 5 3 80 


Return of the garrhan covUmnedm 

Captst Sub». Sergs. Drums,. ILSflT, 

Brotigbt over of N. Cork. 






Enniscorthy infantry* 
Capt. Pounden 
Do. supplementary, 






Scarawalsh infantry. 
Capt. Comocky 






Enniscorthy cavalry, 
Capt. Ricbardi, 













Officers names* 

North CcM'k — Captain Snowe> lieatefDant Bowei2> 
ensign Harman. 

Enniscorthy infantry— Captain PoundeDy lieute- 
nants Drury and Hunt* 

Supplementary — lieutenant Pounden. , 

. Scarawalsh infantry-— Captain Cornock, lieatenanls 
Garden and Uudd. 

Lieutenant Spring on half-pay, and formerly lieu- 
tenant of the sixty- third regiment, joined the troop* 
a volunteer. 


The rebels, amomiting to about seven tboasand, 
eight hundred of whom were armed with musketst 
appeared before the town about one oMock in the 
afternoon. Enniscorthjr, situate on both sides of the 
river Slaney, over which there is a stone bridge, is a 
market, a post, and a borough town. The market* 
hoase, court-house, and principal streets are on the 
sooth side. On the north are two suburbs called 
Templeshannon and Drumgoold, which extend . 
close to Vinegar Hill, a mountain about twelve miles 
from the town of Wexford, sixteen from Ross, eigh« 
teen from GU>rey, eight from Tahmon, six from Ferns, 
and ten from Newtown*Barry. The river being navi- 
gable with the tide, it was a place of considerable 
' trade, and contained between four and five thousand 
inhabitants. As intelligence had been received at 
nine o'clock that the enemy was aiivancing against the 
town, the garrison had their different positions and 
rallying posts immediately assigned them by captain 
Snowe, as commanding oflBcer. The North-Cork were 
stationed on the bridge ; the Enniscorthy cavalry in 
the street leading to it from the town ; and the Ennis- 
corthy and Scarawalsh infantry at the Duffreygate- 
hill on the Carlow road. A considerable guard was 
also posted at the market-house, where the arms and 
ammunition were lodged; and another- guard over 
some suspicious persons confined in the castle. As 
the rebels approached towards the Duffrey-gate, in a 
strong column of about a mile in length, where many 
avenues led into the town, captains Co mock and 
Ponoden led their yeomen forward, in a lineab^ iC 

Vol. IL C 


foor hundred yards from the gate; on which the ene^ 
iny halted ahoot the same distance from them, aad 
parties filed off ahoot half a mile to the right and left 
of the main hody, with design to outflank the yeo- 
ipen. After this movement, they advanced a few 
pace8» drove a multitude of cattle and horsep a^inst 
the troops, and gave a general volley from right to 
left; so effective that captain Cornock, and lieuteqants 
Hunt and Pounden, were wounded, the two latter 
iportally; and several privates killed and wounded. 
The yeomen returned the tire with considerable effect ; 
but the rebels continued to advance, firing at the 
same time with such precision, that lientenant Hunt, 
who had served during great part of the American 
war, astonished at their steadiness and celerity » de- 
clared that he had never, before experienced so haavy 
^d well directed a fire. As the rebels continued to 
extend their wings, the yeomen deemed it prudent to 
retire near to the town, where they dispatched a mes- 
i^ge to captain Snowe, who defended the bridge, to 
require him to hasten, to their assistance. That gem- 
tleman immediately marched to their aid with the 
North Cork militia; but understanding that the rebels 
were moving towards the bridge, he retreated to his 
former station in order to defend it : ordering the ca- 
valrj to cover his rear, a large body of the enemy hav- 
^ig advanced to his last position. These captain Ri- 
chards accordingly charged and dispersed, but had 
nine of his corps killed and three wounded, and six- 
teen horses killed. Captain Snowe arrived at tEe 
bridge in time to prevent the enemy from crossing. 


MeaDtime the troops at the Duffrej-gate, finding 
they mast quickly be surrouaded by the long extend- 
ed wrings of the enemy, if they continued to hold their 
position, divided themselves into small parties; and 
occupying the different avenues leading into the town* 
defended them for some time with the greatest spirit 
and resolution; though the streets in which they 
fought had been fired by some of the disaffected inha- 
bitants, in order to aunoy them. These brave men» 
however, were at length compelled to retreat to the 
market-house, where they again made a stand. The 
rebels now attempted to ford the river in many places, 
but were galled* from the brdge, which had become 
the station of defence. So fluctuating was the success 
of the day, during several hours, that many of the 
inhabitants, in order to avoid the fury of the prevailing 
party, had alternately displayed the orange and the 
green ribbon. At length the rebels, fording the river 
both above and below the bridge, some of them up to 
the middle, others to the neck in water, entered the 
eastern part of the town and fired it; when the garri- 
son retreated in great disorder towards Wexford, four- 
teen miles distant, having expended the whole of their 
ammunition, though they had repeatedly filled their 
pouches from the militia magazine. An instance of- 
intrepidity displayed by a yeoman, we deem not un- 
worthy of notice : a spent ball having lodged in his 
neck, he had it Extracted by the assistance of an ofli« 
cer ; and calmly charging his piece with it, returned it 
to the enemy. The garrison, in this obstinate engage- 
ment, lost eighty-eight men, among whom were cap- 
C 2 


tain Pounden of the supplementary yeomenj lieute* 
nant Hunt of the Enniscorthy infant ly, and li^ite- 
nant Garden of the Scarawalsfa. Besides these, many 
of a large body of loyalists who joined the troops as 
volunteers, armed with guns, pistols, swords, &c. fell 
in the action. The rebels lost about three huudred 
men. As many of the protestant inhabitaiits as had 
time to escape, fled in distraction to Wexford, which 
they accomplished with difficulty. The weather was 
fine, and they were not pursued. The following^ ac- 
count of the escape of the rev. Mr. Handcock, rector 
of Kilcormuck, and his family, will convey to the 
reader an adequate idea of the situation of the loyalists. 
Mr Handcock had personally fought in defence of the 

** ^Finding that we could no longer keep our groand, 
<* I rushed singly through the streets, with a blunder* 
*^-buss cocked, and presenting it at every peraon who 
" looked at me, running for my life, but without the 
** faintest hope of saving it, or that of my Iainil3r^ 
'* yet determined to share their fate ; and with greats 
** difficulty getting into my house, locked and barrio 
" cadoed by the affrighted inmates, I dragged my 
** wife down stairs with my children, jtistas they s^^t:; 
«* in her sick room ♦ ; and observing which way tH C3 
*^ fugitives were moving out of the town, I forc^c) 
** them along with the tragical cavalcade, until 

♦ She lay-in only iw6 days before. 


*' wife, overpowered with terror and the heat of thft 
*' Baiuesy fell on a burning pile of rubbish, where, un* 
" able myselfy from &tigue, to raise her, she would 
" have beeu suffocated, or trampled to death, had not 
" a gallaot fellow of the North-Cork militia, wounded, 
" and scarce able to drag bis legs after him, assisted 

" me, fiweariag the Muhster oath, • By J s you 

*' did not forsake us, and I will not desert you.' The 
*^ poor fellow accordingly stuck by us till w^ arrived 
*' at Wexford. In return for this, having got my wi€e 
** and children behind or before mounted yeomen, I 
** prDcnred a horse for his wife, and carried his mus- 
*^ ket as far as I was able* When we came within three 
. " or four miles of Wexford, we were met by the yeo- 
** men cavalry of it, who turned out on hearing our 
** disaster, to cover our retreat." 

Otivthe morning after the re))els got po^sessb^n^f the 

town, it p^res^nted a dreadful scene of conflagration. 

Part of it was entirely consiimed; and in part the 

flames were spreading with the greatest fury. Above 

four hundred dwelling-houses, warehouses* &c. were 

thus destroyed. The rebels, after having formed a 

camp on Vinegar hill, entrenched it, and erected 

some batterie«» stationed a very strong garrison in 

Enniscorthy, and placed picquet guards, centinels, 

and videts, in all the avenues and roads leading to it 

for some miles round ; which were relieved every day 

from the camp on the hilK The church of Ennis- 

corthy having been stripped by the victors, they con- 

▼eyed the bell to their camp, where it was employed 




for the purpose of marking the hours, and was to be 
rung as an alarum in case of surprise. An old wind- 
mill at the top of the hill was converted into a prison 
for loyalist prisoners* These were all tried by a court- 
martials and on being condemned, were led to the 
front of the rebel line, where they were either shot pr 
piked to death. On the morning of the twenty-ninth, 
tjie r^ liels ^xeci^te^ up l.ess^ th^^n twenty«»four persom^^ 


The town of Wexford, whither the garrison of Erf- 
niscorthy and as many of the loyal inhabitants a» 
could make their escape, had retreated, had been in n 
state of the greatest alarm and contitemation since the 
commencement of the insurrection, especially since 
the defeat of the royal . troops at the battle of 
Oulartby father Murphy, on the twenty-seventh. The 
{j;ariison had now laid aside all thoughts of giving the 
enemy battle in the field, and confined themselves to 
making every preparation for a vigorous defence* 
Amongst other measures taken for this purpose, all firea 
were ordered to be extinguished, and the roofs of thatch- 
ed houses to be stripped, lest those inhabitants who 
were disaffected should assist the ass£ulaats by setting 
fire to the town. 

In consequence of a suspicion of treasonable de* 
Bigns the sheritf and others had resolved to apprehend 
Beauchamp Bagenal Harvey, of Rargycastle, Joha 


Henry Colclough, of Ballyteig, and Edward Fitz- 
gerald, of New park, all of thera gentlemen of the 
county of Wexford ; who were accordingly arrested 
on the twenty-sixth and twenty-seventh, by captain 
Boj'^d, of the Wexford cavalry. On the twenty- 
ninth, Mr Boyd, who had hopes of dispersing the 
insurgents without either giving them battle or mak- 
ing any concession in their favour, or who concluded 
that he might at least be able to divert their attention 
and to retard their progress, visited these three gentle- 
men in prison^ and proposed that one of them should pro- 
ceed to the rebel camp and endeavour to persuade the 
insurgents, to retire to their respective homes. It was 
agreed that Mr Colclough should undertake the 
mission, provided he was allowed to take Mr Fitzge- 
rald with him. When these two gentlemen arrived 
at the camp, the rebels were in a state of the tttmost 
distraction ; being undetermined in their plan of ope- 
rations ; some proposing to attack Newtown-Barry, 
others Ross, others Wexford, many to remain in 
their presept post, and not a few to return for the de- 
fence of their own property, against the Orangemen. 
On the appearance of the two gentlemen prisoners^ 
however^ as they termed them, the divided multitade 
collected around them with loud shouts of joy and 
welcome. When Mr Colclough had delivered bFa 
message, which was treated with neglect, he retired 
to put himself again into the hands of those by whom 
lie had been sent, but Mr Fitzgerald remained with 
the rebels, and that evening accompanied them to a 
oost called Three Rocks, the termination of a l»ng 



I ridge called Forth MountaiD, which fortes the boun- 
dary of the Bargy and Forth barronies. As Three 
Rocks is only two miles and a half from Wexford, and 
as they were now fully determined to attack that town* 
they remained there daring the night. 

Meantime the several saccessful operations of the re* 
belsand their increasing numbers, had spread so great 
an alarm, that, on the morning of the twenty-seventh> 
two hundred of the Donegal militia, commanded by 
lieutenant-colonel Maxwell, and a six pounder, ar* 
rived in Wexford accompanied by colonel Colville^ 
captain Young, and lieutenant Sodou, for the pur- 
pose of streugl|iening the garrison, consisting of the 
remains of the North Cork militia, about three hun- 
dred men ; the Flealthfield and Enniscorthy cavalry, 
captain Ogle*s infantry, the Enniscorthy infantry, the 
Wexford infantry commanded by doctor Jacob, the 
Scarawalsh infantry, and the Wexford and Taghmon 
cavalry* Colonel Maxwell's reinforcement not being 
deemed sufficient, a letter was conveyed to general 
Fawcett at Duncannon-fort from the mayor ofWejf- 
ford> imploring farther assistance, by a Mr Sutton, 
who returned with the exhilerating tidings, that the ge- 
neral would that evening cocproence his march to 
Wexford in person, and bring with him the thirteenth 
regiment, four companies of the Meatli militia, and. a 
party of artillery, with two howitzers. Colonel Max- 
well, on the receipt of this intelligence ; leaving the 
" five passes, which lead into the town, guarded by the 
North Cork mllkia and yeomen, took post with, his 


men on the following morning (May 30), on the 
Winduiill-hill above the town, with intention to march 
against the enemy on the arrival of general Fawcetfs 

That general, however, unfortunately for the royal 
cause, advanced no farther than Taghmon, seven miles 
from Wexford, from whence he sent forward a detach- 
ment of eighty-eight men, eighteen of whom belong- 
ed to the artillery, with the two howitzers, the ivhole 
commanded by captain Adams of the North Cork mi- 
litia. The general was unacquainted with the posi- 
tion of the rebels at Three Rocks, which the detach- 
ment was obliged to pass on its way tS Wexford. At 
the distance of four miles from Wexford, the detach- 
ment observed ten or twelve men on an emioence, and 
immediately prepared for action* As there was no 
further appearance of resistance, the detachment again 
continued its march ;' hot at Three Rocks, they we r 
suddenly attacked by the insurgents, who, raisings a 
white flag, and uttering loud shouts, cut to pieces 
nearly the whole party, together with captain Adams* 
The two howitzers and a considerable quantity of am- 
Blunition were also taken. The general, on intelli- 
gence of this disaster, instead of making any i^ttempt 
to recover the howitzers, fell back with precipitation on 
Dancanno\|[i, from whence he sent his family to Cng^- 
laad, detaining the packet*boat two hours for that 

Meantime intelligence was conveyed to colonel 




Jfaxwell, at Wi,, Imill-hjll, of the same defeat l,v ?ieu- 
:-3nt Faircroush of the Meath militia, and l,e„te..„.t 
I Tch of theartille^,^ M-ho had with ^reatdiffi^ulty e,- 
^'.H-l the alaoghter. That gentleman, ,vl>o could 
"e.,o«,„p|cion of general Fawcett'a retreat, instant- 

• '.dva,,ced to co-operate in the attempt he naturally 
'ncluded would he made to retake .i.e howitzers. 

• IKB he arrived within cannon-shot of the insurgents 
e wa, attacked hy the enemy with the two howitzers, they had drawn to the top of the ridge, and 
"ch they used with a precision, that evinced the 
management of skilful hands.- .After discharging hi. 
^ poander several times in return, the colonel re- 
«tedmgood order to Wexford, there being no ap- 
'•ranee of general Fawcett's army, his flank being ex- 
«ed by the flight of the Tujfhmon cavalry, and the 
Mi^enu having made a movement to surround him. 
' this acUon lieut. colonel Watsen was killed, and 
"> privates wounded. During these transactions, the 

' '?n,ficent wooden bridge • of Wexford had been set 
' fii-e by the disaffected, perhaps vith a view to pre- 
"t the arrival of succours from the opposite side of 
"^ nver, or to cut off the retreat of the garrison, 
"'W the town be taken by the rebels. It was for- 


• Thi» bridge which wu completed in February. I70s itanda 

;z';*'''„,'"r »•>''«'•"'•"' "p'f^''*' '^< "?t^ 'a a™* 

.t „ 1 fi :'^''' '^P'" »»>"'»«"• It .» ouc th.ttua.l fire huo- 
c.u .12 ^"'•"' *"" " "S' "'"' th'rtv-four l.road ; «ta..dini; in 
■■Jty t««t of W4ler. It was bu it by a subKription of £n,ov». 


tunately recovered from the flames by the inhabi- 

On the return of Colonel Maxwell a coancil of ivar 
f was held, by which it was determined that the town 
be eracuated, as untenable, for the Ibllowing rea- 
sons :— ' 

L That the town of Wexford is so situated amid 
surrounding^ hills, as to be indefensible against a nt 
merous enemy, provided withu cannon, by a garriton ( 
only six hundred men. 

IL That many disaffected yeomen had strengthen- 
ed the enemy, and weakened th€ garrison, by desert- 
ing to the rebels ; and that a spirit of motifty and 'dis- 
obedience to orders, appeared amongst the military, 
who were dispirited by the successes of the rebels. 

III. That numbers of disafTected persona wer- 
within the town, furnished with arms and ammu- 
nition, ready to assist the rebels, when they should be- 
gin the attack, and to fire at the garrison from tlu 
houses, whilst they should be engaged with the enemy 
in defence of the town. 

To complete the dismay and distrust of the garr- 
son, the North Cork militia, about half past tei:. 
had deserted their post near the barrack, and marcht . 
to Duncannon, in which retreat they were joined l- 
captain Cornock's yeomen infantry. On all these a*- 


cMaii cdtonel Maswdl iaM^'mtel j aband^jned the 
towoy aeadntg two g«Rtl«iiiea to notify tbo evacuation 
to the rebele* to prevent itaf beiag treated aa if takeo by 
fttorm, and b^an to retreat to the fort of Duiicanaoiit 
twenty-three miles distant^ in svtth coufasion» that» if 
tiie rebela hod pinrstfedy #hiGh w4b stfenaously advised 
by some of ibe leoderey nearly the whole mast in^vttap* 
bly have bel^n deatr oyed« A gteat many loyal inbabi* 
tanl«» ignorant of the intended evacuatiofi, which waa* 
^ deterrntoed on and exocnted' #ith the fleetest |>reci« 
pitattotf^ weFe left itf the power of tlie rebels. Many 
of these crowded oii bourd' the vessels im the harbour, 
in order to take refuj^ in Britwn; but as most of 
the vessels we^ aaanned by Romanists, few of thent 
e&ctod their purpose^ the ships returoing to the har« 
boar wbfla the towa ^as taken possession of by the 
rebeb, aud va-latidiBg the people. The insurgents 
tosfk posaassioiiof Wexford wtthuut opposition i to which 
the Neehtiosm conduct of the king^s troops in their 
flighty boroing cabins, shooting peasants, and coin* 
milting eaery apeoi^ of outrage, sent many to joia 
their sta«idards# 

The northers paMs Of the county of Wexford were, 
in the' mttm time, greatly agitated, as well as 
those of thb south* ^As the judicious and liberal Mr 
Gordon, reetor ofKiHegny, in- the diocese of Ferns, 
by hisresidenoe in ihaf disturbed part of the country ,- 
possessed the . most ample means of information, wao, 
^▼m witoeas himself to several of those scenes which he 
vvUtes ; and. is justly esteemed for Uie vcratf it]r, can^ 
Vol. II. D 


dour, and imfmrttaltty of his details, \re' shall gtre hi« 
pathetic description of the distvesses of the loyalists, 
in and ahout Gorey in that quarter, in his own 
nvords :— 

•« The retreat already mentioned of the yeoman ca* 
valry from Oulart, early on the morning of the 37th of 
May, to Gorey, was followed by great numbers of the 
people hastening to the town for protection 9 and carry- 
ing what they could of their effects with them ; many, 
however, through terror and precipitation, leaving all 
behind. As Gorey consisted only of one street with 
a number of lanes, . was garrisoned by no more than 
thirty of the North Cork militia, under lieutenant 
Swayne, and a number of yeomen, assisted by an lio- 
discipKned crowd, some of whom were armed only 
with pikes,^ to abandon the town, and retreat to Ark** 
low, nine miles to the north, in the county of Wick- 
low, was at first resolved % but afterwards to defend the 
town was determined, carts and waggons being drawn 
by way of ramppts, across the avenues and the street, 
the undisciplined men placed at the windows to fire on 
the approaching enemy, and the disciplined armnged 
about ^e centre of the town* In the evening Tartived 
a reinforcement of the Antrim militia, under Iteule- 
nant Elliot, an experienced and excellent officer ; bat 
as accounts of devastations and murders, received in 
the course of the day, seemed to indicate the ap- 
proach pf aa army of rebels, the apprehensions of 
whom were rendered far more terrible by the news of 
the North Cork militia skmghtered at Oulart, orders 


wereiasiied to iibandon th^ towa aiid> retire to Arkr 
low, at fire o'clock <m the following iiiormng» the 
twenty-eighth of May. 

'' The earlof Coortown who had resoWed tbdefead 
Gorey, if posBibVe, and who, for want of an adeqvale 
force, was obliged- to abaDdon it, had embodied a 
troop ofyeomaa cavalry in October, of the ye^r 1796, 
aad had added to it a body of infantry, and a conai^ 
derable nnmber of supplementary men* In other 
parts of the conntry, where troops of this kind had 
been embodied, snbscriptiona had been raised, and a 
stock-parse formed, for the . defraying a variety of 
extraordinary eixpences ; but not a farthing was cmi- 
tribated by the gentlemen of the neighbourhood of 
Gorey to assist the earl, on whom was thrown the 
whole expence, and who exerted himself with an un- 
con^moii assiduity and activity^ As he had performed 
much in the providing of a force to obviate or suppress 
rebellion, so his treatment of the common people, by 
his siifable manners, had been always such as wa&best 
adapted to produce content in the lower classesr and 
prevent a firooeness to insurrection. T consider myself 
9A bound in strictness of justice to sbciety, thus far to 
represent the conduct of this nobleman. Doubtless, 
the people in the neighbourhood of Gorey were the 
last and least violent of all in the county of Wex- 
ford, in rising against the established authority; 
and certainly the behaviour of the Stopford family 
ia that neighbourhood, toward their inleriorsi, 

htd alwajt lieea rtnmrkabljr cencW^liiig and liv- 

*^ Af the order to retreftt wet very todden, on ac- 
«M»it ef the iniagiiied rapid iipproacb of a reslMleas and 
ftrofioua eneaayj a mekmcholy seeoe of trepidiition, 
confiiBion, an4 fiighti was tlie * cotweqnence ; the af- 
frighted crowd of people ruDiHDg in M £re<Hiofi« for 
their horses, faarneseing their cars add placing their 
foaiilies on them with piecipilation^ and escaping as 
•peedily as possiUe IVeai 1^ tsNva. The rood waa soon 
iUkd to a great eirtent with a tram 6f cars loaded wkh 
vomea and children, accompanied hy a moHHiide on 
fcot, many of whom were women with iniants on thm 
hacks* The weather hcirtg hot and dry, the cloud of 
dust rawed by the ftrgitive multitude, of whom t with 
my family was a part, rendered respiration dtAeuH« 
The reception we found at Arklow was not well spited 
to our calamitous condition. Alhiost funting with 
banger, thirst, fatigue, .and want of sleep, we were 
denied admittance into the town, by orders of the 
commanding offieer of the garrison, captain Rowan of 
the Antrim regimerit ; and great part of the poorer fu- 
gitives retiring, took tefage that day and night under 
the neighbouring hedges ; but the better sort afrer a 
Ifttle delay, were admitted, on condition of quitting 
the town iu half an hour. The Ibyalists, on permibBioti 
to enter Arktow, were obliged to deliver the>r arms at 
the gate of the barrack to the guard, who promi^^ed to 
restore them ; but, instead of this, they were after- 
wards formed into a pile in theyard of the barrack and 


burned* A ipaa. luvned Taylor, clerk of CamoUii 
chorch, who made some scruple to surrender his arois 
was shot hy.the gvard. After our admission^ our 
ataation was not so comfortable as we might hare ex* 
pecteilf for no refreshmen^could be procured by oicHiey 
for mtti or horses^ aad the hearts of the iababitants io 
general seemed quite hardened against us. But, for 
my own part» I found very humane treatme.nt» After. 
cemaining some tioie ia tbestr^et, my fJBimily were 
courteously invited by a lady^ to whom we were to- 
tally, ttuknown, a Mcs.Hcuate, intaherhou^, where 
we were kindly refreshed, with foodjmddripk ; and 
s gentleman, Mr. Joseph Alford, to whom we were 
equally unkoowD, coming accidently where >we 
were* insisted on our going to his house, three miles 
from Arklpw, where w£ found a nuq&ber of refogee% 
all of whom were treated with the oiost humane aV 

'^.Qojey, qpieaiitim«, was in a Angular predicament*^ 
almndoued b/ the loyalists, wliile the sert of the iuba* 
bitants in fear and dubious anxiety, remained closely 
shot within their houses, insomuch that, all was 
ia. silence aud solitude, except^that an uapripeipled 
female,, fraqtia with joy at the flight of her imagined 
eDeinies, capered in an extraordinary manner in the 
street ; and that a pack of hounds. belonging to the fu- 
gitive gentry, expressed their feebpgs on the occasion 
l)y a hideous and mournful yell ; and that six men 
^ho had been that morning, though unarmed, taken 
prisoners, shot through the body and kft for dead ia 



tbe stieety were wrUtnog mth f«io<<«MMie of 9bm»<in 
p«rticiikr» was lyiag ^MMi a «rd), 9m^ though on- 
abletospeokt throattsod witibh»rfi»fcapnile«lsiit whe 
had ni» back ii&Id the tow0 lor aonathiog- which he 
had forgotten. The yeooiea retamod ia a lew hoitra 
to Gorey» hiat imiseAotely retreated again to- A«k- 
low; aiidonooftbenit ittiidiag through the farmer; 
met wi^ a daageroiia accident ;—^ quaottty o#gian. 
pov^or had hee» apiUed on the jptfnm&skt hf the 
mlilia in. their haaty retreat^ whirbt hf » sfjark atrwek 
by oae of the hf^aea ahoos* blew iip» and Muged both 
hofao and aiaa iu a frightfnl aftaaiier^ wiihoQ^ however^ 
aoy fatal efleeta. As the jpehela had hent thcSr tnarch 
towafd the soothera porta, Gorey feoBaioed unmoleEt- 
od» thoogh destitato of defence. FiHed as it w» with 
« vaitety fttgooAs^ great >art of which had beeii.ear- 
mfd tbitlier for safety from the neighboortng parla» rt 
IMPQseated a tenpttiog object of depredatiou ;'btit the 
pilferiog of the lower class of the towns peogie was 
preveiited bfr the better sort of Romanisi iah^tants, 
t|ho formed themselveo iato gaa^d)^ to* protect the 
houses of their pr<^estant neigi^>oin'8 ; and when a 
mnUitiide of women had asaet^hled at soaae distance to 
coiae and plunder thti town, they dispersed in a fng^ht 
on the receipt of false newi that the Aticiei»ifc«iMtish 
Regiment of cavalfy was approaching. At leDgt-h"^ J«»hn 
Hunter Gowaoy Esq. a magistrate who had in a most 
' meritorious and suecessfol maaner exerted himself many 
years in the apprehending and proaeenting of robbers, 
and had been partiy rewarded for his servicea by a 
pension £rom government of jglbd a year^ coliected a 


b^Af^ mm to gttmNm the town. On th* tUrticA 
md tliirty4ttst of Maj , tbe greater . part of tbe 
fsgkifvca Mtttrae^ fitHn Arklow. to their hcMues^ 
aikl the nitt^a. and 3reoai«Br7, who hod ahandoued 
Oorejr oa the tweatj^eighth, re^anied thetr etution 

.*f be ittrarig^Hits faMmjBT i*^'^ taken posBestioti of all the 
-aoiiAem parte of the conntj^ except Bow'aad Dmv 
cMliieii an the south western border, hegao to tarn 
4heir attention t«wa»ds the nordf aido*' For thiis par- 
poaetbeiefaei foreowaa marched, on< the thirty-^tt 
of Mvyi to the Three. Rockft, and there formed into 
three diMMw, one under Beauehafi^pBagenal lilir* 
ref^ (who had been hherated aa soon as the royal forees 
evaeiwted Weslord») and Father PhHp Roche of PoU^- 
paaraey, destined to march agaiiwt Ross, another iAn- 
' der captain Doyleand captwu Redmond of iheQueeti^s 
Coantjt nephew to father Edward Redmond, of 
Fernsy who, wi& father Kearns^ aceompanted this 
hody to Vine^r Hill, destined to attack the beantirul 
htttatowjiofBttnclody, better known by the name of 
Newto«ra-^larry» situate ten mrlea northward of rSonis* 
.worthy 3 and the. Urard divimn under the command of 
Aatboi^ Perry^ father Mnrphy of Ballyeaanow, and 
fiftther Mi»rpl^<ofSouUav<^iie destined tomarsh against 

Fart of t)te dmsion enoampedon Vinegar-hi1l>abottt 
five tboosand men, lAotfd to the ottack of Newtown* 
hairy early c» the momioj of the firMf of June* The 


garrifion coaaisted . of two boodred and thirty of the 
KiDg^s covoty milii^a, with two b^ttatioo gufis, com^ 
manded by colonel L'£8trange ; eighty yeomaa in-* 
fantry, sixty Newtown-barry cavalry, under captain 
Kerr» twenty of the foarth dragoons and Carlow cavalry, 
under captain Cornwall, besides Tolunte^rs, in sU 
about five hundred men. The rebds advanced ia two 
columns ; one on each side of the Slaney ; intelUgeoee 
of which was conveyed to-the garrison 'by a recaunsi- 
tring party under captain Kerr. «The town is hiuitoQ 
the west side of the. Slaney. 'Among the leaders of the 
enemy was. Father ELearns, a man of gigantic staittire» 
and of undaunted courage and ftrocity • The attack 
was begun by a he^vy fire on the town irom a bvass sis 
pounder, a howitzer, and some swivel guns* Accon)- 
iagto the common practice of the military oiBoerseR'' 
trusted witt| the defence of the kingdom of Ireland, 
wl^ether proceeding from want of courage or knowledge 
of their profession, it is not for us to determine, colonel 
L'Estrange abandoned the town with his tro<^ ; and 
would have left it, an easy prey to the rebels, defend- 
ed only by a few loyalists, had not lieutenant-colonel 
Westnera at length prevculed on lum to murch back 
again for its defence. The rebels, meantime, by no 
means s.uspiqious of the return of the troops^.had-rubh- 
ed in confusion into the town, intent upon plunder 
and d evastation. The attack of the colonel's men was 
consequently effective, especially as he was preceded 
by the two pieces of cannon. The jrebels were roated 
with the slaughter of two hundred men; while only 
two of the loyalists were killed. Had the rebels suc^ 


eeeded in iim eiit€r|pme,a G9aiflDotiic«lioa would hmwe 
been opened between them ^nd their brethfeo in the 
ttmaif of CsfIow. 

Met till afler the-eogogement wee eoiK*loded» a veiii* 
Idrcement armed from Clennegall, two railee and a 
hair distant, ander command of lieutenant Yoang, of 
tbe Donegal Ailttia^ who had been ordered to march 
immediately to Newt?yw]>>harfy ; bntwho had tbonght 
pvo|i€V lo delay two hour»*i« the esocntion of four sim->. 
picffooi ^reofie, no^itiietaiidiog the earneit vemon^ 
«tnaeeeof many moat Yeepeetable inhabitai»te» and of 
lieoteiMint Holmes Jtiadce, an officer of the North 
Cork, wfaolielieved the eofierera to be innooeat Eveti 
afterthiabeFoicexecuttoner^whose superior discerament 
could thus deteef and pontsb goilt, though perhapa 
fibe had not betrayed heraelf by a look, word, action^ * 
or e?en thonghtt did set out, he chose a circuitouB 
route, upwards of double the distance of the straigM 
road ; .wbicb brought upon him the iH-natured reflec- 
tions of many persons, doubtless eminently deficient 
in that prudence so necessary in haxardoHS cases, that 
the lieutenant was neither ambitious of sharing in' the 
lioiieur ef a victory, nor willing to risk his person 
amidst the disastrous eonsequences of a defeat. To 
«ach evil-minded persons this redbubtable lieutenant 
might have replied in the wonls of Fingal to his cele» 
twited son, Osssian, 

^ Nfver «c«i; the battle, Mr skan it whea it conas.** 

OssiAH's PoaifS. 

»4 REBELLION IN ltit.tAi^t>. 


This gentleman^ moreorer, disiiogaished himself 
hj a super-abundaat care of the soldiery under 
his command ; having, on his arrival at Clonnegall, 
not only insisted that his men should be comfortably 
situated in every other respect, but that they should 
be accommodated with feather heds^ for which pur- 
pose several loyal persons were turned out of their owa 
beds by his orders ! To the remonstrances of other 
officers, not so skilful in the exercise of authority as 
himself, he used courageously to reply, ^' / am com- 
*' manding officer, and damn the croppies,*' After 
his departure to Newtown-barry, this gentleman never 
returned to CTbnnegall, in consequence of which the 
town remained under the command of that truly te- 
sjsectable officer, lieutenant Justice, who preserved so 
strict an attention to discipline, that, though Cloune* 
gall is in the immediate vicinity of Carnew, it wasde- j 
fended with such intrepidity as never to fall into the ' 
hands of the enemy. In the action at Newtown- 
barry, two cart loads of ammunitions^ ^c« were taken. 
■ ( _ • I 

•* Hills of a commanding prospect were. always cho- 
- sen by the rebels for their stations or posts.' These 
posts they termed camps, thejigh they were destitute 
of tents, except a few for their chiefs ; and the people 
remained in the open air in vast multitudes, men and 
women promiscuously, some lying covered with blan- 
kets at tiight, and some without other covering than i 
'the clothes which they wore in the day. This mode of 
warfare was favoured by an uninterrupted conlAtiuaDce 
•f dry und warm weather, to such a length of time as 


is very unasnal in Ireland in that season, or any season 
of the year. This was regarded by the rebels as a 
particular interposition ^f Providence in their favour; 
and some among them are said to have declared, in .a 
prophetic tone, that not a drop of rain was to fall until 
they should be masters of all Ireland. On the other 
hand, the same was considered by the fugitive loyal- 
ists as a merciful favour of Heaven, since bad weather 
must have miserably augmented their distress, and 
have caused many to perish. In these encampments 
erstatrons, among such crowds of riotous uudiscip* 
fined 'men,' trader oo regular authority, the greatest 
disoider must be supposed to have prevailed. Often 
wlieo a rebel was in a sound sleep in the night, he was 
robbed by some associate of his gun, or some other 
article at that time valuable : to sleep flat on the belly, 
with the hat and shoes tied under the breast, for the 
prevention of stealth, was a custom with many. Thiey 
were in nothing more irregular than in the cooking of 
provisions, many of them cutting pieces at random out 
of cattle -ficarcdy dead, without waiting to flay them^ 
and roasting those pieces on the points of their pikes, 
together with the parts of the hide which b«ilonged to 
them. The heads of the cattle were seldom eaten* 
but generally left to rot on the surface of the ground ; 
and so were often Jarge parts of the carcases, after 
many pieces had been cut from them : which practice 
iuight in a short time have caused a pestilence. 

I *• The station which the rebels chose, when they bent 
their force towards Gorey, was the hill ofCorrigrua, 


seven miles towa?d« the aoath^west tnm thmt iowiu A 
body of above* a tViovsajad, some say four tb^uMB^t 
detached from thin post^ took possessiopr of the \\%tU 
yillage of Ballycannow, four miles from Gorey, to the 
floutby on the evenings oT the tifst of June^ and vfre 
advaoGtDfr to fix their station on the hill of BaHyma* 
xiaan» iiiid*^«y between* tha above«*iiaiaed viHage and 
town, when they were m^t near the village by the gai^ 
risofi of Gorey» who. had marcb^ to stop their pro- 
gress. Having rebirned home the preceding de^ with 
my fomily from Arklow^ I happened to beat thattims 
on tiie road dear Gorey, when a man on the top of a 
house cried oat to me that all the country to the so^th 
was ia a blase ; fur straj^ling parties of the rebels at- 
tettdiavrt'h^motioaa of the main body, had^ a^ nsual' 
set fire to many houaes. 1 had hardly got a view of 
the conflagration, when I heard a di»<^harge of tdus- 
ketry, which continued some timer without intermk* 
ston. Since I hii»e learned the particulars of tkfs en* 
garment, I consider it, though small and tinncttieedy 
AS one «f the most; brilHaiit of the erpppy wae* 

^ The little army which had marched from Geregr 
on this occasion^ consisted of twmity of the Antrio^ 
militia^ under lieuteiiaot Elliotv wh0 direoted the 
movements of the whole; twenty of the North^Cofk^ 
aibeat fifty yeoman inikatr)', imil tiding aapplementary 
men ; and three troope of yeoman eavniry,. the laat of 
whom, 1 mean all the cavalry, were useless in battle. 
Arthe rebels had not procured* aocanite intiriligcnee, 
and as troops from Dublin bad been* iOii»o^ days* ei^ 


^ted, the cloud of dits^ exoited by the little wnAT 
of Qorey» caused them t^ imagine that iei foitttidable 
ibrce was comiug^ against them^ Under this peraua* 
iloD^ they disposed tM, themselves to the best adTaHi>fc 
ta^, (ot they might easily bftve surrounded and de* 
stroyed the little band O(»p0sed to them^ They at-i^ 
tempted it howevef in a disorderly manner; but so 
^egtt1ar and ^eady a Ere was matntained bytfaemi*i 
litis, particularly the Antrim^ that the half«disctplined 
supplementats of th^ yebm^i etteoiiraged thereby^ 
Whaled with equal steadiness ; and such was the eSfeetf 
that the rebels werift totally routed^ and ded in the 
utmost confusion in all directions* The yeomen ca^ 
valry, notwithstanding repeated orders fl'Om Iteute^ 
tiant Elliot, delayed too longf through mistake of oa^ 
oftbeif oflicerS) to pursue the runaways^ otherwise a 
great-skughter might have be<»o made* TheVictori- 
pus band advancing^ fired some houses in Ballycan* 
DOW, and spread such a terror, that no attempt was 
made against them from the po»t of Oorrigrua ; so that 
they returned safely to Qorey» with abore a hundred 
captive houses and othei" spoil. 

** In this engagement^ and all others in tlie begin* 
uing of the rebellion, the tebels elevuted th^r gu«s too 
much for executtoui so that only three loyalists wer^ 
wounded, none killed* The number of blain on the 
opposite side was probably about sixty* perhaps near 
a hundred, Msiny fine horses* which the routed party 
was obliged to leav«^ behind » were by them killed of 
maimedt thi^ they might be rendered useless* The 
VoLilL E 


hardiness and agility of the labouring cUflsesof'^e 
Irish were on tbia» and other occasionA in the coaite of 
the rebellioot very remarkable. Their swiftsen of 
foots &D<1 activity in passing ovet brooks and ditcbes, 
were such that they could -not always in crossing the 
fields be overtaken by horsemen ; and with so much 
strength of constitution were they found to be endued, 
that to kill them was difficult, many, after a multi- 
tude of stabs, not expiring till ^ their necks were cut 
tcross. In fact, the number of persotM who in the va- 
rious battles, massacre^ and skirmishes of this war, 
were shot through the body, and recovered of their 
wounds, has greatfy surprised me. A small occur- 
rence after the battle, of which a son of mine was a 
witness, may help to illustrate the slate of the country 
at that time: — Two yeomen coming to a brake or 
clump of bjushes, and observing a small motion as if 
wome itersous were hiding there^ one of them fired 
into itf and the shot was answjered by a most 
piteous and loud screech of a child« The other yeo- 
man was then urgfid by his companion to fire; but he 
being a gentleman, and less ferocious, instead of fif' 
ing, commanded the concealed persons to. appear 
when a poor woman and eight children, almost naked, 
one of whom was severely wounded, came trembling 
from the brake, where they had secreted themselvei 
for safety^ 

'' Disappointed by the defeat at Ballycannow, of 
taking post on Ballymanaan-hill on the first of June, 
and of advancing thence to Gorey on the secondi tbt 


rebel army on Corrigrua-hill remained in that Btation 
till the fourth. Meantime the long and anxiously 
expected army under raajor*general Loftus arrived iii 
Gorejr^ The aight of fifteea 'hundred fine treops^ 
with five pieces of artillery, filled every loyal breast 
with confidence, insomuch that not a doubt vibm en*- 
tcrtaiDed of the immediat e and total dispersion of the 
rebels. The plan was to march the army in two divi- 
sions, by two different roads> to the post of Corri- 
gnia, and to att^k the enemy with combined forces^ 
in which attack they expected the co-operation df 
some other troops.- But while this arrangement wa< 
made, on the fourth of Jnoe, by the army, the rebels 
were preparing to quit Corrigrua, and to march to 
Gorey ; for by a letter from Gorey to a priest named 
Blnlip Roche, then in bed in the ho'use of Ridiard 
Donovan, esq. of Ballymore, at the f<r)t of the above- 
mentioned bill, .information was received by the rebel 
thiefs, about one o'clock in the morning, of the ia- 
tended motions of the army. The publicity of the 
adopted plan of operations, by which the disaffected 
in the town were enabled to give this information to 
theeoemy, was probably occasioned by the impru- 
dence of colonel Walpple, who claimed an indepen- 
dent and discretionary command. ^ Intelligence of the 
plan of the rebels march wa» carried to the army with 
the most eager dispatch^ by a respectable farmer cal- 
led Thomas Dowling, who made application to several 
officers, all of whom despised his information, and 
some threateoed him with-imprisonment if he should 
notecase hia noftfeNf^.— The army began its march in 

E a 


two divisions, according to the above plan, about the 
same time that the rebels began theirs in one bdiyt 
The latter were met nearly mid-way between Gorey 
and Corrigrua by the division nnder colonel Walpole 
—a gentleman much more fit for the place of a coun 
tier than that of a military leader«~ As no scouts nof 
flanking parties were emplbyed by this commander^ 
he knew nothing of the approach of the enemy until 
he actually saw t^eip, at the distance of a few yardS) 
advancmg on him in a place called Tiibbemeering. 
Walpole seems not to have been deficient in courage, 
The action commenced in a confused manner. The 
rebels poured a tremendous fire from , the fields on 
both -sides of the road, and he received a ball through 
the head in a few minutes. His troops fted in the ut* 
Tuost digprder, leaving their cannon, consisting of two 
six-pounders and a smaller piece, in the hands of the 
enenay^ Tbey were pursued as far as Gbrey, in their 
flight through which, they were galled by a fire of guns 
from some of the bouses^^ where some rebels had taken 
their station. The unfortunate loyalists of Crorty, 
who a few minutes before had thought thenaselves per- 
fectly secure, fled, as many as could escape, to Ark-« 
low wfith the routed army, leaving all their effects be« 
hind. . 

<* While Walpole'^di vision was engaged with the ene- 
my, general Loflus, marching by a different road, 
that of Ballycannow, and hearing the noise of battle, 
detached seventy men, the grenadier company of the 
Antrim militia, across the fields to its asMtance, This 



body was intercepted by the rebels, who, were in pur- 
suit of the routed army, aod almost all killed or 
taken ; and as near forty men of Wal pole's division 
were lost, the detriment on the whole amount was 
considerable. Meanwhile the general, ignorant of 
the colonel's iate, and uilable to bring his artilleiy 
across the fields, continued hid tnar<.>h along the high* 
way, and coming round by a long circuit to the field 
of battle, wds at last made acquainted with the event. • 
He then followed the march of the rebels towards 
Gorey, and coming within view of them, found them 
posted on Gorey-hill, a commanding eminence, at the 
foot of which the town is built. Convinced that he 
could neither attack them in their post with any pro- 
bpect of success, nor pass by them into the town with- 
out great hazard, he retreated to Carnew, and in his . 
retreat was sainted ^'ith a fire of the artillery of the 
rebels from the top of ,the hill, whither they Jiadj by 
strength of men,^drawn the cannon taken from Wal- 
pole*» troops, beside €ome pieces brought- from Wex- 
ford. Thinking Carnew an unsafe post, though the 
gentlemen of that nei^bourhood thought, and still 
think, quite otherwise, as he was there at the head of 
twelve hundred effective men, he abandoned that part 
of the country to the rebels, and retreated nine miles 
farther, to the town of Tullow, in the county of 

- Had the -insurgents followed up this signal advan- 
tage, and proceeded immediately to Arklow and Wick- 
lowj those towns must inevitably have yielded t* 
E 3 



their victorious amie ; and thus they^ would hare open* 
ed a passage to the metropolis :-— But instead of acting 
on this occasion with that celerity so oecessaiy in their 
then posture of affairs^ they lost fire days in the 
plunder of Gorey and its vicinity, destroying at the 
same time the church, and the. two elegant seats »f 
Messrs Rams at Clonaltiil and Ramsfort^ 

CHAP. VltR. 

XHE body of rebels under Beauchamp Bagenal IJuT'^ 
vey, deatiDcd ta attack Ross, wha had encamped oiv 
Carrickbyrne-hill, were in the meantime acquiring a- 
great increase of numbers. They continued in their, 
encampment four days, during which period partie» 
were dispatched througfidut the adjacent country to 
bring in loyalists, who were tried by a court-martiaU 
Several of these w^re, executed on the first of June* 
Others were imprisoned ia the house and bam of Mr 
King of Scullabegue under Carrickbyme-hill. 

On the fourth ef June, Harrey moii^ed to Corbet- 
hill, one mile from Ross, which he was determined to 
attack with'hiswh<Ue force on the following morning, 
leaving at Carrickbyme a strong guard of three hiln* 
dred men, under Father John Murphy. The rebel 
force amounted to about twenty thousand men. The 
garrison, consisting of about twelve hundred effective 
men, commanded by general Johnson, together with 
one hundred and fifty yeomen, continued under armi 
all night. About four) in the morning, ^agenal Hai> 


yey, confident of success, but at the same thne eager 
to save the effusion of blood, sent a Mr Furlong with a 
flag of truce to summon the garrison to surrender. 
This gentleman was most imprudently shot ; a prac* 
tice, amongst many others equally laudable, too com- 
mon with the roititary oiBcers during the rebellion. 
This, of all their actions, however, was certainly the 
most culpable. Without entering into any discussion 
on the right or vorong principles by which the leader; 
of rebellion were induced to take arms against the go- 
vernment, certainly there can be no impropriety in 
saying that persons sent with proposals from them 
oaght to have been held sacred. Loyalists, who ha J 
the misfortune to be taken by the rebels, and compel- 
led to accompany them, were deterred from attempt- 
ing to escape to any royal troops, which they might of- 
ten have done, lest they should be mistaken for rebtl 
messei^ers, and put to death before they could make 
themselves known. For the same reason such rebels 
as might be inclined to return to their allegiance were 
withheld from taking a step so salutary. Besides, 
might not a whole body of insurgents by commonica^ 
tions of this kind have offered to lay down their arms ? 
The rebels, also, treated in this manner, must have 
been rendered doubly ferocious, and considering 
themselves as devoted to destruction should they fi^U in 
their enterprise, be driven by desperation to retaliate 
with signal vengeance on the unhappy loyalists who 
were so unfortunate as to fall into their possession. On 
the person of Furlong was found the summons, which 
was couched as follows : , 


ftuntmoMS to the Commander qf the Garrison <ifRatu 

** Sir,-*As a frieud to hanianity, I request you will 

sarrepder the town of Ross to the Wexford forces, now 

assembled against that town* Your resistance will but 

provoke rapine and plunder to the ruin of the most in* 

nocent. Flushed with victory, the Wexford foi^es^ 

DOW innumerable and irresistible, will not be controul 

ed if they meet wiih resistance. To prevent, there* 

fore, the total ruin of all property in the town, I urgf 

jou to a speedy surrender, which you will be forced 

tain a few hours* with loss and bloodshed, as you are 

surrounded on all sides. Your answer is required in ^ 

four hours* Mr Furlong carries this letter, and will 

bring the answer, 

I am, Sir, 


Camp at Corbet-hill, halH General, commandinf, &c. kt*. 

past three o'deck, morn- > 
ingjjancs, 179s. J 

Harvey bad formed a plan for the attack on three 
parts of the . town at once, which in all probability 
would have succeeded if put in execution. After dis» 
patching Furlong with thesuifimons, however, while 
he was busily employed in arranging the troops for the 
assault, a veiy galUn^ fire was kept up by the out- 
posts of the garrison. To disperse the troops who gave 
this aiinoyiiAce» he ordered one Kelly, a young man of 
the most intrepid couiage, to pat himself at the head 
affile hundred men and attack them. In pursuance? 


of this order, which he executed with precision^ he was 
followed in a confuted manner hj many more of iht 
insargents than he had occasion for» These, instead 
of returning to the main body after driying in the out- 
posts, as they had been ordered, elated with success, 
rushed with impetuosity into the towti, drove back the 
cavalry upon the infantry, and seemed to have been for 
sometime complete masters of it, into which, follow- 
ing the successful career of their companions, crowds 
from the hill entered with tremendous shouts. From 
an idea that the victory was already decisive in favour 
of the rebels, several officers of the garrison immediate- 
ly retreated to Waterford. The rebels were prevented 
from penetrating into the centre of the town by tht 
Dublin and Donegal militia, stationed at the market- 
house and a place called Fairgate, where they fir jnly 
maintained their posts ; while general Johnson and a 
merchant named M'Cormick, a man of lofly stature 
and great courage, distinguished during the whole ac- 
tion in the hottest parts of the engagement by a brazen 
helmet, and who had served sometime in the army, 
were labouring with the utnaost assiduity to rally and 
animate the discomfited troops, wim had fled acrosi 
the river to the Kilkenny side. They were again 
brought back to action, when a most decperateengage* 
ment was nmintained, with the greatest resolution on 
both sides, for ten hours. The rebels had already fired 
a number of houses, as at Enniscorthy, and were 
pushing with vigour for the bridge. Oeneral Johnson 
on this planted several guns at the lanes leading from 
€hucch-lape and Neville-street, and one at the old 


tiairket-ptace where be for Bome time stationed himself* 
These did dreadful executien. Whole ranks were 
mowed down at once; but such was the resolution 
of the assailants that fresh men constantly presented 
tbeoiselves iHth renovated ardour, filling up the gapft« 
and seemingly, by approaching within a few yards of 
the gansy courting the late they met with« One man 
in particular, with an undaunted courage perhaps ne- . 
rer equalled, rushed f4»rw4ird, clapped his hand upon 
t cannon, and stuffing inta her his hat and wig, as far 
as his arm could reach, caUed out to his associates, 
^' Biood-and-ounds ! come on boys ! her mouth is ' 
^'stopt**' At that instant the guuner applied the 
niatd), when this illiterate and unfortunate hero was 
hlown to atoms. Thrice were the rebels driven to the 
outskirts of the town with dreadful' slaughter, and as 
often, UBiilied by their leaders, were they brought 
backagain, recovering some ground each time. At 
length, however, they were repulsed, after the most 
obstinate and bloody battle during the course of the 
croppy war. The loss of the rebels exceeded one thou- 
sand men. That of the military was about two hun- 
dred, among whom was lord Monntjoy, colonel of the 
eonnty of Dublin militia, and cornet Ladwell of the 
5th dmgoons. General Johnson had two horses killed 
under faim. The rebe]s left fourteen swivel guns and 
four cannim on ship carnages behind them, which were 
taken by the royal army^ 

Besides the irregular manner in which this attack 
was made (Harvey's plan being totally neglected), per- 

«» RfiBELLlON IN itt£LAKD. 

liaps not above five thousand of the rebeb descended 
from Corbet'hill to share in the action^; and mway^ 
as soon as the engagmement commenced, fled homei 
ted gave exulting accounts of the success of^the day, 
Which they fiincied was inevitable. An artillery-man) 
a prisoner, who had been attached to one ofthe rebel 
cannons, wa9 ordered to level her, and threatened with 
>death should he not do properly what they termed hit 
duty. He aimed too high, which, whether he acted) 
in such a situation, properly or not, waa instantly re* 
warded with death. The following lyL^count, though 
considerably exaggerated, given by a military man, of 
the battle, we insert, as it contains a pretty adequate 
idea of the general tumult and horror ofthe aceae. 

•« The advanced rebels drove before them a number 
of cattle, to throw our army into confusion, which wat 
in some measure prevented, by a few discharges of grape* 
shot. The action commenced by the 4th flank batta- 
lion; indeed such a close well-directed fire I never 
saw, being an idle spectator for upwards of two hours 
and a half. About seven o'clock the army began tu 
retreat in every direction. I commanded a sixTpounder 
fleld*piece. The rebels came pouring intathe towa like 
a flood, and human blood began to flow down the streets. 
Though hundred? were blown to pieces by our grape-* 
shot, yet thousands, behind them, being intosicated 
with drinking during the night, and void of fear, rush-* 
ed upon us, as if courting > their fate. The cavalry 
were now ordered to make a charge through them, when 
a teriible carnage ensued; thejf were cut down like 


grass ; but the pikemen bdng called to the front, and 
our swords being too short to reach them, obliged our 
horse to retreat, which put us ia some conftistOD. We 
kept up the action till about half past eight ; which 
was maintained with such obstinacy on both sides, that 
it was doubtful who would keep 1;he field. They Jtheu 
began to burn and destroy the town, it was on fire in 
many places in about fifteen minutes. By this time 
the rebels advanced as lar as the main-guard, where 
there was a most bloody conflict, with the assistance 
of two ship guns placed in the street, they killed a 
great number of them, and beat them back for some 
time* The Dublin county regiment, headed by their 
colonel, made another attaA en the rebels ; the action 
being now revived in all quarters ef the town with dou- 
ble tatyp many heroes fell, and among them the 
brave Monntjoy, which so exasperated his regiment, 
that they fought like f«ries— new indeed was die scene 
bloody. Our forces the third time being overpowered* 
by the weight of such a body {Muriag down upon tts» 
ve retreated beyond the bridge, when Greueral John- 
son came gallo|^ng up ciying ** soldiers, I will lay 
" my bones this day in Rosa, wUl ymi let^me lie 
** alone P* 

** Major Vesey, of the DahHn coanty» the next in 
command to Lord Monntjoy, led his men over the 
bridge again, exhoiting tiiem to revenge, for the loss 
of their coloneL The whole brigade (except some who 
fled to Waterfbtd) bang led on by gcniervd Johnson, 
(as brave a commander as ever drew a sword,) were de» 
Vot. IL F 


ifennmed to take the town, to conquer or to die. 
Again we opened a tremendous fire on thetebelsy 

. which was as fiercely retnmed. Wc re-took the can- 
non which was tajnen .from the kin^s forces in a for* 
mer engagement, and turned them on the rebels. 
The gun I commanded being called to the main^guard, 
shocking was it to see the dreadful carnage that was 
there, it continued for half an hour, it was obstinate 
and bloody the thundering, of cannon shook the town, 
the windows were shivered in pieces with the dreadful 
. concussion ; I believe there were five hundred bodies 
lying in the main-stri^et. The rebels were so despe- 
.rate that they frequently came ^5?ithin ja few yards of 
,our guns. 

'< The.action was doubtful from four in themoming* 
ttill four in the afternoon, when the rebels gave wiy in 
.every quarter, and shortly after fled precipitately in 
.every direction, leaving behind them all their cannon, 
baggage, provisions, wine, whiskey, brandy, kc 
It was past ^ve before we finally routed them ; when 
they made the best of ^their way to Carrickbyrne. As 
n^rly as can be computed, the rebels h»d two thon- 
sand six hundred killed, and a great number wound- 
ed, and a great number mortally. I know soldiera 
who fired one hundred Md 'twenty rounds of ball-car- 
tridge, and J fired twenty-one rounds of canniste> 
shot, with the field-piece I commanded.** 

On the morning after the engagement the town^pre^ 

sen ted .a most hideous spectacle. Upwards of ftwT 

K£B£LU0N in IRELAND- 51' 

himdred houses were consumed^ and a multitude of 
di^ bodi^ were lymg in the streets. The greater 
part of these were thrown into a gravel pit and cov(W[ed 
over, or precipitated into the rrvcr, where they were ^ 
carried off by the tide. 

Had the insurgents succeeded in obtaining posses- * 
noQ of Ross, the whole province of Munster would 
have risen in rebellion, as messengers wtre ready to ' 
bfe dispatched from Waterford, to summon the peopU 
ofthe south to appear in arms. 

Early in the morning of the fifth of June, one of 
the rebels, who had in a cowardly manner fied from ' 
t'he battle of Ro&s, came galloping to Scullabogue, 
where the prcrtestant prisoners, as already observed, - 
were confined ; and declaring that the garrison of 
Ross were massacring the catholics, feigned an order 
from general Harvey to put the loyalists to death, A» 
John Murphy, who commanded the guard, wished to 
save the prisoners, he strenuously declared that not a 
man of them should be touched without written order* 
from the general himselt . About an hour afterwards, 
another rebel arrived, exclaiming 'i Our friends are 
" aU destroyed at Ross !-^Murder the prisoners!'* 
Still 'Murphy would not suffer them to be injured. 
About ten o^clock, however, a third arrived ; saying, 
** The priest has sent orders to put all the prisoners 
to death.*' On this the guard immediately stripped 
off their coats, considaring it impiety to delay a mo- 
meat 19 executing the sacredotal mandate. After the 
* F 2 


Hitial ctremoDy of croering and blessing thcinselm 
before exet utiong, they parted into two divisons, one 
proceeding to the barn, into which one hundred and 
eightj^four persons bad been crammed, the other to 
Mr King's house, where were confined thirty-seven 
persons, who were shot or killed by pikes before the 
fiall door. The execrable scene which took place at 
the barn was horrible beyond description, and is a me- 
lancholy example of the pernicious effects of religious 
bigotry, and an intolerant spirit on the human mind. 
The executioners having mounted the walls of the 
bam by ladders, and having set fire to the thatched 
roof, the miserable prisoners rushed to the back door, 
which their united weight burst open. ^ l^ere, how- 
ever, they were received by the rebels, who pushed 
them again into the flames with their pikes, discharge 
ed their pieces amongst them, and introduced at the 
same time bundles of lighted straw. One unfortunate 
^'oman, widow to a North-Cork militia^man who had 
been slain at Oulart^ having her child in her arms, 
with all the wretchedness and anxiety of a motber, 
wrapped it in her cloak and threw it among the rebels, 
in the vain hope that they would respect its tender 
age. An inhuman monster stuck it en his pike, and 
with a diabolical execratioB, tossed it into the fire. 
Another child by some means had crept out of the 
barn, and hiding along the wall behind the door, lay 
there concealed till the massacre was complex : when 
at length, fatally discoverodj, it was pierced through 
the body, and expired in convulrions. Twenty wo- 
men and children in all were inclosed in tlia basii: in 


wliicb there were also fifteen Romanists, one of whonb ' 
was fiither Shallow's clerk. On the ninth of June the 
skeletons were cleared oat of the barn, thrown into a ^ 
hole, and slightly covered with sods. 

After the defeat at Ross; Bagenal Harvey re-occi^ ' 
pied, our the same night, his former station on Cdr« ' 
rickby me, in the greatest distress and anxiety of miud. 
Oa the morning of the sixths this humane leader was 
shocked by intelligence of the massacre at Scnila'- ' 
bojgae, and of the other atrocious actions of the rebels, 
To'pat a stop if possible to those iniquitous proceed-* ' 
ingp, be immediately issued the following severe pro« ' 
clamatioa :«-o * 

General Orders issued in consequence oftheDtfeat at 
R&sSy and the Massacre at Scullabogue^ 

Ata meeting of the general and several officers of the 
united army of the county of Wexford, the I'oUow- 
ing resolutioas were agreed upon :-^ 

•• Hesolved, that the commander in chief shall 
send -guards to certain baronies, for the purpose of 
bringing in all men they shall find loitering and delay* 
ing at home or elsewhere; and if any resistance be 
given to those guards, so to be sent by the command- 
ing officer's orders, it is cur desire and orders, that 
such persons so giving resistance shall be liable to be 
put to death by the guards:, who are to bear a com- 
Bussion for that purpose ; and all such personb found 


to be 8o Imteiing asd delaying at borne, wbenbfengbt 
in by the guards, shall be tried by a coBrtHnartiali 
appointed and chosen from amopg die eommaiiden of 
all the different corps, and be punisfaed with death. 

** Resolved, that all officers shall immeSatdy re« 
pair to their respective quarters, and remaiD with tbdr 
different corps, and not to depart tberefirom under 
pain of death; unless authorised to quit by written 
orders from the commander in chief for that purpose. 

*< It is also ordered, tfaafe a guajrd shaH be kept in 
the rear of the different .armies, with orders to shoot 
all persons who shall flj or desert from any engage* 
ment ; and that these orders shall be taken notice of 
by all officers commanding sueh engagemeat. 

** All men refusing to obey their superior officersi 
to be tried by a court-martialy and puoiafaed^aoaoiyliDg 
to their sentence. 

** It is also ordered, that all men who shall attempt 
to leave their respective quarters, when they have been 
halted by the commander in chief, shall suffer death ; 
unless they shall have leave from their officers for so 


•* It is ordered by tlie commander in chief, that all 
persons who have s^tolen or taken away any horse or 
horses, shall immediately bring in all such horses to 
the camp, at head-quarters;, otherwise for any horse 


that shall be seen or found in the possenion of any 
peiBOB to wkom he does not belong, that penen shall, 
•a bang convicted dnfeof, aaffer death >— 

" And any goods that Aatl have been fdundertd 
from any house, if not bvooght into head*quarters, or 
returned immediately to the houses or owners, that 
all peisons so plundering as aforesaid, shall, on being 
csDvicled tiiemtv^, imBet death. 

** It IS also resolved, that any person or peisons who 
•ball take upon them to kiH or mdrder any person or 
prisoner, hum any bonse, or commit any plunder, 
irithoot special written orden lirom the commander in 
daef, diaUsttffer death. 

' By order of 
B* B. Hartbt, Commander in chicly 
FftAHcis Bbbsk, Secand Adj* 
HeaA ^M i l a r g, GtevkMun ea«i]i^ 

With the same laudable intention was' also issued 
the foilowii^ proclamation :«-« 

To the Pecpie qf Ireland. 

^ Countrymen and fellow-soldiers ! 
** Your patriotic exertions in the cause of your 
country have hitherto exceeded your most sanguine 
expectations, and in a short time must ultimately be 
crowned with success. Liberty has raised her droop- 
ing head: thousands daily flock to her standard ; the 


Toice of her children every where prevails. Let u» 
then, in the moment of triumph, return thanks to 
the Almighty Ruler of the Universe, that a total stop 
has been put to those sanguinary measures which of 
late were but too often resorted to by the creatures of 
government, to keep the people in slavery* 

** Nothing now, my countrymen, appears necessarr 
to secure the conquests you have so bravely won, but 
an implicit obedience to the commands of your chiefs; 
for through a want of proper subordination and disci' 
pliue, all may be endangered* • 

•* At this eventflil period,' all Europe must udmir^ 
and posterity will read with astonishment, the heroic 
acts achieved by people strangers to military tactics, 
and having few professional commanders: but \^'ha; 
power can resist men fighting for liberty I 

*' In the moment of triumph, my countrymen, let 
not your victories be tarnished with any wanton act of 
cruelty Many of those unfortunate men in prison 
were not your enemies from principle : most of thein 
compelled by necessity, were obliged to oppose you. 
neither let a ditterence in religious sentiments cause a 
difference among the people. Recur to the debates in 
the Irish house of lords of the 19th of February last; 
you will there see a patriotic and enlightened proles- 
taut bibliop, with manly eloquence, pleadiug for cu- 
tholic emancipation and parliamentary reform, in o;- 
t3osition to the haughty arguments of the lord chai.- 


cellor, smd Ihe poweiftd opposition of bU feUow* 

** To promote a ooion of brotherhood and affection 
among oar cooutryiDen of all religious persuasions^ 
has been our principal object : we hare sworn in the 
most solemn manner, have associated for this laudable 
purpose, and no potrer on earth shell shake oar reso* 

** To mj protestant soldiers, I feel much indebted 
for their gallant behaviour in the fiel(f, where they 
exhibited ngnal proofs of bravery in the cause. 

" EDWiJlI> ROCBB."! 
Wevfiudy June 7thj 1798. 

These proclamations had not the desired effect ; and 
Harvey appears consequently to have sunk^intOoi^tdte 
of horror and dejection. The following letter, in an* 
8wer to a request from Mr Fraacia Glascott, for his 
protection, will best shew the state of this unfortunate 
gentleman*8 mind, who bad resigned a command 
which was nothing more than nominal, and afterwards 
retiring to Wexford, was appointed prerident of the 
council, which consisted of a few leading members of 
the lately-orected republic| entrusted with the rcgu^ 
lation of its affiurs : 

" Dear Sr, 

<< I received your letter; but what to dolor yon I 
-kaow not. I ftras my heait wish to protect all pvo* 


petty ; I cao scarce protect mjtdfi and indeed mj 
Bituation is much te be pitied, and distressing to my- 
self. I took my present situation in hopes of doing 
good, and preventing mischief ; my trust is in Provi- 
dence : I acted always an> honest distnterested part ; 
and had my advice been taken by those in power, the 
present mischief would never have arisen. If I can 
retire te & private station again, I will immediatdy. 
Mr Tottenham's refusing- to speak to the gentleman I 
•ent into Ross, who was madly shot by the soldiery 
was very unfortunate : it has set the people mad villi 
rage, and there is no restraining them. The person I 
tent in had private instructions to propose a reconcili- 
atioD ; but God knows where *this business will end; 
but end how it will, the good men- of both par-ties^v.l. 
be inevitably ruined* . 

** l^Bxa, with respect, yours, &c. 

June 8, 1798. •^B. R Habtey;' 

On the ninth of June, the rebel camp was removed 
from Carrickbyrne to Slyeeve-keelter, a hill which rises 
over the river of Koss> formed by the junction of the 
rivers Nore and Barrow.. They seem to have taken 
this post with a view ^f intercepting the navigation of 
the channel between Wat^'ford, Ross, and Duncan- 
non-fort, in which they partly succeeded ; for thougl 
they were repulsed in their attempts to-take someguu- 
.boats, ,yet they compelled several small vessels to sui 
wnder; in oaerf which was a mail^ the letters aix. 


^ewspapeffB in which contained much intelligence con- 
'rning the state of the rett of the kinp^dom* At 
ylecve-keelter, father Philip Roche, who had been a 
ad€r at the battle of Tubberneering, was tumultu- 
isljT elected commander in chief, in the place of 
•ai^enal Harvey. Under their new commander, the 
^)6l anny again moved, and occupied the hill of 
^ckeu, where they formed their encampment with 
uch more regularity than usual, and erected a nonn 
^r of tents for die accommodation of the officers. A 
tachment was sent from hence, on the twelfth, to 
^ack the town of Borns, in the county of Carlow, 
elve miles distant, for the purpose of procuring 
Tis and ammunition, but w«is repulsed by the gar- 
on with the loss of about.twenty^men. The garri* 
n, who had posted themselves iin the house of Mr 
ivenagh, had only one killed* The town was partly 


[During the five day« tile rebels were encamped 
c;;» Gorey*biU» a namber of atrocities were committed. 
Tbej then began to tbiok they had wasted too mvcb 
timet knowing that if they could gain Arklow, it 
would open a cootDinnication with tbe Wicklow and 
Kildare rebels, and that an attack mig;ht be madeoa' 
the metropolis soon after; they therefore resolved to ' 
try their strength on that town» for which pvrposel 
messengeia were sent to the different ek&campmentsati 
Wexfoid and Vinegar-hill, ordering all persons to re- 
pair to ibe camp at Gorey-hili immediately. I 

On tbe «ghth of June, the rebel picquet saw i 
party of the king*s army reconnoitering at Coolgren] 
and instaiitiy returned with iitformation thatthe king 
troops were advancing against the town. In cons 
quence of this, the prisoners, twenty-one iu nurobe 
were ordered to be murdered ; but. Bagenal Harve]^ 
I arrived in time to save their lives. 


Early in the morning of the ninth of June^ the 
rebel "camp was crowded from all quarters, and 
masses were celebrated. As tliey were not allowed to 
murder the prisoners; they made caps of brown paper 
^iid coarse linen, melted pitch and besmeared the in- 
side of them, and put them on the prisoner's heads. 

About twelve o'clock the rebels, to the number of 
4;wpnty-six thousand, of whom near five thousand 
were armed with guns, the rest with pik<es, with three 
pieces of artillery^ mardied for Arklow, under the 
command of Anthony Perry, who had appointed Es- 
mond Kyan captain of the artillery. When they had 
4irrived within two miles of Arklow, they were ordered 
to halt by one of their officers. Those who were armed 
with gtins, were ordered to the front, and the pike- 
men were placed in the rear. These arrangements 
being made* and the plan of attack agreed upon, they 
"were ordered to advance; but they evinced the most 
disorderly disposition imagibable; for their officers 
were obliged to drive them on before them, and'^n 
this munner they proceeded towards Arklow. 

If the rebels had made their appearance two days 
before, they would, in all probability, have carried 
the town; but fortunately tlie garrison was reinforced 
that morning by the Durham fencibles, a brave and 
welUdisciphned regiment, which strengthened it, and 
quieted the fears of the inhabitants. 

General Needham^ the commnnder in chief of the 
Vol. II. G 


garrison^ w&s quartered at the hotise of Mr -Nellie 
in Arklow, where he had ordered a great break&8t for 
him and- his guests* Two officers belonging to the 
Durham regiment, hap{>ened to be passing by the 
liouse, and were mistaken by a servant, and informed 
that breakfast was ready for them and their associates. 
This intelligence being communicated, the Durham 
officers immediately repaired to the house and devour- 
ed the whole breakfast. Captain Waliington remain- 
ing behind the rest, assembled about him the drivers 
of the carriages in which the regiment had travelled 
from Dublin, to pay them their dues* ,The general 
at length arrived with his guests, imd was astonished 
when he found his lodgings occupied with a crowd of 
wrangling coachmen ; but soon being inibrmed of the 
fate of his breakfast, he burst into a rage and drove 
out the intruders with such fury, that they, with their 
paymaster, tumbled one oVer another in the street, ifl 
their haste (o escape* 

■■ The garrison then consisted of detachments of the 
fourth and fifth dragoon guards; the Ancient Brlti&h 
fencible cavalry ; a small detachment of the Royal 
Irish artillery ; the Durham fencible infantry ; the Ca- 
van battalion^ detachments of the Armagh, Antrim, 
North-Cork, and Londonderry militia ; the North and 
South Arklow cavalry; the Camolin, Gorey, Cool- 
greny, and Castletown cavalry; and a number of 
loyalists in coloured clothes, making in the whole up" 
wards of fifteen hundred men. 


At two o'clock ID the afternoon » information was rd« 
ceired that the rebels were advancing towards the 
town. The drums immediately' beat to arms, and the 
trooi>8 repaired to their different stations* and every 
preparation was made to meet the enemy* 

The Cavan battalion, with some yeomen infantry, 
under colonel Maxwell, extended from the centre of 
the town to the Fishery ; on the left was the sea; on 
the right the Durham regiqnent was drawn in front of 
their encampment, with two field pieces; detach- 
ments of th^ Annagh and others were placed on the 
right of the Durham ; and the Antrim with other de- 
tachments and all the loyalists were stationed in the 
barrack. The cavalry were placed beyond the bridge, 
on the Dablin road. 

The rebels endeavoured to surround the army, and 
by that means to have overpowered it by their great 
superiority of numbers ; but the excellent disposition 
of the king's forces, sufficiently convinced them of the 
impracticability of that measure. When they had ad- 
vanced as far as the charter school, captain lilUiot, 
who was posted there, retreated into the town, on 
which the rebels drew their cannon to the ri^ht, on an 
eminence that commands the town. The Dunbarton 
fencibles were then ordered ont in front*of the Armagh, 
to line the hedges on each side of the road, where the 
rebels were advancing. A smart fire was maintained 
between tlie Dunbartons and the rebels for some time, 
^hen the former wpre ordered to retreat and join the 
G 2 


Armagh, wTiich they accomplished. The rebels ihetr 
set fire to clifi'erent parts of the town, to annoy the 
army with the smoke ; but the wind shifted and drove 
it on therasetves. On the retreat beinoj sounded, the 
rebels pursued, and sent forth most dreadful yells, 
and one of their officers, waving his hat> called out, 
" Come on, my boys, the town is our own.** At that 
instant his horse was shot and himself wounded, on 
whicli he fell Jls if killed. A short time after he was 
observed by some of the soldiers and shot dead. The 
rebels followed him, but on. receiving a well-directed 
fire of musketry and grape-shot, they fell back a con- 
siderable distance. Tlrey then, extended a long line 
in front of the Durham regiment, bat in a confused 
manner, endeavouring to turn their left flank; but 
the Durhams keeping up a constant and well-directed 
fire, tHey were unable to accomplish it. Soratoftbe 
rebels, armed with muskets, gettmg behind hedges,, 
annoyed the army considerably, and their artillery 
also played briskly on the town ; but sergeant Shep- 
herd of the Royal Irish artillerj', who was taken priso- 
ner at the Three-rocks and compelled to 8er\e in the 
rebel army, elevated their guns so high that the baits 
fell on the other side of the town. At one time be 
loaded with grape-shot, and turning the gun a little 
on one side, killed and wounded several of the rebefs. 
One of their officers observing this, gal toped up and 
would have instantly killed Shepherd, had not Kyan, 
the captain of artillery, interposed and insisted that it 
was the cannon of the king*s army which did the exe- 
cution. He was then ordered to load with ball and 


batter the fowo ; bat at every opportauity he loaded 
with grape-shot; knowing it could do noninjury. *Two 
of the rebel officers then rode towards the town, to 
ol^serve the execution of the cannon, and finding that 
Shepherd Was not favouring their cause, returned apd 
informed Kyan of it, on which he levelled the cannonr 
himself, and one of them with such fatal precision, 
that the ball struck the carriage of one of the Durhaot 
lield*pieces, shivered it to atoms, and killed four incu : 
another ball struck the top of a house in the town and 
did some damage* All this time the royal army was 
playing upon them with good effect, having killed 
and wounded a considerable number. 

Another body of the rebels made an attempt to gain 
the lower end of the town, and advanced by the sea 
side; but io that quarter they were received with great 
spirit by the Ancient British fencible cavalry, undler 
Sir W. W. Wynqe, who made « most diesperate and 
successful charge upon them. They then proceeded 
in great force to a road that led to the middle of the 
town, and made a desperate^ effort to enter it in that 
direction ; but a sergeant and twelve men who were 
stationed in the market-house, kept up so constant 
and effectual a fire that they were obliged to fall back 
with the loss of many men. A body of them also at- 
tempted to ford the river, but this pass was well de- 
fended, snd they were obliged to relinquish it* 

Father Murphy, of Ballycannow, was not in the be- 
ginning of the action, having stopped at Coolgrcny.. 
G 3 ^ ". 


When he was comin«f to the attack, he met a mimbcr 
of rebe's retreating : drivkig them back again to the 
battle, he assured them tfiat he cDuld defeat the king'i 
army even with the dust of the road.. When he came 
into the engagement, he shewed the rebels somemus- 
ket balls, which he said he had caught in his han(^$ 
as they flew from the guns of the enemy. Father 
Murphy, however, after many escapes, fell himself 
by a cannon shot^ hi« boweh having been torn out, 
whilst waving a standard in his hand^ and encourag- 
ing his men to press forward. The rebels who follow- 
ed hiiO) immediately retreated in great haste from that 
quarter, exclaimfng as they went aloog ** that tlie 
*• priest himself was down !" 

The hottest part of the action was maintained by 
the Durham feneiblesj commanded by colonel Skep- 
ret, to who^ determined bravery the country is in* 
debted for.thi^ victory, Gblonel Mkxwell and the Ca- 
van battalion also acted in a mQst spirited manner, as 
did also the whole army engaged on that* occasion. 

The action commenced about four o'clock and^ con- 
tinued till half past eight, when they retreated in con- 
fusion to Grorey. It was not thought prudent to pur- 
sue the retreating rebels, as it was then the close of 
the evening, otherwise it is most probable that a great 
slaughter must have ensued. The military stood un- 
der arins till four o'clock next morning, when they 
cast entrenchments round the campj- and remained in 
full expectation of another attack. 


The loss of the DavhMn regtiaen^ was about twenty^ 
privates killed aiul wounded : that of the other regi"- 
meats was very tniing*, though they had been warmlyr 
engaged for a oons^erable t4me«k 

In this important action, tlie principal attempts of 
the enemy were directed against the. Durham regi* 
neai ; and it was to the. excellent discipline and steady 
valour of that fine b<Kly of men- on that day, aided by 
the magnanimous conduct and military skill of their 
commander,- colonel Skerret, thai the British govern* 
ment w^ indebted for the suppression of the rebellion 
itt that quarter- General Needham had wisely gpven 
discretionary authority to- colonel Skerret to act with 
his regiment according to the dictates of his own judg- 
ment* • Intimidated by the formidable attacks of the 
rebels, the general, at one period of the action, resolv- 
ed oma retveat,. which he would aceordingly have put 
in practice, bad not .the colonel, when addressed on 
that subject,, made the following noble reply : ** We 
" cannot hope for victory otherwise than by preserving 
*'our ranks; if we break all is lost; and from the 
*' spirit which I have seen displayed at this awful crisis 
*' by the Durham regiment, I. can never bear the idea 
" of its giving grouiid.** Shortly after, the retreat of 
the rebels coumienced,. the body of father Murphy 
being found; lord Mountiiorris ordered the head to 
be struck off, and the trunk to be thrown into a bund- 
ing bouse, exclaiming, " Let his body go where his . 
soul is r It is an unequivocal proof that ferocity was 
uot confined to the rebeU^ but displayed itself iadis- 


ci^iminately in the acU of th«maadF the loyarists, tliat 
after the bead of Morrphy was struck off, several. of 
the Apciept British fenctbles cut open his body and 
took out his heart. Afterwards, while the body lay 
roasting on -a burning beam of timber, these very men- 
received the drippiog fat and greased their boots with 
it! Captain HalroeSy of the Dnrham regiment^ was 
not athanned to avow in the presence of several most 
respectable persons, that he had been concerned in 
this most scandalous act of brutality^ and that he had 
assisted to break open- the breast with an axe and to 
cut out the heart! At the time when.ikther Murphy^s 
body was found, the following journal » suppoa^^d to 
have been written by one Bulger^ who attended &ther 
Murphy of Boulavogue» as aid-de-can^p, was also 
discovered :— 

Father John Murphy^.s jmrn^h J^und by Cmptam 
Htigh Meorcn 
Satwdsy nigbt, May s6^ at 6 A. M. 179s. 
** Began the republic of Ireland iu Boulavogue, iti 
the county of Wej^ford, barony of Gorey and parish 
of Kilcormuck) commanded by the reverend doctor 
Murphy, parish priest of the said parish^ in the afore- 
said parish, when all the protestants of that parish 
were disarmed, and amongst the aforesaid, a bigot, 
named Thomas Bookey, who lost his life by his rash- 

'^ From thence came to Oulart, a country village 
adjoining, when the republic attacked a niaistcr*^ 


house for arms, and was denied of, laid siege imme- 
diately to it| fwd killed ban and aU his forces ; the* 
same day burned" bis house and all the Orangemen's ' 
houses io that and all the adjoining paribhes in that 
part of the cotintrj'. 

" The some day a part of the ^ray, to the amount 
of one hundred and four of infantry and two troops of 
cavalry, attacked the republic on O.ulart-hili, when 
the military were repulsed with the loss of one Bun- 
(ired and twelve men, and the republic four kilted ;. 
and then went to a bill called Corrigrua, where the 
republic encamped that night, and from thence went, 
to a town called Camolin, which was taken without 
lesistance^ and the same day took another town and 
the saie of a bishop*. At three in the afternoon, the 
sumeday, they laid siege to Enniscorthy, when they 
wer^ opposed by an army of seven hundred men, them. 
they were forced to set both ends of the town on fire, 
and then took the town in the space of one hour, and 
then encamped, on a hill near the town, called Vine- 
•j'ar-bill, where they remained that night.. 

Bryasi Bulger, 

Darby Muephy, bis band and 
pen, dated this 26th day of 

* U alludes to the seat of the bishop of Tcrna. 



" Orange men are men that formed alliance to till 
aqd destroy all the catholics of this kingdom. 

" G^&ET Lacey." 

** 28th. At three in the afternoon^ which was Whit* 
sun-Monday, they marched towards Wexford >. and 
encamped on a hill that night called the Mountaiiu^ 



Vinegar Ilill, the scene of so much slaughter, 
had been in the possession of thtf rebels above three 
weeks, daring which time the loyalists of Enntcorthy 
and the surrounding country had been in a state of 
almost indescribable honor. They were every where 
seized ; a few were butchered on the spot where they 
happened to fall into the hands of the rebels ; but the 
greater number were carried to the camp on the hill ; 
where upwards of four hundred received sentence by 
court-martial, and were either shot or destroyed by 
pikes. Some, after having been apparently killed, 
recovered strength sufficient to endeavour to escape ; 
but these for the mo^t part fell again into the hands 
of the rebels, and received the completion of their 
sufiTerings. The wonderful preservation of one man, 
however, Charles Davis, of Enniscorthy, glazier, ap- 
pears to be particularly worthy of notice. This mani 
when the town was taken by the insurgents, justly 
apprehensive that no mercy would be shewn him as a 
loyalist, had concealed himselSf in a privy, where he 


remained some days u'lthout any other food than tlit; 
h^dy of.a cock, which had acddentally perched on 
the Beat. Impelled by the cravings of nature, how- 
ever, when his provisions vere exhausted, and di- 
sgusted with his loathsome abode, he at length ven- 
tured from his place of concealment, and endeavoured 
to escape. He w;*s seized neaT the town, conveyed 
4o Vinegar-hill, ^nd received the sentence of a court- 
martial. Being led out to suifer death pursuant to 
his sentence, he was shot through the body and al^o 
through one of the acms. As these wounds were not 
deemed sufficient to extinguish life, he received seve- 
ral severe thrusts from a pike on the head, wkhout 
injuring the brain ; and was then thrown into a hole 
upon his back, and covered over with earth and atones. 
"Thus consigned to an untimely grave, the unfortunate 
man remained twelve hour« in a state of insensibility, 
~ during which period his dog, -a, faithful animal iliJ^t 
•never left him, had scraped the covering off his fact, 
and licked it clean from the filth and blood. Super- 
•stition — baleful superstition, which, maddened by 
fanaticism, conjointly with political animosity, had 
•caused sq many ruthless scenes of bloodshed and 
desolation in this unhappy country, was the means of 
«aving this man's existence. He returned to life, his 
mind disordered by his sufferings, and dreaming tli'it 
he was about to be murdered by pikemen, pronounc- 
ing emphatically the name of father Roche, by who<e 
means he hoped to obtain a protection. Accidentally 
•overheard by some catholics to pronounce that sacn^ 
name, they believed him to have been revivified by 


tlie particular fkvoar of heaven, that by being made 
a catholic by Roche, his soul might be saved front 
those eternal pains which they believed he would others 
wise be condemned to endure. Thus impressed, they 
had him conveyed to a house and treated with such ^ 
kindness and humanity, that he rapidly recovered, 
and at length apparently reg^ned his perfect health. 
This instance of astonishing strength of constitution 
was by no means singular during the course of the 
rebellion. The surprising recoveries of many of the 
Irish peasantry, and the difficulty that was ahtost 
invariably found of putting an end to the being eveft 
of very old men, may be worthy of an inquiry no less 
curious than interesting. 

At length, however, lieutenant-general Lake, com* 
niander in chief of the royal forces, made dispositions 
to expel the rebels from this hill (as we have already 
mentioned) which was so strongly fortified thiftt the 
insurgents coomdered it impregnable. The troops 
destined to attack it amounted in all to upwards of 
thirteen thousismd effective men, together witji a for- 
midable train of artillery, ' and were arranged in co- 
lumns under several generals, with orders to attack 
the hill on all points at once, so as to prevent the 
escape of the rebels: a plan of attack which, if it had 
been completely executed, would in all probability 
have been attended either with the. complete surreu- 
dry of the enemy, or with such a slaughter as to liave 
effectually disabled them from again taking the field. 
But this well-concerted attack was unfortunately firus- 
Vol. n. H 


tHLtei hf the 4eUtf of fieneftl iie&ihiim» «)io v«ived 
oot at his poat till nfter thte €og»gement» a ck c«m- 
ttanoe wbicb, together w\A several others of a like 
nature* aad bis late arrivai to the brealtfast devoand 
hf tbe ]>arham ^fficers^^ proeured iiiizi the appdla* 
tMMi of the late genen^ ^eedbam. Except tba:t,coa- 
Aanded hy this general, the different coiimna were 
at their respective posts wbeii ike attack commcneed, 
at seven in the mcrning of the tweoty-^rst of JoBe,^' 
with a brisk discharge of oannen and mortats^ which 
was kept up, together witb that of the^sttall arms for 
an hoar and a half. When the firing commeneed, the 
iHiislticm of the right ooluoia ^as on a riaieig geoand 9A 
the west end of Enniscorthy, hariAg Vineg^i'^iUl oq 
the east. This column, covered by the fire of its own 
•ix-poiiindery penetrated into the town, and vigorously 
attacked the insurgents posted tbere, who hid advan«« 
tageottsly placed themselves in tbe streets and houses. 
A paTty of the troops having advanced vith one field- 
piebr opposite to the courts-house, were tliere over- 
pov ^red'by a numerous body of ptkemen, who rasfaed 
from ihe building, and took possessian oftJbeguD* 
This gun, however, was shortly aft!er re-taken by ano- 
ther division of the king^s troop«, with con^derahle 
slaughter of the enemy. The rebe>ts at lenglib alwui- 
doned the town, retreating to Vinegar-hill, iheflom* 
mit of which, however, had been c1e$ired by tbecen- 
titil column, which had formed oq a vi^g ground on 

« Sec vol. iu p. 6i. 


iht Bortb tide, wtlere the rebett^ hii4 rear^ a breMt* 
work» before they could reach it^ and their friends 
findiog they could no longer keep possession^ had re-* 
(reoted t6 another p#8Mo» ott the east side, called the 
Lower hilK Hwin^ 4kptayed the royal banners oa 
the top of the wittd-milli in plsKse -of the standard of 
r^wllimiy ^e kiogS troops turned thirteen pieces of 
caanop, which had been abandoned ^ against the ene- 
my* By the fire of the$e> and the resolution of the 
light bngad^» they were thrown into confusion, whea 
the cavalry charged and pat theia completely to the 
nmtk The skughter asoet have been dreadful, had 
aotgea«rsA Needh«nn*B poat been leftopeil for their 
escape, through which, lodicrously termed N^edkfimCs 
Gap, most of them fled towards TV^exford. The ra^ 
bcblost abo«t fottr hisfidfed men, among whom WM 
'ikther Clinch of Enntscorthy, ail their cai^non, some 
amasinitioii, and an immense quantity of rich plun* 
den The loss oi»dhe royal side waavery trifling, per* 
haps about one hundred killed, among whom was 
lieitte&aat Sandys of the Longford militia* Colonel 
King of th^ Sligo regiment, colonel Vesey of that of 
the county jof Dublin, lord Blaney, and heutenanl* 
colooel^ Cole were among the wounded. A great many 
loyalists,' who had been compelled to accompany the 
rebels, were indtscriminatelv slain in the pursuit* 
-^Amongst the exicesses committed by the king's troopa 
on the recovery. of Enniscortby, the burning of a 
house which had been used as an hospital, in which 
▼ere sixteen of the insurgents who, by wounds or 
tickness were incapable of making their escape, is 
H 2 


hardly inferior in atrocity to the massacre at Sculla- 

" The town of Wexford was re-taken on the same day 
as Euniscorthy. The rebel army, which had been some 
time encamped on Lacken-hiU, had been driven from 
it by the troops under general Johnson^ on the nine- 
teenth of Jane, and obliged to take pos^t on the Three 

^* The brigade under major-general Mo(»re« which 
consisted of the second flank battalion, two companies 
of the sixtieth regiment, one troop of Hompesch's hus- 
sars, and a small train of artillery, took a direction to 
the right towards Fooke's mill, and encamped that 
night on the lawn of Mr. Henry Sutton, of Loni? 
Grague. The encampment .was in front of the house, 
which was protected on both flanks and in the rear by 
a thick W0od, Qut-bnildings, &c. 

** The following morning the rebels collected all tht ir 
force, and marched from the Three Rocks to attack 
general Moore's brigade at Long Grague. He order- 
ed a strong detachment, under the command of lieu- 
tenant-colonel Wilkinson, to patrole towards TrnterH 
and Clonmines, with a view to scour the country, an\l 
to communicate with the troops which general jobnsou 
had ordered to join him from Duncannun-fort. Colo- 
nel V\ ilkinson returning without any intelligence of 
them, 'and despairing of their arrival, general Moore 
began his march to Taghmon, about three o'clock in 


the afternoon. The rebels were greatly reinforced in 
their marcli from the Three Rocks, so that their num- 
ber exceeded six thousand. They marched on» boast- 
ing of their strength^ and expressing a desire to be up 
with the king's troops. When general Moore had pro- 
ceeded about half a mile on his road to Taghmon, he 
perceived the rebels advancing towards him. The 
general knowing their great superiority of numbers, 
immediately made preparations to receive them.. Hav^ 
iog disposed h» force in the naost judicious manuer, he 
sent out an advanced guard, consisting of two com* 
panics of the sixtieth regiment to skirmish with them» 
whilst a six-pounder, and a howitxer were drawn across 
the road t» Goff's-bridge^ where a few light infantry 
formed oa each sidtf of them under colonel Wilkinson*. 
When the rebels came up they made an attack on 
these ; but were served with such a tremendous fire oi 
grape-shot and musketry, that they were obliged ta 
retreat over the bridge in the greatest eonfusion. Dur- 
kg this time,, a great body of them moved towards tha 
lef^wing; but Majors Aylmer and Daniel^ with fiv^ 
eompanies of light infantry and a six-pounder^ were 
detached against them. The sixtieth regiment finding 
no opposition in front, immediately proceeded to the' 
left, apd attacked the body of rebels that was attempt- 
ing to turn that wing.. Here the engagement was very 
bloody. The rebels confiding in their numbers, and 
being so well acmed with muskets and pikes,, they 
Bade a most obstinate resistance. General Moore 
Aow began to be very doubtful who would keep the 
fi«ld». as a great part of his army could not come into 


hamanitji went to Dr* Caulfield, tbe popish Inshopt 
who was then drinking wine after dinner, and believ- 
ing that he could stop the massacre sooner than any 
other person, earnestly intreated him tacome and (ave 
the prftoners. The bishop, in an nnconceme^ manner 
replied, ** It was not in his power to save tbem," and 
requested the captwn to sit down and take a glass of 
wine witb him, adding^ at the same time, that *' the 
** people must be gratified T* The officer refused the 
bishop's invitation,, and walked away filled with ab- 
horrence. AH this time the inhuman prkemen were 
busily employed butchering the poor protestants on 
the bridge; some they would perforate in places not 
mortal, to increase their torture^ others they tfcrust 
, their pikes inta the body, and raising it up^ held it 
suspended,, writhiiig in the extreme agony of pain, 
while any signs of life remained, and exulted in the 
deed. In the midst of this diabolical work» general 
Edward Roche^ came galloping to th^ bridge, and 
ordered them to beat to arms, Kaying,. **- tbat Vinegar- 
^^ hill was nearly surrounded by the king's troops, and 
** that all should repair to the camp, as reinforcements 
•* were wanting J' There was immediately a cry of 
*< To capap ! to camp l** and the rebels ran off in every 
direction.. The bloody s^ene was instantly closed,, and 
three of the prisoners were left on their knees on the 
bridge, who were so much stupified with terror that 
they did not make the least effort to escape. Soon 
after some of the rebel guard returned to the bridge, 
and conducted the prisoners back to the gaol; shortly 
after, the bloody monster, Thomas Dixen, returned 


and ordered out the remainder of the prisoners for exe- 
^ cution, aad the greater part of them were tortured 
and put to death in the same manner as the former. 
He then proceeded to the market-house, and ordered 
a party from thence to the bridge, and after butcher- 
ing them, they returned and brought out tea more, 
whom they also most barbarously murdered. They 
then brought out eighteen, and while they were mur- 
dering them, Richard Monk, a rebel officer, came 
galloping ioto the town from Vinegar-hill, shouting, 
" D— p your souls, you vagabonds, why dont you 
" go out and meet the enemy that are coming in, ^nd 
" not be murdering the prisoners in cold blood ?'* 
Some protestant women having asked him, ** what 
"news?" he replied, *' the king's troops are encamp- 
** ed round Vinegar-hill «" He then proceeded to- 
wards the convent, aiid seeing the women following 
him, he pulled out a pistol and swore that he would 
blow out their brains if they came any farther. . Soon 
after, father Corrin was observed running towards the 
bridge: when he arrived there, they had murdered 
six mea, out of the last party that was conveyed there. 
He immediately besought them to spare the remain- 
der, and it was not without the greatest difficulty he 
prevailed upon them ; for after using all the argu- 
ments he could, with no effect, he took off his hat, 
^nd desired them to kneel down and pray for the souls 
of the prisoners before they put any more of them to 
death. The rebels complied with this request, and 
after he had got them in the attitude, of devotion, he 
said, " Now pray to Gpd to have mercy on your souls^ 


** iifid Uoith yon to sheiKr t)mt kindaeiis towards tfatm* 
'* whiclkyoii c!:ipect from him inr the faeur of death, 
•* ami in the day of jodgm«Bt." This had the derirad 
cflfect, and the j^souerv irere toor» afler ooiid«cCAd to 
prison by the g^o«rd» who swore that not m protestant 
man^ wonaiaD, ov chitd) abould he Mt ahve in the town 
the next day. 

** In the whole, mnefy^seven cft the prisoiievs were 
deUberately murdered;, anrd alt the ^^testeots would 
have shared a s'lmUar fate^ had it not bMB prevented 
bf the arrivui of the king's t«ooiw« 

" We sba!l now retarn to the anny mtder general 
^ Moore. . Bemg re]fifor<::ed, as beft»re rekitedr the ge- 
Aera) ^(«&pr'ef»aring to'ptoceed with hw ibrees to Tagh- 
nion, on the tnorning of th% twenfty-fim of Jnttev At 
tbistinve the rebels ja Weidfbrd considered tiieinsdves 
in a very eritica] srtnat'ionf, and betng eooviaced that 
tt wt>nM he inopos^ble for them to keep the towoi they 
hberated lord Kingsborough and the other olBcers 
who were prisoners there, and reqnesftted that he 
would be their mediator, and write to the general oflft- 
cers to spare the inhabihintjs of Wexford, and their 
property, on returning to their allegiance. To this 
proposal lord Kingsborough agreed, on condition^that 
he was invested with the command of the town. The 
rebels having needed to his lordship's desii^y he for- 
warded the following proposals^ made by thea^ to 
general Moore : 


^ Tb«t c«pt4ii« M^Manus sli«U praceed from Wex<> 
for4 towards Oulart, accompaiued by Mr £• Uay« ap- 
pMoted bj <\m inbabitants c^ all religious persuasions, 
to inferm tbe officer commanding the king's troops, 
that tbef ace ready to deliver ap the town of W^fbrd 
withotti 4>pposiliQ09 lay dofru tbeir arms, and return 
to their allegiance, proyid/ed jthaft their peirsgios and 
propecties ace gaar^teed by thie oommajidiog officer ; 
and that tl^y wirl use every iofiueace in their power vto 
induce the people of the country at large to return to 
their jallegiAnce also. These terms ve hope captain 
M'KaoiiB will be able to prociiie«**TSigned by prder of 
the inhabitants of Wexford. 

" Matvbsw KiEuau.'* 

** To these proposals general Moore returned no 
answer, but imBKediateiy forwavded them to the com- 
mandiitg officer, general l^ake, and instead of pro* 
ceeding ^ T.agh(9on, he directed his march towards 
Wexfaod, and stationed his army within two miles of 
that tomu ^grenomh Lake returned the following an- 
swer t» >^ puofM^si^s :— ' t 

^* E$im$^rth^f June ««, 179«» 
^ Lt«ui:eniHit-gQneral Lake cannot attend to any 
terms offered by vebek in arms against their sovereign. 
While the^ loootiawe 00, he ocLust use the force in<* 
trusted to hrai^ with tbe utinectt ep^gy Ibr their de* 
structioD. To the deluded multitude he promise 
pardon, on their delivering into his hands their lead- 


ers, surrendering .their arms, and rfttarning with sin* 
cerity to their alleigance. 

(Signed) ^ G. Lake." 

«* Soon after captain M*Manus had departed with 
the proposals, the rebel leaders desired lord Kings- 
borough to dispatch a second messenger, lest t-he 
king*8 troops should arrive before the terms had been 
accepted. He accordingly sent ensign Harman, to 
request the general to encamp at Carrick-bridge, be- 
fore he advanced into the town; As the- ensign was 
proceeding on the road, he was met by father Mur- 
phy, who exclaimed " he would have no peace,*' and 
ordered his aid-de-camp to shoot him ; on which lie 
drew a pistol and shot Harman through the head. I 


** After these proposals were forw^trded, the rebtl 
general Roche endeavoured to' persuside them to go 
out and meet the army ; but all his intreaties were in i 
vain ; for when captain Boyd of the Wexford cavalry, | 
and a few of his troop, appeared, the rebels fled over I 
the bridge in the greatest confusion, and in the course 
of a few minutes the streets were almost clear. On the 
cry of " The army is come !" a number of wretches, 
sick and wounded,^ ran out of the infirmary, some a 
them whhout clothes, and followed their associates 
the greater part of whom- made the beat of their wa] 
to Kilrauckridge, and the rest into the barony d 

" When captain Boyd arrived, and found that V 


rebela bail evacaated the town, he immediately pro- 
ceeded to the gaol to see the surviving prisoners, who . 
had been miserably fed for some time. He instantly 
set tbem at liberty ; but recommended them to re- 
maiu in prison, until after the king's troops arrived, 
lesl they should be mistaken for rebels and put to 
death. Shortly after the Queen's Royals arrived in 
the most regular order, not a word being heard in all 
the ranks, and took possession of the garrison. Tha 
joy of the inhabitants', particularly the prot^stants who - 
were doomed to death, was inexpressible. Had they 
arrived a day sooner, the massacre upon the bridge 
would have been prevented. 

" General Lake entered the town of Wexford in 
the morning of the twenty-second of June, and estab- - 
lUhed his staff in Keugh's house. He then issued a 
proclamation for apprehending all the rebel leaders; ' 
assuring, the deluded multitude, that such as would 
surrender and deliver up their arms, should receive 
mercy and protection : he also issued general orders 
thai^io person should be put to death, unless be had 
been tried and condemned by a court-martial. He 
forbid any inhabitant or other person being molested, 
and charged tbe soldiers npt to take any article away 
from any person, without having paid for it. 

** The victories which the king's troops had gained 
at Vinegar-hill, and other places, and the evacuation 
of Wexford, so dispirited the rebels, that numbers of 
them repaired to the different commanders of garrri- 


8ond» took the oath of allegiance^ and obtained pro- 

•* A few days after the king's tfoops entered Wex- 
ford, the famoiM rebel general, father Roche, ^as 
arrested, tried by a court-martial, and executed on 
the bridge, along with one Fenelon, and seme others ; 
after which their bodies were thrown into the river. 
Roche was tall and very corpulent, Mid so heavy, that 
when he was suspended, the rope broke and he fell to 
the grotmd : on recovering a little, he said, " God^s 
•• blood ! what are you about ? why do yovt pull my 
" stock so tight ?'^ Hf* then ascended the fatal step 
a second time, and was launched inte eternity » 

•* As soon as it was known at Wexford that the 
rebels were defeated at Vinegar-hill, Beauchaoip Ba- 
genal Harvey, whd had acted as commander in chief 
to the rebels, made his escape, and accompanied by 
Mr John Cblclough, fled to one of the Saltee islands, 
about four miles from the shore, taking with them 
provisions, wine, spirits, and^arnis. There thej; pur- 
posed remaining until a favourable opportunity offered 
for getting themselves conveyed to France. Informa- 
tion having been received by government where they 
had secreted themselves, a party of military was dis- 
patched in pursuit of them, on the twenty-fourth of 
June, who landed on the island the following morn- 
ing. Soon after they landed, they found a chest of 
l)late, and some articles of wearing apparel, and aftir 
a diligent search, discove/ed them, secreted in a cjive 

^ •« 


find ciis^^ised as peasants* They inunediately eurren* 
dered their arms, came forth, and were conveyed back 
to Wexford the next morning. Mr Harvey*^8 trial 
commeoced the same evening. lie did not deny his 
having acted as commander of the rebel forces, but 
endeavoured te extcBuate, by saying, •* That he ac-- 
" cepted ^e command to prevent much greater evils, 
*' which would accrue from its falling into other hands, 
'^ and with the hope of surrendering that command ,. 
" one day or other, with great advantage te^he coun^ 
" try." He had no.^eounsel, and after a trial which 
lasted near eight hours, he was found guilty — death l 
which sentence was put in execution on* the mornmg 
of the twenty-eighth, Tljs head was placed on the* 
session house, and his body thrown into the river. 

*^ Mr Colclough was als® executed on the eveniuj^ 
ef the twenty-eighth, and his. bod^ thrown int&the.* 

** CorneliusGrogan was arrested at his seat m Johcs^- 
town,' and ou his triul endeavoured to prove that he 
was forc^ to act as <?om.mfssary to the rebel army;. 
but was convicted and executed. His head was placed 
upon the court-house,, and his body thrown into the 
river. 1 

".Matthew Keugh, who acted a^ governor of Wex- 
ford,- was taken prisoner, convicted on the clearest 
evidence, and executed. His head was al^o placed ott 
ilic session-house. 

• < 


** Esmond Kyan, commander of tlie rebel attillery, 
was also taken prisoner, tried, found guilty, and ex- 

** Edward Roche, a rebel general, was taken priso- 
ner, tried, sentenced for transportation, and was sent 
to Newgate, with some other convicts? Before the 
vessel was ready to convey them abroad, he died sud- 


** Richard Monk,"Ti rebel captain, received a w6und 
in an engagement, and was^ proceeding to surrender 
lnjli^elf to. colonel Maxwell, at Newtownbarry, when 
he was overtaken by some yeomanry and shot. 

** Thomas Dixon, who led the rebel band that mur- 
dered the prisoners on the bridge of Wexford, was 
noted for cruelty and cowardice. His wife was, if 
possible, more sanguinary than himself. They never 
could be ibund^ though a great reward was offered 
for their apprehension. 

**. In the whole, sixty-six persons, were tried by 
. court-martial, and executed at Wexford.** 

" While the surviving loyalists in Wexford were re- 
joicing at their deliverance, a very tragic scene vra§ 
acted in Gorey. On the departure of general Need- 
ham from the latter town to Vinegar-hill, on the twen- 
tieth of June, he had sent an express to captain 
Holmes, of the Durham regiment, who commanded 


in Arfetow,, or4iering fiim to dispatch immediately to 
Xjorey that part of the Gorey cavalry wp«) remamed ;ii 
Arklow^j and informing lii^n, that on their an*ival at ' 
their place of destination, they should find an officer 
to command them, and a large force with which Ihey 
were .to QBi|e, By the same express the Gorey infan- 
try were ordered to remain in Arklow \ but these, and 
the refugee. inhabitants of Gorey, hearing of a large 
force to protect their towi^- were so imps^i^nt to re- 
visitjtheir homes, that they followed the cavalry con- 
trary to orders,. This body of cavalry, amounting to 
only seventeen in nniuber, found on, their feirrival at 
Gorey, to their astonish mei^t, not an officer or $old|dr. ' 
They, however, had tho-cgiirage or temerity to scour 
the country in search of reljels, with the^jassistance of 
some others who had joined them, and killed about 
rl fly men whom tbey found in their'hottses, or strag- 
gling homeward from the rebel army. On the twenty- 
second, >a body of ab<^t &ve hundred rebels, under 
the ibnduct of Petry, retreating from Wexford, and 
dirwting theic march to the Wi'cklow mountains, re- 
ceiij^ informat^n of this slaughter, anH the weak- 
ness of the party committing it; They instantly ran 
full ^eed to the town, determined on vengeance. On 
int^ligence of their a{<proach, lieutenant Gordon, a 
youth of only twenty years of age, who had the com- 
mand, marched hh men (consisting of fourteen infan- 
try, beside. the cavalry), out of the town to meet the 
enemyJC^nd took post in an advantageous position 
near 41 place^ called Charlotte-grove, where they fired 
some voUies on the rebels, seven of whom they killed ; 

so REBELLIOT^ IN IftELAlgD. * ^^ 

but finding that they must fee tmmedif tely surroofeiSed 
and destroyed if they should attempt to maiatalu their 
post, they retreated, and each horseman taking a 
footman behind biro, fled through the town loward 
Arklow. As by this motion the refugees, who had re- 
turned from Arklow, and were now attempting to 
escape again tfaitli^er, were left exposed to the pursuit 
of a a enraged enemy ^ the officer attempted to rally 
the yeomen on the road, to cover, if possible, tlie 
ilght of these unfortunate people ; but the yeomea 
galloped away ^ull spe«d to Arklow, in spite of his 
remonstrances, and the refugees were slau^tered 
alon^ the road to the puoiber of thirty-seven men, be- 
side a few who were left for dead, but afterwatds re- 
covered. No women or children' were injured, astlie 
rebels, who pfrofessed to act oft a plan of retaliation, 
found on inquiry that no women or. children of their 
party had been hurti This was owing, to the huraa- 
iiity of a young gentleman of seventeen years of age in 
the yeoman cavalry,' who had by his remonstrances 
restrained his associates from violence with respect to 
the fair sex. In the action of this day, which will be 
long remembered in Gorey under the title of JB/oof/^ 
Friday y only three of the yeoman infantry were killed, 
and none of the cavalry. The. rebeJ^ having accom- 
.plished their purpose of revenge, their only motive 
for deviating from their course to visit Gorey, resum- 

' ed, after a short repast, their march to the Wicklow 

After the gignal advantages gained by the king'* 

-^ r|^eM.ion: in Ireland. 


trto{», and t)ie expulsion of the rebels from Wexford 
and Enniscorthyy thos^ of the latter who remained in , 
arms, were compelled to make mountains and other 
devious recesses their only places of abode. These 
seem now to have confined themselves merely to at- 
tempts to prolong the war, till the arrival of a French 
force to their assistance, by eluding the vigilance of 
the royal troops by rapid movements from one stron jf 
position to anothier, 

K a 


jPHE rebel columns which evacuated Wexford, o» 
the twenty-second ef June formed a junction in the 
mountains Between the counties of Wexford and Kil- 
kenny, where they continued and spread desolation 
for some time, burning 'the houses of protestants» 
and inurdering such of the occupiers as fell into their 
hands. The first achievement they endeavoured to 
perform, was an attempt to destroy Hacketstown, in 
which they succeeded, though not without cohsider- 
able loss. The rebels made an attack upon this town 
on the tWenly-fifth of May ; but were defeated by the 
yeomen and a party of militta. 

The column of rebels under the command of gene- 
ral Perry, father Kearns, Garret Byrne, and William 
Byrne of Ballymanus, marched to Hacketstown early 
in the morning of the twenty-fifth of June.' The gar- 
rison of that town consisted of fifty of the Antrim 
militia, lieuteuant Gardiner ; jBfty of the Talbotstown 
cavalry, captain Hume ; twenty-four Shilelah cavalry. 


iietttenanta Bradwell and Taylor ; f©rty-«ix Hackets- 
town infantry, captain Hardy; and thirty Coolatin 
infantry, captain Chamney, This little army marched 
a short distanc^^ out of town, at six o*clock in the 
morning of the, twenty-fifth of June, to meet the r^ 
bels, who were upwards of four thousand ati-ong. Be- 
fore they had advanced far> they perceived the eAemy^ 
vvho immediately began to file off on each side of the 
road, for the purpose o£ surrounding them. In con- 
sequence of this mancBuvre, the cavalry were obliged* 
to retreat by the Ctonmore road, and could not ifeturu' 
to assist in defending the town. In this retreat cap- 
tain Hardy and four men were killed. The infantry^ 
were' also obliged to retreat, and one hundred and' 
twenty of them took post in the barrack, and the rt^ 
maindsec. defended the front,, 

A clergyman of ihe name of Magee, and nine pro^ 
testants, took their station in a house which command- 
ed the principal street, determined to defend it to the 
last extremity. Mr.. Magee*s family, aJl the protei- 
tant women of the town, and even the wife of the te^ 
hel general Byrne^ took refuge in this house; the 
lower part of which was barricaded,, four men placed' 
in the rear to prevent it from being fired, and five iqi- 
the front, partly for its defence, and partly to cover' 
the adjoining barrack, which being a thatched build-^ 
ing, could not be defended by the troops inside. 

Soon after this, the town was completely surroundedi 
by^n immense body of pikemen>. who immediately. 


fired it In many different places, while upwards of a 
thousand men poured upon it a heavy fire of mu&ketrv. 
In two hours, the whole of the town was in flamcF, 
except the harrack and two other houses ; one of which 
contained the brare little garrtson already mentioned. 
The rebels finding they could not succeed in destroy- 
ing the barrack, without posscssian of Mr Magee's 
house^ which fianked the back part of it, they relin- 
quished the former, and approached the latter in great 
' , force. With colours flying, and sounding their bugle 
horns, they pushed carts before them on which wer? 
placed feather-beds, to cover the attack, and seemed 
determined to conquer or die ; but in spite of all the.r 
efforts they were obliged to abandon it, leaving behind 
thera twenty-eight men killed. Behind the house. 
next day, were found fifty dead bodies of pikenaen. 
and thirty more covered with clay» It would not hav 
been possible for that gslTant handful of men to ha\c 
defended themselves for want of ammunition, hai 
it not been for the assistance of a wounded officer, wli'^ 
sat behind a pier between two windows making car- 
tridges ; while his wife, t<ir the imminent danger of her 
life, continued to distribute refpesbments- to the be- 
sieged during their fatiguing and dangerous servict^: 
and when their stock of balls was exhausted, she melt- 
ed pewter plates, and with her own liands cast their. 
into bullets, which her husband made tip into car* 


* _ ■ . ■ 

The engagement continued tillnear four o'clock ii 
the afternoon^ when the rebels drew off their force *: 


a re^lar manner, taking with them several cart loads 
of killed and wounded; though many of them were 
tbrown into the burning houseii and consumed, so 
that upon the whole not less than two hundred of 
them must have been destroyed. 

From the total want of shelter, -as well as ammuni- 
tion and provisions, and being apprehensive of a fresh 
attack, the army resolved to retreat to^ T4illow the 
same evening, having only eleven men killed .afid fif- 
teen wounds* The rebels returned in the night and 
iiurnt the barracks and stores, and destroyed the 
houses belonging to loyalists for some miles round. 

As that column of rebels stiU continued to infest < 
the country near Gorey, a detachment of the Tinna- 
hely cavalry, under the command of captain Gowen, 
«as sent to reconnoitre towards Monyseed. He saw the 
lebels near that town, in great force,, having received 
considerable reinforcements after their flight from 
^ iuegar-hilL Captain Gowen immediately sent an 
express to general Needham, who ordered out colonel 
Pnleston, of the Antient Britons, with detachments 
of that regiment, the fourth and fifth dragoons, the 
Gorey, Wingfie4d, and Ballaghkeen cavalry. As the 
pati-ole advanced, they were informed that the rebels 
^vere n«ir Ballyellis, and that they were in great want 
of ammunition. The colonel then said he would put 
them all to the sword, and making all speed, he per- 
ceived them coming along the side^ qf Kilcavan-hill. 
When the rebels «aw the cavalry advancing in so rapid 


and incautious a manner, they immediately left tTie 
road and lay down ander cover of the hedges, leaving 
all their hbraes, ba^age»carts and wonoded^whick 
they brought from the battle of Hacketstown, in the 
road. Here they lay till the cavalry came up in full 
•speed, on which the rebels opened a most tremendous 
lire of mnsketry on them ; and being securely shel- 
tered, the cavalry could do no execution, and were 
'Obliged to gallop, stoopiuff under cover of the heilges", 
and not being caatious enough to avoid the carts ia 
tthe road, rode against some of them and- were ^over- 
thrown : those behind pressing forward, and being also 
obliged to ^oop, could not see them in time to stop, 
tJierefore tumbled one over another, hoise over horse, 
whilst some of the"" horses feet got entangled in the 
•carts, so that the road was strewed with men and 
liorses plunging and tumbling about. The rebels, 
taking advantage of this confusion, rushed on them, 
piked and shot twenty-five -of the Aucient BritoDS, 
•elevenofthe fifth dragoons, six Gorey cavalry, two 
Ballaghkeene cavalry, and two loyalists who went out 
with the patrole, and wounded many others. The 
remainder escaped and passed on throiigh Carnew, 
took another route and arrived safely at Gorey, Dur- 
ing tliis transaction, the Wingfield dismounted cavalry 
and infantry, under -captain Gowen, came up with 
the rebels, and being dressed in colo^ired clothes,- they 
thought they were part of their own forces. Tbey^o- 
fnanry seeing their opportunity, attacked them with 
great spirit, killed a number of them^ end made their 
retreat without the loss of a man. 


The rebels having acquired a strength of arms and 
Timtnunition by the defeat of the cavalry, and know- 
iug that Carnew was only garrisoned by about fifty 
yeoinen, resolved on attacking it ; but the yeomanry 
being kifermed of their intentions, took post in a malt- 
boose» and repulsed them with great slaughter. The 
rebels then retired to Ballyellis, and in their retreat 
plundered and destroyed a new house, the property of 
Sir John Jervis White. 

They then repaired to Kilcavan, whence, after a 
short stay, they proceeded to Ballyraheen-hill. In 
their march they killed twelve loyalists, and burned 
several houses. 

They were pursued by detachments of the Wing- 
field and Shillelah cavalry, the Tinahely infantry, the 
Coolatin and the Kilkenna ; the whole making near 
two hundred men. These troops endeavoured to get 
to Ballyraheen-hill before the rebels, but could not. 
They found them advantageously posted behind hed- 
ges, and notwithstanding that, and their great superi-^ 
ority in numbers, engaged them upwards of half an 
hour ; but were at last obliged to retreat. Captain 
Chamney of the Coolatin, captain Nixon of the Kil- 
kennai and seventeen privates were killed, and a num- 
ber wounded. ' The victors then attacked captain 
Chamney*s house, but were repulsed with loss by lieu- 
tenant Chiimney, who, with several yeomen, had 
taken post in it for its defence. 
Vol. 11. ^ L 


The rebel force now asBembled on a large hill which 
separates the counties of Wexford and Wicklow, call- 
ed the Whiteheaps, and remained there until the fifth 
of July, when two columns arrived, one under sir 
James Duff, the other under general Needham, with 
intention to surround the hill and make a general at- 
tack. The rebels having previously received informa- 
tion of the movement of the king*s troops, moved off 
the hill very early in the morning ; but were intercept- 
ed by the column under sir James Duff, and after a 

^few rounds of grape shot were obliged to change the 
course of their retreat. They were closely pursued by 
sir James, and weie soon after perceived by general 
Neeham^ who immediately joined in the pursuit, and 
finding that he was at too great a distance for his in- 
fantry to come up with them, he pushed on with his 
cavalry, ordering the infiintry to follow, and in a short 
time joined sir James Duff. After a pursuit of twelve 

.miles, during which many of them threw away their 
clothes, the rebels resolved to come to an engagement, 
being almost exhausted with hunger and fatigue^ For 
this purpose they farmed behind the hedges and wait- 
ed the attack of the troops. 

When sir James arrived he began the attack by a 
discharge of grape-shot from his^ curricle guns^ and 
the contest continued, for sonie time; but when the 
infantry came up, the rebels were soon routed with 
great slaughter. The loss of the army amounted to 
about twenty, that of the rebels to about a hundred. 



We shall now-retarn to view the operations of the 
principal body of rebels under general Perry, in which 
consisted the principal strength of the conspiracy, 
leaving the remnant of the force defeated by general 
Duff to carry on that desultory warfare whioh they for 
some time maintained in the Wicklow mountains. 


OENERAL Perry finding it would be rmpoBsible io 
do any more execution m th« coi^aty of Wexford^ \t 
being so full of troops^ and the rebel fbrees at the 
same time considerably dicnimshedy now proceeded to 
the county of Kvldare, where he formed a junction 
with a large body of rebels comqaanded by 'Michael 
Aylmer, expecting to penetrate into the north of Ire- 
land; but Aylmer prevailed on him to abandon that 
enterprise and attack Clonard, as there was bpt a small 
force to defend it; then march by KObeggaa to the 
Shannon and surprise Athloue^ yhere he expected 
great reinforcements* This plan being adopted, their 
united forces inarched op the eleventh of July to put 
it into execution. . .^ 

The military at Clonard were unapprised of the in- 
tention of the rebels until they w^re informed of their 
approach* Every preparation was immediately made. 
The yeomen assembled, «nd under the direction of 
lieutenant Tyrrel, were placed in the most advanta- 


geous positions* An old turret at the end of the lieu- 
tenant's garden, which commanded the road the rebel* 
were advancing by, was occupied by six of the corps, 
one of whom was the lieutenant's son, only sixteen 
years old. The rebels advanced so rapidly that the 
. gate leading to the court-yard was obliged to be closed 
before all the guard assembled ; so that when lieute- 
nant Tyrrel came to ascertain his strength, he had but 
twenty-seven men, including his own three sons, the 
eldest of whom was only eighteen years of age. Such 
a critical situation required all the firmness, skill, and 
intrepidity of a veteran. Though the lieutenant had 
never served in any military capacity, his good sense 
supplied the want of experience, and his courage fur- 
nished resources adequate to the magnitiide of the oc- 
casion. His men were equally zealous and determined 
to maintauE their post. After sending a supply of am- 
munition to the advanced post at the turret, he retired 
into his dwelling house wjth the main body, of whom 
be selected the best marksmen, placed them at those 
windows from which they were most likely to annoy the 
enemy, and requested that they would not fire without 
taking good aim. 

The advanced guard of the rebels, consisting of 
three hundred cavalry, commanded by Andrew Farrel, 
approached the turret, apprehending no danger. 
Young Tyrrel fired the first shot, which mortally 
wounded Farrell ; and -the rest immediately fired ou 
the cavalry, which threw them into such confusion 
that they fled beyond the reach of their guns. The 


rebel infantry then coming up; passed the turret un^ 
der cover of a wall, and taking post behind ahedge^ 
^n the other side of the road, maintuned a constant 
fire on it, but without effect. The infantvy whkb had 
passed the turret being joined by another party which 
had advanced by a diiferent road, for they purposed 
surrounding the town, stationed a strong gijtard on the 
bridge, to prevent any reinforcements from ariving iu 
that direction. The marksmen at the windows sooa 
put (o flight this guard, after killing ten or twelve of 
them, and not one of them appeared afterwards on the 
bridge, so that the communication with the western 
road was preserved, which we shall find to hs^ve. beea 
of considerable importance. 

Being thus defeated in the first onset,, the rebels be- 
came enraged, and determined pn revenge. A lar^e 
party contrived to get into the garden,, and some of 
them i:u5hed into the turret. The yeomen were upon 
the upper floor, and had dragged up the ladder by 
which they ascended. The rebels then endeavoured to 
climb up on each other and get into the upper stpr}' ; 
"but as fast as they appeared they were killed by the 
yeomen. Some ran pikes into the floor, and others 
fired through it, but without eflect, until twentj-^ 
seven of their men lay dead on the .ground- 
floor. They then brought a quantity of straw and 
set the turret on fire. Two of the yeomen, one of 
whom was young Tyfrel, were kilted in attempting to 
'escape ; the other four leaped from a window, and iin- 
*der cover of a Vail got into the bouse. The r^bds 


thea set fire to the toll^house and some other eabiiii» 
to annoy the garrison^ aad threw «onie of their dead 
inta ihe ffai^es. The c6ai!ict had now lasted near si^ 
hours»' when about five rp tb^ evening a reinforcenient 
was descried from the hon^e r the hopes of the jeometi 
were elevated^ aad they fought with iaereased vigour. 
One of the yeomen» who had been excluded by the.- 
sudden shutting of the gates in the morning, finding 
he could be of- po usf , repaired to Ktone^d, and 
represented the situation of his friends at Clonar^. 
Lieutenant Houghton, ..wil^ fourteen of the Kiiinegad 
infantry,, and a Serjeant with eleven of the Northum- 
berland fencibles, being all that could be spared^ im- 
mediately marched for C^onard. As.«oon as they ar*^ 
rived lieutenant Tyrrel sallied from the bouse^ and 
foniied a junction with them on the road which leads 
to the bridge^ which had been I^^pt open.. A few vol- 
lies completely cleared the roads,, and having then pla- 
ced the Kinnegad infantry and Northumberland fen- 
cibles in. such positions as ipost efie^tUaUj to gall the 
en^my in their retreat from the gardea, lieutenaat 
Tyrrel with a few chosen men undertook to drive theuL 
froa[i it. Some of them, were posted upon, a mount,, 
planted with fi£ trees, which aiforded somo protection, 
others lay concealed behind a privet hedge,, from: 
whence they could see every person who entered. The 
lieutenant and his party were received by a discharge 
from both bodies* No time was lost in attacking those 
behind the hedge, who were obliged to retire to the 
mount. The action then, became viery warm* aod the 
rebels seemed determrned to maintain their advanta« 


geottB situation. The yeomen, but few in number. 
tud six of them wounded, the rest almost overcom ^ 
with fatigue, could not think of retiring ; still the 
persevered and maintained a steady and well-directe 
fire on the enemy till they compelled them to retrea , 
when the Kinnegad infantry and Northumberland feu- 
cibles made great havoc. 

This victory, as brilliant 93 any that occurred during 
the rebellion, was now complete. There were upwards 
of a hundred and fifty of the enemy killed, and a 
great number wounded. 

The rebels retreated from Clonard along the Dub* 
lin road ; and, after proceeding some distance, turn- 
ed towards the right and took possession of lord Har- 
berton's house at Carl>ery, where they drank wine and 
spirits to excess. 

, On the twelfth of July they proceeded to Johns- 
town, and from thence to the Nineteen-mile house. 
They were pursued by parties of the Limerick mifi- 
tia and Edenderry yeoman cavalry, under the com- 1 
nuind of colonel Gough, who attacked and defeated j 
them. They then fled in confusion, leaving all their 
cattle, stores, &c. behind them ; and were pursued 
by general Myers with a detachment of the Bucking- 
hamshire militia and a few of the Dublin yeomaniyi 
who drove them towards Slane in the county of Meatba 
They then marched in the night to the Boyne, aftel 


pftsBiDg which they were pnrsned. by two div)sioD» un- 
der generals WeyiD^am! Meyrick. * 

The rebels formed again in a strong position on the 
road to Ardee ; but when the Sund^rlapd regiment ar- 
rived, they were routed and obliged to By in all direo* 
tions* .They, were then <?harged by the cavidry> andfi 
great slaughter ensued* Some of the. rebels fled, to Ai5- 
dee, the rest over the Boyne towards Garretstown, 
where they were again pursued and attacked ,by d^ 
tachments of the Carlow and Fermanagh^ militia, the 
Swords infantry^, part of the Dumfries dragoons, and 
three corps of yeomen cavaliy, all under the commonfl 
of captftin Oonluu .of the Dumfn^** "^h^f in tba 
coarse of a few days» billed great pumbers and fini^Uy 
dispersed them* 

Perry and father Kearns escaped into the King's 
county ; but were soon after taken and brought pri- 
soners to £deuderry» where they were tried % court- 
martial and executed on the twenty-first of July* 
Aylnaer and Fitzgerald, with some other leaders, sur* 
rendered on condition of being transported. Garret 
and William Byrne also jsurr^pderedon the same teruis> 
but as it was proved, that the l^ter had Ifeen guilty of 
various murders, he was tried by court-martial and ex- 
ecuted at^Wicklowj, on the twenty •sixth of Septem- 
ber, seventeen hundred and ninety-nine. 

One body of rebels which escaped from Vpiegar-hill 
retr^eated into the co^unty of Kilkennj[> under the eom- 


.mand of father John Murphy of Boulavogue, by the 
Scallagh gap,, and thence toward Castlecomer, bap- 
ing to excite an insurrection in that quarter ; particu- 
larly among the colliers. Entering the gap, and driv- 
ing forward a few troops who attempted to opposethem, 
they entered ^nd burned the village of Kiledmond. 
They then proceeded toward Newbridge, where they 
arrived on the twenty-third of June. Lieutenant Dix- 
' on, with twenty-five of the Wexford regiment, and a 
small party of tlie 4th dragoons, was stationed there, 
and determined to defend it. They therefore took 
post on the bridge to prevent their passing the river, 
but were soon defeated by the rebels and obliged to 
retreat, with the loss of twenty-seven men taken pri- 
soners, of whom seven, condemned as orangemeo, 
were soon after shot. An express having been dis- 
patched to general Asgil at Kilkenny, he repaired to 
Newbridge to stop their progress, but arrived too late, 
the enemy having commenced their march to the ridge 
of Leinster, within five miles of Castlecomer^ where 
they spent the night. 

The garrison of Castlecomer, consisting chiefly of a 
few yeomen, had been reinforced by a troop of the 4tt 
dragoons, a company of the Waterford, and a compa 
ny of the Downshire militia, and twenty infantr; 
and forty cavalry of the Cullina^h yeomen, makin; 
in the whole about two hundred and fifty men, mostl; 

Early in the morning of the twenty^fourth of Junt 


a recoDDoitring party was sent out^ wbich found the 
rebels advancing the main body in the road, with con- 
siderable wings on each side. The party being nearly 
surrounded before they observed them (owing to a 
thick fog), was obliged to retreat precipitately with 
great loss. The main body of the army, seeing the 
reconnoitring party retreat in such confusion, joined 
them and fled into the town, and a number of them 
taking post in four houses which commanded the 
bridge, kept up a constant fire on the rebels as they 
advanced* The wings now extended, forded the ri- 
ver, and set fire to the town in several places. Getie- 
ral Asgil at length arriving, commenced a heavy fire 
on the town with his artillery, not knowing that many 
loyalists were still in it making a gallant defence. This 
firing, however, considerably annoyed the rebels, and 
determined them to Tetire from the town about four 
o'clock in the afternoon. The general, however, con- 
sidered the town not tenable, and the remaining loy- 
alists were consequently obliged to retreat with him to 
Kilkenny, leaving their goods a prey to the enemy, 
who again took possession of the town on the retreat of 
the army. 

The loss of the rebels in this action might be near 
two hundred in killed and wounded. 

The enemy immediately began to plunder the houses 
of the loyalists who retreated, and committed every 
excess. The main body afterwards retired to the high 
grounds^ where they remained tiU the following day. 


Being disappoVrtted of raising an insurrectien in the 
county of Kilkenny, where few had joined thero, they 
determined to retreat back into the county of Wexford, 
through Scullagh gap. On the twenty-fifth of Jane 
they marched from the ridge with this resolution, pro- 
ceeded toward Newbridge, and took post near that 
town on a rising ground at a place called Kilcomney. 
Here they were attacked on three sides at once, about 
six o'clock on the following morning, by the army un- 
der general Asgil, amounting to near twelve hundred 
effective men, and that of major Matthews, amount- 
ing to five hundred men, composed chiefly of the 
Dbwnshire militia from Maryborough; The alacrity 
of the latter army to attack the insurgents, seems to 
have been the cause why they were not allowed to 
escape into the county of Wexford without a battle. 
After about an hour's tiring of cannon, the rebels, 
fearing that they would be surrounded, fled precipi- 
tately, and in the greatest confusion^ towards Scul- 
lagh gap, leaving all their cadnon, aramnnition, and 
plunder, in the hands of the army. They were pur- 
fioed with slaughter by the cavalry near six miles. 
Their artillery consisted of ten light field pieces and 
some swivels. Adioug the booty were one hundred 
and seventy cattle^ one hundred sheep, and seven 
hundred horses. 

" The loss of the king's troops has been stated by the 
general at only 5 even men : that of the rebels amount- 
ed to upwards of two hundred. They, however, for- 
ced their way through the ^ap, in which they were op- 



posed by a small body of troopsy and directed their 
<:oar8e through the dwarf woods near Ferns to the 
Wicklow mountains. 

Father John Marphy, the commander in chief, was 
taken soon after and hanged at Tullow. His body was 
burned and his head fixed on the market-house. 
Vol. II. M 


IMTeANTIME Ulster, the quarter in which the prin- 
ciples of the United Irishmen had first appeared, the 
best acquainted with the use of arms, and the most en- 
lightened province of Ireland — ^where government had 
reason to be most of all apprehensive of the conse- 
quences of insurrection — continued in a state of al' 
most perfect tranquillity. The inhabitants of this pro- 
vince, chiefly presbyterians, though perhaps, possess- 
ed of greater codrage than the people of the southern 
districts^ yet appear to have acted with the greatest 
caution and circumspection. Though the mail-coaches 
did not arrive, the signal for their rising, they resolv- 
ed to wait till they should learn whether their brethren 
in the «outh had actually appeared in arms* Lord 
d'Neil, however, governor of the county of Antrim, 
in consequence of certain intelligence that an insur- 
rection was shortly to take place in that county, sum- 
moned the magistrates to meet on the seventh of June 
at the town of Antrim, in order to concert measures 
for its suppression. The leaders of the associatioD, 


apprised of his lordship's designs, and convinced that 
something must immediately be done, resolved, in 
order to counteract those designs, to appear in arms 
on the same day, and, with their followers, to sei2e 
the town, together with his lordship and .the magis- 
strates, whom they intended to detain as hostages, in 
the midst of their deliberations* In the town was a 
quantity of -ammunition, and a great number of arms 
surrendered at different times by the disaffected, which 
they also hoped to regain possession of. 

The attack was accordingly made about two o*clock 
in the afternoon, with such impetuosity, that thfi 
troops were quickly overpowered, and the town nearty 
completely taken. A reinforcement, however, having^ 
been ordered to march to Antrim, by the commander 
in the district, general Nugent, arrived at the very 
moment, and attacked the rebels, now within the 
town. But the vanguard, consisting of cavalry, being 
repulsed with the loss of twenty mfn, three of whom 
were oiScers, colonel Durham ordered the artillery to 
batter the town, which soon compelled the insurgents 
to abandon it. They fled towards Shanes-castle (the 
residence of Lord O'Neil) and Randalstown, whither 
.they were pursued with the slaughter of about two 
hundred men. They left behind them a six-pounder, 
two curricle guns which they had taken from the king*8 
troops, and a considerable quantity of small arms. 
Amongst the losses of the loyalists were colonel Lum- 
ley of the 22d dragoons and lieutenant Murphy wound* 


ed ; cornet Duna killed ; and lord O'Neil raortany 

About half-past one on the seventh, a body of in-^ 
aurgenta attacked Randalstown, where fifty of the 
Toome yeomanry surrendered to them. At ten o'clock 
they abandoned the town and marched to Toome> 
where they remained two days* 

Ad attack was made on the morning of the seventh 
upon the town of Lame, by a small body which was 
repulsed by the garrison, conMsting of a detachment 
of the Tay fencibles under a subaltern officer. 

Feeble attempts were made on Ballymeue andBai*" 

Disgusted by so man'y defeats, the main body retir- 
ed to Donegor-hiU, where the greater part broke or 
surrendered their arms, and nearly the whole of them 
dispersed, to-whicb they were incited by the exhort- 
ations of Mr M*Clo^erty, a magistrate whom they had 
taken prisoner. 

On the eighth of June a partial insurrection com- 
menced in the county of Down ; a numerous body of 
rebels having made their appearance in the neighbour- 
hood of Saintfield, under the command of a doctor 
Jackson of Newtownards. Colonel Stapleton having 
received information to this effect, immediately march- 


ed with a detachment of York fencibles^ with some 
yeomen cavalry and' infantry, and two pieces of artil- 
lery, towards Saint field. On the ninth' the rebels 
ele<:ted Henry Munro, a shopkeeper of Lcsbnrn, thcfir 
general ; and having been iqformed of colonel Staple- 
ton's approach, placed themselves in ambush on eacfi 
side of the road he had to pass, about a quarter of a 
mile from Saintfie|d. They suffered the greatest part 
of the army to pass unmolested, and then opened a 
fa^avy fire on their rear, which consisted of cavalry, 
and so far sncceeded that the royal army was for some j 
time in danger of total defeat, havin'g lost about fifty 
of their number, among whom were captain Chetwynd, 
lieutenant Unitt, and ensigu Sparks, together with 
the Rev. Mr Mortimer, who had just joined them. 

Thl^nftintry, however, on whom the cavalry had 
been driven in confusion, rallying with a cool intrepi- 
dity, at length dislodged the rebels, who fled in the 
greatest disorder towards Newtownards, with a consi- 
derable loss in killed and wounded. The army, after 
retaining possession of the field of battle for two hoursy 

retreated to Belfast. 


The day after the rebels were defeated at Saintfield, 
they attacked a small body of troops who had taken 
post in the market-house at Newtownard^*, to gui«rd a 
quantity ;0f ammunition, baggage,. &e. These find- 
ing they could not^withstand the superior force of the 
enemy, at length consented to capitulate^ and march- 
ed to Belfast. 



Having now gained a considierftble quantity of a»- 
x&unition» and little discouraged by the defeat at 
Saintfieldy the rebels re-assembled and took post at 
Ballynahinchy on the Windmill-hilU and at the house 
and in the demesne of lord M oira. 

On the twelfth of June general Nugent marched 
against them from Belfast, with a detachment of the 
22d dragoons, the Monaghan militia, and some yeo- 
men cavalry and infantry ; and was joined by colonel 
Stewart with his party from Downpatrick, making in 
all near fifteen hundred men. After a few discharges 
of artillery the rebels were driven from the hill, and 
obliged to ^m their friends at lord Moira's> mith the 
loss of a colonel who was taken and hanged. General 
Nugent then took possession of the hill, and both ar- 
mies spent the night in preparations for battl^ which 
began on the morning ci the thirteenth, when the 
town was set on'fiie by the king^s troops. The action 
was maintained with little or no execution^ the rebel 
cannon being small,, and the sliells from the royal ar- 
my bursting in the air. At length the Monaghan mi- 
litia, with two field-pieees> posted at the great gate, 
were attacked with such determined courage by the re- 
})el pikemen, that they were obliged to fall back on 
the Hillsborough cavalry, who also, retired ia great 
confusion. The troops afterwards found means to ral- 
ly, while the Argyleshire fencibles were making their 
attack on another quarter. The rebels, confused and 
distracted, retreated up the hill, and maktng a reso- 
lute stand at its summit, at a kind of fortification, de* 


fended that post for & considerable time, but were at 
length compelled to give way m all directions,, with the 
loss of their cannon and about two hundred men ia 
killed and woaBded. 

The loss of the Icing^s army in this engagement 
may have amoiifited to aboat forty, of whoiii two were 
officers, captata Evatt. killed and lieutenant £lli». 


T^e main body of rebels retreated to the mountains 
of Sleeve Croob, where they soon after separated and 
retorned to thenr several homes* Some of their leaders 
were soon after apprehended and executed, and thus 
termindted this short and partial but active and vigor-^ 
ous insurrecticHK 

On the eleventh of June the rebels made an attaci: 
upe» the town of Portaferry, but were repulsed by a 
small party of yeomanry, under the command of cap* 
tain Matthews, assisted by the fire of a revenue crui- 
ser, commanded by captain Hopkins, With the loss of 
forty men* 

*• On the subsiding of this local rebellion in the 
north-eastern quarter of Ireland, another local rebel- 
lion, mBch inferior in vigour, and very easHy suppress 
sed, commenced in the opposite south-western quar- 
ter, in the coirnty of Cork. Accompanied with the 
same kind of violent acts a*s elsewhere in the south, and 
exhibiting nothing extraordinary or peculiar, it requires 


little notice. The principal action, and the only one 
which governmenth as thought proper to commnnicate 
to the public, took place near the village of Bally Da- 
8carty» where, on the nineteenth of June^ two hnn- 
dred and twenty men of the Westmeath regiment of 
militia, with two six-pounders, under the command 
of their lieutenant*colone1, sir Hugh O'Reilly, were 
attacked on their march from Cloghnakilty to Bandon 
by a body of between three and four hundred men, 
armed almost all with pikes. This wns only a part of 
the rebel force, here placed in ambush in a very ad- 
vantageous position. Tbe attack was made f\rom a 
height on the left of the column, so unexpectedly and 
rapidly, that the troops had scarcely time to form ; but 
the assailant^ were quickly repulsed with some loss, 
and retreated to the height. Here, if the soljliers had 
pursued them, from which they were with great diffi- 
culty restrained, they would probably have been sur- 
rounded and slaughtered like the North-Cork detach- 
ment at Oulart. While tbt^ oftcers were endeavouring 
to form the men again, a body of rebels were making 
a motion to seize th^ cannon, and another body made 
its appearance on the high grounds in its reai ; bat, at 
the critical moment, a hundred men of the Caithness 
legion, under the command^ of major Innes, who on 
their march to Cloghnakilty had heard the report of 
the guns, came to their assistance, and by a brisk fire 
put the assailants to ffight on one skle, after which 
those who were on the heights behind retired »n receiv- 
ing a few discharges of the artillery. The loss of the 
rebels in this action may perhaps have amounted t« be- 


tween fifty and a hundred men; that of the royal 
troops, by the comroander^s account, only to a ser- 
geant and a private/' 

Buringali this time the metropolis remained perfect* 
ly tranquil, except in cases of alarm ivithin and ac- 
counts of hostilities in the country. Spon after the 
rebellion broke out, a number of gentlemen, appre* 
hended as rebel leaders^ in the city, were tried and 
ezectttedj among whom were Henry and John Sheares^ 

Lord Cornwallis, who had been appointed lord Keu- 
tenant, made his entrance into Dublin on the twenti* 
eth of June, which was soon after left by lord Cam* 
deoj who retired to England* 

On the tenth of July a proclamation was published 
in the DCbBn Gazette, offering a general pardon aiid 
protection to the insurgents, in case of their surrender- 
ing and returning to their allegiance. This proclama- 
tion produced an agreement between government and 
the chiefs of the LTnited Irish, by which the latter and 
all others who should avail themselves of the offer,, 
including Mr' Oliver Bond, then under sentence of 
death, were to give every information concerning their 
transactions, and to quit the kingdom, on condition 
oP being pardoned. The agreement was signed on 
the twenty-ninth of July by seventy-three persons 
and six of the principal leaders, among whom were 
Dp M'Nevin, Thomas Addis Emmett, Arthur O'Con- 
nor^ and Samuel Neilson> who gave details on oath ia 



their examiuations before the secret committees of 
both houses of parliament. 

Notwithstanding this agreement, fifteen of the prin- 
cipal prisoners were detained in custody. Mr Oliver 
Bond died suddenly in prison* 



W^HILE government was led to conclude that this 
bloody and desolating civil war wus completely quell- 
edy the rebellion again burst forth in a quarter where 
it had been least of all expected^ and where not the 
smallest sign of disaffection had appeared. We allude 
to the province of Connaoght. This quarter, howe« 
ver, was roused to insurrection by the landing in the 
bay of Killalla, on the twenty-second of August, of 
eleven hundred French troops, including seventy offi- 
cers, with a considerable quantity of arms, cloth^ 
ing, and ammunition, under the command of general 
Humbert, Tiiese were disembarked from three fri- 
gates, and formed only the vanguard of that army 
which afterwards fell a prey to a British squadron. 

The garrison of the town of Killalla, consisting of 
only fiity njen, thirty of whom were yeomen, the re- 
mainder a detachment of the Prince of Wales fenci- 
bles, after a spirited attempt tO oppose the entrance 
of the French vanguard, between seven and .eight 


o'clock of the evcDing of the twenty-second^ were 
obliged to retreat with precipitation, having two of 
their number killed; and lieutenant Sills of the fen- 
cibless captain Kirk wood of the yeomen^ and nine- 
teen privates taken prisoners.' 

** All opposition being now at an end/' says the 
narrator * of what passed at Killalla after the landing 
of the French troops, " the French general marched 
into the castle yard at the head of his officers, and de- 
manded to see Mon9« I'Eveque. Very fortunately for 
his family, and, indeed, as it afterwards appeared, 
for the town and neighbourhood, the bishop was tole- 
rably fluent in the French language, having in his 
youth had the advantage of foreign travel. Humbert 
desired him to be under no apprehension, himself and 
all his people should be treated with the most respect- 
ful attention, and nothing should be taken by the 
French troops but what was absolutely necessary for 
their support : a promise i^hich, as long as those troops 
-continued at Killalla, was most religiously observed, 
excepting only a small sally of ill humour or roughness 
on the part of the commander towards the bishop, 
which shall be related presently. 

" In the midst of all his hurry in giving the necessa- 
ry orders for landing the remainder of his force, and 
appointing their quarters, general Humbert found 

^ Supposed to be the bishop of Killalla, 


time that very evening to enter into a very long con- 
versation with the bishop on the subject of his invasion, 
and the sanguine hopes he entertained of its speedy 
and complete success. Such a powerful armament was 
to be sent out without delay from the French ports^ 
to second this primary adventure, that not a doubt 
could in reason subsist, but Ireland would be a free 
and happy nation, under the protection of France, 
within the space of a month. A directory was imme- 
diately to be set up in the province of Connaught, 
some of the members of which were already appoint- 
ed ; but there was still a place for a person of the abi- 
lity and consequence of the bishop of Killalla, if he 
chose to embrace the fortunate opportunity at once of 
serving himself and liberating his country. The bi- 
shop at that time made no answer except by a bow to 
the personal compliment; but when the application 
was afterwards seriously repeated to him in their com- 
mon bed-chamber, by the two principal officers, Hum- 
bert and Seirasin, he smiled, and said he had taken 
too many oaths of allegiance to hfs sovereign to have it 
in his power to change. They replied he was a man of 
honour, and that it was far from -the intention of their 
government to force liberty upon any man. 

** The remainder of the first evening was employed 
in a strict examination of captain Kirkwood, the ma- 
gistrate, as to the supplies that could be drawn from 
the town and neighbourhood to assist the progress 
of the invaders. The queries were interpreted by some 
Irish officers who came with the French. Mr Kirk*« 


wood answered- with such an appearance of frankness 
and candour that he gained the esteem of the French 
eeneraly who told him he was on his parole, and should 
have full permission, to return to his family and attend 
to his private affairs. But this good humour between 
them did not continue long. Kirkwood had a sickly 
wife, an amiable woman, of whom he was doatingly 
fond. The terror of the invasion wrought so npon 
her weak nerves, t^at after escaping on the first night 
to the castle, she crept away the day aftef to some 
hiding place in the mountains, four or five miles from 
the town, from which she sent word to her husband 
that she was but just alive. ^ Attentive only to her, he 
forgot his parole of honour to the French ; and it was 
not till after he had been some time by his wife's bed- 
side, that he recollected the circumstance of his hav- 
ing transgressed the bounds within which be had pro- 
mised to confine himself. Not knowing what punish- 
ment he might have incurred by this breach of the 
laws of war, he took the desperate resolution of with- 
drawing himself to the wild district of Erris, about 
ten miles from Killalla, on the sea coast, into which 
^ carriage cannot pass, as it is a frightful trsick of bog 
and mountain, though tolerably well peopled. Here 
he remained several days with only one attendant, in 
constant dread of being robbed and murdered by the 
rebels, and forced to take up his residence at night in 
caves among the rocks, when he could not reach a 
smoky hut belonging to some peasant whom he could 
trust. At one time especially, he owed his life to the 
good ofiices of Ferdinand O'Donnel, a young man, a 


tenant under the see of Killalla, who was soon to make 
aconspicaouB figure in these troubles. O'Donnel had 
been employed in some little post in the revenue at 
Cork, whence he had lately returned to his own coun- 
try, to look after his small farm, and to take care of 
his mother, a young brother, and sisters. He knew 
Mr Kirkwood ; as indeed no man was better known 
nor more popular in all that neighbourhood, being a 
good-humoured man, well versed in the Irish lan- 
guage, and useful as a merchant conducting an ex- 
tensive trade between Killalla and the Irish and Eng- 
lish port?. With difficulty O'Donnel was able to pro- 
tect the fugitive for one night only in his farm-house ; 
but he incurred the hatred of the rebels so much for 
this act of humanity, that after sending away Kirk-^ 
wood in the morning, he was fain to take the road to 
Killalla himself the same day. It is more than pro- 
bable, however, that he was glad of the pretence for 
lunning to the scene of action, where his vanity whis- 
pered him, that he should find occasion to distinguish 
himself. Kirkwood soon after, by the help of a trusty 
protest ant of the name of Rogers, contrived to make 
h\i situation known to the bishop, who represented the 
business to the French officers in such a light, as pro- . 
ceeding merely from inadvertence, that a passport 
was granted, in consequence of which, Mr Kirkwood, 
after many intervening perils, found means to get 
back to Killalla. There he had reason to mourn over 
the ill consequences of the hasty step he had taken, 
wh^^n he quitted the defence of his house and property. 
Enraged at his breach of parole, the French had taken 
N 2 


erery ihiog they wanted out of his stores; oats, salt, 
and iron, to a considerable amount; nor had they 
been careful to prevent depredations by the rebels in 
his dwelliag-house, as they would have done if he had 
not fled ; so that when he returned^ he found it al* 
most a wreck. 

*' But it is time to \opk back to what happened at the 
castle in the commencement of the invasion. For a 
century past Ireland had known nothing of the hor- 
rors of war, but from description* 0»r obscure cor- 
ner of the island had less reason than almost any other 
part to look for a disturbance from foreign enemies* 
Neither was there just cause of suspicion, that the 
county of Mayo, at least, had caught any portion of 
that malignant spirit of disloyalty and religious intole- 
rance, the effects of which in the county of Wexford, 
we in Connaught had been lately deploring, not with- 
out a mixture of gratulation on our own esc^e from 
the like. It i^ not to be wondered, therefore, if taken 
in the midst of profound security, the inhabitants 
were seized with a panic, as general as it was terrible. 

*• The dining-room at the castle, whtchafewminute» 
before witnessed nothing but mirth and festivity^ was 
filled immediately, from one end to the other, with 
French officers and soldiers, dragging in arms and 
baggage, with prisoner^ undergoing examination ; and 
in one part with a surgeon and assistants dressing » 
severe wound received in the late skirmish by a surly 
looking officer of tlje French grenadiers* All thtt 


lower part of the house, together with the court-yard, 
and offices, was occupied by the soldiery, to the num* 
ber of at least three hundred* And here it would be 
an act of great injustice to the excellent discipline con- 
stantly maintained by these invaders while they re- 
mained in our town, not to remari:, that with erery 
temptation to plunder, which the time and the num- 
ber of valuable articles within their reach presented to 
them, from a side-board of plate and glasses* a hall 
filled with hats, whips, and great coats, as well of the 
guests as of the family, not a skigle particular of pri- 
vate property was found to have been carried away»^ 
when the owners, after the first fright was over, came 
to look for tbetr effects, which was not f)r a day or 
two after the landing* Immediately upon entering 
the dining-room, a French officer had called for the 
bishop^s butler, and gathering up the spoons and the 
glasses,, had desired him to take them to his pantry,. 

** On the middle floor of the new house, the drawing- 
room was converted into a prison ibr the yeomen, till 
they were sent on the twenty-sixth to Ballina, when it 
returned to the possession of the family. A store- 
room on the same ioor was leflt undisturbed ; the two 
bed-chambers adjoining were reserved for the general 
and bis principal officers. The attic story, contain- 
ing a library and three bed-chambers, continued sa- 
cred to the bishop and his family. And so scrupulous 
was the delicacy of the French not to disturb the fe- 
male part of the house, that not one of them was evee 
seen to go higher than the middle floor, except on the 


evenings of their success at Castlebar, when two officers 
begged leave just to carry to the family the news of 
the battle, and seemed a little tnortiGed that the in- 
telligence wasreceired with an air of dissatisfaction. 

** It is not easy by any force of language to convey an 
adequate idea of the miseries of that first night, which 
succeeded to the landing of the enemy. To the terri- 
fied imaginations of the toiyo's people, the castle in- 
stantly presented itself, as the only place where they 
could have a chance of safety. Thitht^r accordingly they 
fled, without distinction of age, sex, or condition, forc- 
ing their way into every corner of the house and offices, 
occupying the stair-cases, spreading through the bed- 
chambers, and some of them even thrusting themselves 
and their children into the same beds with the infants 
of the bishop's family. AVoraen that had lain sick in 
their beds for a month before, and one old lady past 
eighty, who was bed-rid, and believed to be at the 
point of death, gathering strength from despair, con- 
trived to work their way to the very top of the house. 
Chairs were placed round the lobby of the attic story, 
on which the family, with some of their principal ac- 
quaintance, remained without a thought of repose for 
the whole night. Indeed* the leaden hand of sleep 
could not have closed any eye-lids but those of an in- 
fant. The whole house resounded like a bedlam with 
the loquacity of the Frenchmen below, and the shrieks 
and groans of the fugftives above. Among the last 
there wanted not some, who sought consolation from 


tke whiskey bottle, in consequence of which they be- 
came presently so clamorous and troublesome^ that it 
was necessary to restrain them by force. 

" Of the company that had dined at the castle that 
day, two clergymen made their escape on foot, and 
gained the neighbouring mountains, leaving their horses 
to be seized by the French. The dean of Killalla^ 
(parish minister of the town) the rev» Thomas Thomp- 
son, brought his wife and children from his own dwell- 
ing to the castle, where they were sheltered with the 
cordiality due to the uncommon excellence of their 
character, aud continued there till a gracious Provi- 
dence wrought our deliverance. The bishop had every 
reason to rejoice, th^-t in his distress he should have 
been so fortunate as to be assisted by the judgment, 
the steadiness, and temper, of dean Thompson aud 
doctor Ellison, This last gentleman indeed continued 
with him but one week, being dismissed oh his parole 
to Castlebar ; but wherever he was, the bishop felt 
the beneficial effects of his active and friendly disposi- 
tion. The rey. Robert Nixon, curate of the parish, a 
most worthy and valuable young man, was also an in- 
mate at the castle during the whole time of the trou- 
bles. The rev. Mr Little, from the neighbouring pa- 
rish, of Lackan, embraced the same asylum, after he 
liad been driven from his parsonage by the insurgents, 
who left hiui neither house nor property. The 
bishop*s own family consisted of himself, his lady, his 
sister-in-law, Mrs Cope, the rev. James Burrow^S 


the •erioui situation in which we were placed was fre« 
qtiently insufficient to repress our laughter at it. ^he 
coxcombry of the young peasants in their new dress ; 
the mixture of good humour and contempt in the 
weather*beaten countenances of the French, em* 
ployed in making puppies of them ; the haste of the 
undressed to be as fine as their neighbours, casting 
away their old clothes long before it came to be their 
turn to receive the new ; above all, the merry activity 
of a handsome young fellow, a marine officer, whose 
business it was to coi^ummate the vanity of the re- 
cruits, by decorating them with helmets beautifully 
edged with spotted brown paper, to look like leopard's 
skin, a task which he performed standing on a powder 
barrel, and making the helmet fit any skull, even the 
largest, by thumping it down with his fists, careless 
wheth,er jt cou^ ever be taken off again— these were 
circumstances that would have made you smile, 
though you had been just come from seeing your 
house in flames. A spectale not less provoking to 
mirth presented itself to your view, if you followed 
the new soldiers after they had received their arms and 
cartridges, and observed their manner of using them. 
It was common with them to put in their cartridgeSk at 
Ihe wrong end, and when they stuck in the passage 
(as they often did) the inverted barrel was set to work 
against the ground, till it was bent and useless. At 
first they were trusted with balls as well as with pow- 
der. But this practice was not repeated, after it had 
gone near costing his life to general Humbert. As he 
was standing at an open window in the castle, the ge- 


neral heard a ball whistle by his ear, ' discharged by an 
awkward recruit in the yard below, whom he instantly 
panished with an unmerciful caning. The ball passed 
into the cieling, where the mark of it is still apparent. 
Lastly, it was quite unsuitable to the spirit of these 
rustic warriors to keep their firelocks idle till they 
should come in sight of an enemy, when there were so 
many inferior animals on which they might be tried. 
A crowd got about Charost one day, clamouring 
for a supply of powder and shot. * Tell them,* said 
the cooimandant, in a passion, * they shall have no 

* more, till I am sure they will not waste their charges 

* upon ravens.* 

•* The Frenchj it is well known, are a nation ready 
enough to consider themselves superior to any people 
in the world ; but here indeed it would have been 
ridiculous not to prefer the Gallic troops in every re- 
spect before their new allies. Intelligence, activity, 
temperance, patience, to a surprising degree, appear- 
ed to be combined in the soIdi*y that came over with 
Humbert, together with the exactest obedience to 
disrcipline. Yet if you except their grenadiers, they 
had nothing to catch the eye. Their stature for the 
most part was low, their complexion pale and sallow, 
their clothes much the worse of the wear: to a super- 
ficial observer, they would have appeared incapable of 
enduring almost any hardship. These were the men, 
however, of whom it was presently observed, that they 
could be well content to live on bread or potatoes, to 
drink water, to make the stones of the street their 
P ^ 


bed 9 and to sleep in their clothes^ with no covering 
but the canopy of heaven* One half of their number 
had served in Italj under Bonaparte; the rest were 
from the army of the Rhine, where they had suffered 
distresses that well accounted for thin persons and 
wan looks. Several of them declared with all the 
.marks of sincerity, that at the siege of Mentz, dur* 
ing the preceding winter, they had for a long time 
slept on the ground in holes made four feet deep un- 
der the snow. And an officer, pointing to his leather 
small-clothes, assured the bishop, that he bad not 
taken them off for a twelvemonths . . 

" Humbert, the leader of this singular body of men, 
was himself us extraordinary a personaee as an'^ •'' '' 

army. Of a good height and shape, in the full vigour 
of life, prompt to decide, quick in execution, appa- 
rently master of his art, you could not refuse him the 
praise of a good officer, while lys physiognomy forbad 
you to like him as a man. His eye, which was small 
and sleepy, (the effe^ probably of much watching) 
oast a side-long glance of insidiousness, and even of 
cruelty : it was the eye of a cat, preparing to spring 
on her prey. His education and manners were indica- 
tive of a person sprung from the lowest orders of so- 
ciety, though he knew how, (as most of his country- 
men do) to assume, where it was convenient, the de- 
portment of a gentleman. For learning, he scarcely 
had sufficient to enable him to write his name. Hjs 
passions were furious, and all his behaviour seemed 
marked with the characters of roughness and violence. 


A narrower observatioiv* of him, however, served to 
discover, that much of this roughness was the result 
of art, being assumed with the view of extorting by 
terror a ready compliance with his commands. Of 
this truth the bishop himself was one ef the first who 
had occasion to be made sensible. 

" Boats were necessary to transport the artillery and 
stores from the ships, cars and horses to forward them 
by land ; and these were to be procured without de« 
lay, the life of the present enterprise consisting in dis- 
patch. High prices were offered ; but the lishermen 
of Kiltalla at first kept out of the way ; and of the 
cars none could be got, but what were seized at the 
first onset. Application, therefore, was made to the 
bishop, whose answer was (what was really true) that 
he had no authority in that place, civil or pergonal ; 
that he was not a magistrate, nor had time to be ac- 
quainted with the people, having settled himself in 
the town, from another part of the kingdom, only a 
few months before. Humbert replied, that he should 
not have troubled his lordship, if the, proper magi- 
strate had not fled, in violation of his parole ; that he 
cared little, by what means the bishop should contrive 
to get him what he wanted ; but as he was the prin- 
cipal inhabitant, he must and would charge him with 
the office of producing boats and cars, and that by 
the very next morning.. The bishop, in Humbert's 
presence, desired his people to go out into the town, 
and try to convince the inhabitants that the general's 
orders must be obeyed. 

P 3 


** Next morning, when neither boat nor car appear-* 
edf Humbert became furious. He poured forth a 
torrent of vuU^r abuse, roared, stamped,^ laid hia 
hand frequently upon a scymitar that battered the- 
groQody presented a pistol at the bishnp^s eldest sen, 
and at last told the bishop himselfy that he wonld 
make him sensible he was not to be trifled with, for 
he would puni^h his disobedience by sending him in- 
ataotly to France, Orders to this eifect were given 
on the spot to an officer, who delivered him in charge 
to a corporaPs guard, only allowing him time to put 
on his hat. The inhabitants stared in silence, as they 
saw the bishop conducted on foot thiongh the town.^ 
The French soldiers marched him at a good pace 
along the road that led to the ships, and seemed ta 
have received orders not to answer any of his questions.. 

" When they had advanced about half a mile, and 
were beginning to pass a hill that would have conceal- 
ed the town from their view, they were overtaken by 
an express on horseback, with the general's orders to. 
return. On entering the castle, the bishop was. hailed 
with the gratulations of the French officers, and ex- 
cuses for the condu^'t of their commander, a hasty 
man they said, but very good natured. Humbert 
himself received him on the stairs with an apology for 
what he had done, pleading necessity, a plea which 
was readily admitted. Indeed the bishop had felt na 
apprehension at any time, that the menace would be 
seriously carried into effect. He knew the French 
could not want his presence, nor^his assistance as an ' 


interpreter; and he sa^, thraugh its disguise, the 
real object of Hunobert'a aftected fary» which ended ' 
as that officer had expected, in the immediate appear-^ 
ance of the people of whom he was in search. The 
bishop*s danger, if there was any, was so quickly over^ 
that happily the greater part of bis family knew noi- 
thing of it till it was past. 

** Scarcely, however, had he got clear of one disa- 
greeable business, when another was thrown in his^ 
way. Every thing being ready for a march by Satur- 
day the twenty-lifth, the French general determined 
to leave behind him at Killalla two hundred of his owa 
soldiers, under the command of half a dozen officers^ 
to secure himself a retreat, in case of miscarriage,^ to 
his ammunition ^'a large proportion of which, to the 
amount of two hundred and eighty barrels of a hua- 
dred pounds each,, could not be forwarded for want of 
the means of conveyance. But this was not the osten** 
sible reason for leaving the men. It was pretended,, 
that they were suffered to remain out of pure compas« 
sion to the protestants of the vicinity, whose lives 
might be in danger from the new levies, while the 
French were elsewhere employed. Hostages there* 
fore must be taken at least as far as Ballina, in.ex« 
change for the six officers that should be left t© keep 
the peace at Killalla ; and the bishop was given to 
understand, that he himself, and one of his sons, 
must make a part of the number. Remonstrances 
^ere vain. The bishop found himself obliged to com* 


montcate the unwelcome tidings to the family, and to 
order his chaise for the following morning. 

** At no one period of their calami ty, perhaps, did 
the patience of the women sustain a ruder assault. 
To be separated, under such circumstances, for a 
time unknown, perhaps for ever (for it was then said 
and believed, that the hostages were destined to follow 
every where the camp and fortunes of the invaders) 
this was bitter news. Mrs Thompson, the dean's ladj', 
sunk under it into a swoon : advanced in her preg- 
nancy, she had nerves that did not keep pace with 
the excellent temper of her mind. Mrs Stock and 
Mrs Cope said nothing. But the eye that met theirs 
during that scene of anguish, feels a dimness at the 
reviewal of it. 

** Next morning (Sunday) the prospect cleared up 
a little, though stilt unpleusant. The genera) had 
changed his mind, and would accept of the bishop's 
eldest son in place of the father. It was a strange alle- 
viation of pain, to be derived from exposing to danger 
a son, who had found favour with every body thnt 
knew him, as well as with his parents. But the youth 
(a college lad under nineteen) thought nothing of & 
danger from which his father was exempted, and went 
off rheerfully with the other four hostages, whom the 
bishop was ordered to nominate; for Humbert had 
consented to take but one of the sons instead of two. 
The four named were John Knox, esq. of Bartrach, 
Thomas Kir kwood, lieutenant of theTyrawley cavalry ; 


James Rutledge, custam-bousq officer; andihc curate, 
Mr Nixon. 

** With a levity which seemed to mark the general 
tenor of his conduct, Humbert signified to the hos- 
tages, presently after their arrival at Ballina, that 
they were at liberty to go home again.. He himself 
marched his forces directly towards Castlebar, leavimg 
one True, an ignorant brutal officer, with a few 
French, and a rabble of the Irish, to retain possession' 
of Ballina. True would not confirm the indulgence 
granted by the general, till the day following; so that 
the five gentlemen passed a most unquiet Rijfht Ainidftf 
a crew of drunken and insolent rebels, with scarcely 
any «i;i:mHuio%«AJCC. x ^mZ »Ci«cs Gti which they rode 
to Ballina, were not to be found next day ; but the- 
hostages were glad to find their way back again oa 

*• The charge of Killalla, with the title of com- 
mandant, was committed to M. Charost, chtf de 
demi'brigade» which answers to our title of lieutenant-' 
colonel. The choice proved a fortunate oije for the 
town ; Charost being a ma^ of sense and honour, in 
short, in every respect the opposite of True. This 
officer began his ccmimand by obliging the bishop so ■ 
far as to grant ti passport to captain Hill, the worthy 
register of the diocese, empowering him to go home 
to Limerick. By him the bishop found the much- 
desired opportunity of conveying a letter to his friend» 
in Dttblin^ the only one they received ftom him till 


the town was recovered. A verbal account^ however^ 
of the family 9 was carried to Dablin by doctor Elli- 
son, who got leave from Charost, on the twenty-ninth, 
to return to Castlebar, from which town he followed 
his lady and fBinily to the capital. Mr John Thomp- 
son, the dean's brother, was permitted, at the same 
time with doctor Ellison, to go to his house in Castle- 
bar, where he hospitably entertained the bishop*s son 
Arthur, when he was presently after sent to the same 
town in quality of hostage. 

•* Though the enemy took away nothing with them, 
when they moved, but what was necessary for their 
operations in the field, yet that necessity was found to 
comprehend the best part of what the country possess- 
ed, whether of stock or victuals. The bishop's larder 
and cellar, both plentifully .stored at that season, 
scarcely sufficed for three days. Every thing that he 
had in the fields disappeared : corn, potatoes, cattle, 
were all wanted, and taken from him^ befbre any 
thing was touched that belonged to the poor. - Of hrs 
kitchen grate so incessant use was made, froni earFy 
morning even to midnight, that the chimney was on 
fire more than once, and in the middle of summer* 
above thirty tons of coals lasted only one month. His 
stal)]es yielded nine horses of his own (most of them 
good ones) with proper furniture ; and his guests con- 
tributed about half a dozen more. 
was stript of nothing but harness ; those brave officers 
despising the luxury of a chaise. Cars, carts, and a 
large waggon, with their furniture, went of course. 



In three days he had lost to ^he value of six hundred 
pounds* But it was clear, that even this damage was 
nothing in comparison of what he must have sustained, 
if he had fled, (as he was advised, and even offered the 
means to do) on the first approach of the French. 
The ruin of his house and furniture, both valuable, 
would have been the consequence; not to speak of the 
mischiefs throughout the neighbourhood, which he 
was happy enough by his presence and exertions to 


On the twenty.fouTth of Augnst, Lord Cornwallis 
received intelligence of the landing of the FrencA 
troops, and immediately ordered a force, which was 
thought to be more than sufficient for the purpose, to 
proceed to that quarter. Major-general kutchinsoa 
arrived at Castlcbar on the twenty-Efth, from Galway, 
and was joined tKe following night by lieutenant-geue- 
ral Lake, who had been ordered by lord Cornwallis to 
take the command of the forces assembled in Con- 
naught, to oppose the French army. The forces then 
collected amounted to between three and four thou- 
sand men ; yet the generals did not wish to attack the 
enemy until more forces arrived ; therefore intended 
to remain at Castlebar a few days. General Hum- 
bert wisely chose the offensive rather than the defen- 
sive part in the attack ; and accordingly marched with 
the utmost diligence to attack the forces at Castlebar, 
and would have surprised the king's army before day- 
light, had it not been for the extreme ruggedness of 
the roads by which he advanced* 


Very few of the inhabitants joined the French on 
their landing at Killalla ; but when the latter gained 
possession of B'allina, great nambers flocked to theif 
standard, and received the arms and clothing which 
had been sent Tor them by the French government. 

In order to excite rebellion before too powerful an 
army could possibly be collected to overwhelm him> 
general Humbert determined to attack the forces at 
Castlebar ; he therefore commenced his march early 
in the morning of the twenty-sixth, with about eight 
hundred French troops, and. near two thousand of 
the Irish peasantry. Instead of the common road 
which goes through the town of Foxford, wh^re gene- 
ral Taylor, with a body of troops, had been stationed, 
to watch the movements of the enemy, Humbert ad* 
vanced over mountains which had hitherto been deem* 
ed impassable to an army, and where his further pro* 
gress might have been stopped by a single company, 
with two pieces of artillery, at a place called the gap 
of Barnageehy, six miles from Castlebar, had our 
army been apprised of his approach in that direction. 
The artillery of the invaders consisted of only two 
small curricle gtms, the- carriage of one of which had 
broke down, owing to the ru'^gedness of the read, and 
caused a considerable delay in their march, which 
was very fortunate for our army. 

At two o'clock in the morning of the tw€nt5''-seventh, 
information was received at Castlebar, of the ap* 
proach of the enemy through the saouotains. At 
Vox. 11, Q 


^ven they were within three miles of the town. Our 
array was im mediately drawn up in an advantageous 
position^ with fourteen pieces of artillery, between 
the town and the asfeailants. The royal army was 
greatly superior to that of the Freuch, both in num« 
bers and freshness of the men, who were free from 
fatigue, while the enemy were almost exhausted with 
scrambling over the mountains, near twenty hours, 
without repose, from which circum.stance oui; troops 
promised themselves an easy victory. In the he^iu- 
ning of the action, appearances were favourable to 
their expectations, as the enemy were three times 
driven back by the fire of our artillery, which wa» weil 
managed uudet the diriectious of captain ShortalL 
These veterans, however, were determined not to 
retreat; though from the appearance and • excelltnt 
disposition ^ of our army, they expected nothing but 
to be obliged to surrender themselves prisoners of war, 
and a$ the Irish insurgents were as yet of little or no 
use to them in an engagement. The enemy then filed 
away in small parties, both to the right and left, as if 
they intended to attack our troops in fiank, and some 
of them advanced to the left, so hs almost to touch the 
points of the bayonets of the Frazer feucibles. Th* 
French had lost many of their number^ principally 
by the fire of our aitillery, and had tired very lew 
shots, when the royal army, seized with an unaccount- 
able panic, broke ou all sides, notwithstanding the 
utmost exertions of the officers, and retreated in the 
greatest confusion into the town, and when the enemy 
^vanced they fled on the road to Tuam. 


A small party of French soldiers pursued the flying 
army upwards of a mile frpra the town, when a party 

of lord Roden*s cavalry wheeled apd cut them down. 

y ■ 

Still our army seemed panic struck, and retreated 
so precipitately as to reach the town of Tuam, thirty 
miles from Castlebar, in the evening of the same,day, 
and after a short refreshment, retired still farther to- 
wards Athione, where an officer of cavalry, with sixty 
of his men, arrived at one o*clock on Tuesday the 
twenty-ninth ; having performed a march of sixty- 
three miles iu twenty-seven hours I 

Oar army lost fourteen pieces of artillery in this 
unexpected defeat; four of which were curricle guns. 
The loss^of men was stated at fifty-three killed, thirty- 
four wounded, and two hundred and seventy-nine 
missing* Among the wounded were two lieutenant* 
and three sergeants ; and among the missing were two 
staff-officers, two majors, three captains, six lieute- 
nants, three ensigns^ ten sergeants, and two drum- 

'^ A melancholy proof, that treason had a hand in 
4hc success of the French at Castlebar, was soon ex- v 
hibited in the bishop's court-yard. Fifty-thfee de- 
serters from the Longford militia marched in, amids 
the shouts of the multitude, with their coats turned, 
and there exchanged the uniforms given them by their 
sovereign, for the blue coats of France ! It was a 
utraoge sight, and to protestant spectators, most pro- 
Q 2 


Yoking. To comfort the bishop, the commissary made 
bim a present of the deserters' miiforms. He took the 
gift, foreseeing that he should ere long find naked bo- 
. dies in plenty to cover with them. R/eport said, that 
»u a few days the rebel camp at Killalla was joined 
by fourscore more deserters from the Longford and 
Kilkenny militia. Not a man of these infamous 
betrayers of their king and country returned alive to 
bis home. 

" From the day that succeeded the battle of Castle- 
bar, August twenty-eight, suspence was kept alive at 
Killalla, by the report of cannon on the inland ude, 
and by the appearance of a squadron of frigates in the 
ofBng, which were called French or English according 
to the wishes of the spectators. These ships vaned in 
number^ from one or two to five, appearing irresolute 
what course to take, till at Tength three* went off to- 
wards Sligo ; a fourth, of thirty-two guns, with a cot- 
ter of sixteen, continuing hovering in the bay, and 
was at one time near losing her cutter on the bar. The 
French cherished hopes that it might be the squadron 
they expected from Brest, till on the the thirtieth they 
saw the single frigate send out her boats to destroy two 
trading vessels, of which the French had taken pos- 

^ • ^< These were, as we learned afterwards, the Doris^ of. thirty- 
six gans, lord Ranelagh ; the Mdampus, ditto,, capt. Moore • 
and the Fox cutter^ of twelve guns, lieutenant WalshT The ves- 
•els that stayed were the Cerberus, thirty-two gumt, IS-poan- 
ders, capt'iin M'Namara, and the Hurler cutter, captain J. Nor-- 
way, carry ing Sixteen carcooadesj^lS-pouAders.?* . . 


8esion» one to transport their ammunition, just landed, 
the other to supply the town with forty ton of oatmeal* 
The crew of this last, seven Frenchmen, w©re carried 
to the frigate. - The two sloops continued burning all - 
sight, and part of the nett day. Some of the poor 
town*s-people, venturing to board the oatmeal sloop, 
to save what they could of so tempting a provision, 
narrowly escaped death by ^u eighteen-ponnder frooA 

*^ As long at the two hundred French soldiers were 
suffered to remain for the defence of KiUalla, the pro* 
testaut inhabitants felt themselves perfectly secure, 
the nuqnber of insurgents, that poured in from the 
country to a camp they formed in the bishop's ^e» 
m^ne, increased «very hour. The case was sadly al- 
tered from the first of Septenaber* On that day the 
commandant showed the btshop an order he had re* 
ceived from general Humbert to send away immediate- 
ly to Cttbtlebar the whole French garrison of KillaUa, 
none exceptetl, *but M. Charost himself, and ano- 
ther officer of the name of Ponson. These two w'ere- 
to keep the town with about tw^ huadred of the Irish 

>•* All the Tiormrs, that had been atcted at Wex- 
ford, now stared the loyalists in the face. «^ Famished 
* woKes are clo>ing us iii on every side,*^ said they to> 
Charost, * and whai can two men effect, though ever 
*so brave and vigilant ?* The commandant desired} 



them to be quiet, assuring tbem that he would part 
with his own life sooner than abandon them ; but he 
told the bishop, thatfas, by staying here to protect the 
protestants, he ran the hazard of losing his own libertyr 
he thought it'but reasonable that one of the bishop's 
sons should go with the troops to Castlebar, to be an 
hostage for his person, in case of the English becom- 
ing again masters of Killalla. To this the Ushop 
could not object. His second and third sons^ there- 
fore, drew lots, and the chance falling on Arthur, the 
third soUr a lad just sixteen, be was sent away about 
seven in the evening, on a poor jade ill accoutred, to 
travel all night with the French. From that daytill 
the engagement at Killalla, about three weeks after, 
bis parents could hear nothing from him, nor be from^ 
them ; so strictly were the passes guarded. 

" Immediately after the departure of the foreigners, 
the commandant applied himself tamake provision 
for the security of the district entrusted to him. A 
strong patrole, in ditferent bodies, was ordered to pa- 
rade through the town and its environs, to the distance 
of three miles, every night* But as reports of rob- 
beries and midnight assaults came ifi continually, M- 
Charost thought it advisable to issue a proclamation, 
inviting all. the inhabitants,, without dtstinctton of re- 
ligion or party, to come to him,, and receive arms and 
^ ammunition for their own defence, under no other 
condition than a promise of restoring thenct to him 
when be should call for them. 'The offer was present- 
ly embraced by the towns' people,, especially by the 


pxotestant part of them, who were most exposed to 
danger, and had been forced^ at the beginning of the 
invasion, to deliver up tlieir arm» to the French. A 
distribution accordingly began to be made in the cas* 
tie-yard, on the evening of September first. 

** The 4:on9mandanthad now an opportunity of judg- 
iBg, whether the fears of the protestants from . their 
popish neighbours were justly founded. Aft the pa« 
trole was setting at that time, the rebels, (all roman- 
ists) began to murjnur at trusting arms to the protes* 
tant townsmen, which they were sure, they said, would 
be employed -against the F-rench and their allies the 
moment an English foree appeared* Nor did the mu- 
tineers want a leader. One Mulheeran, a rebel officer, 
was their spokesman, a strong-made young fellow, 
who defended himself afterwards like a lion at the bat*» 
tie of Kiilalla against three or four troopers, all cutting 
him with their swords, and«did net fall till his skuU 
was hacked to pieces* This man resisted theeomnian- 
dant to his face, and went so far as t6 throw down the 
arms he had received from the French, when Charost 
told him he .would trust all alike with arms, who 
chose to take a musqnet in their own defence^ The 
bishop laboured hard to pacify the malecontents^ 
amidst darkness and clamour, and the confusion of 
three languages* 

•* After an hour's struggle, several of the protestants^- 
intimidated by the menaces of the others, retuined 
the arms tbey had received^ and said they would trust 

■ ^. - " 


themselves to the protectioTi of the patrole ; mhich p«t 
an end, for that night, to the disturbance. 

•* It was renewed, however, the two following days 
with unabating violence ; till at length |he protestants^ 
harassed by domiciliary visits of armed rebels in search 
of concealed i^eapons, agri'ed in a petition ta tbe com* 
mandant that he would call in by proclamation what 
he had given out, and forbid in future any person's ap» 
pearing in arms, except recruits for the French ser- 
vice. The terror of being thus stript of the means of 
defence was exaggerated by the alarming accounts of 
depredations en every side of Krllalla, to the distance 
of several miles. Not a night passed, but souse house 
was rifled ; scarce an hqurio the day elapsed, in whieh 
the bishop was npt importutied to lay some lamenta- 
tion before the commandant, ' or to send out some 
guard for protection* Willing to do his best, he in- 
terpreted, he drew up petitions he dispatched guards 
- to protestant families in the neighbourhood, be went 
from house to house inthetowntoiuquireafterabusts, 
till in the evening always, and frequently in the day 
time, he was forced to throw himself on a bed, unable 
to keep hisfeet« Yet his healths and appetite seemed 
to be improved by the extraordinary fatigue^ nor did 
be ever in bis life sleep better^ 

*^ But if it was doubtful whether arms might safely 
be committed to every inhabitant of Killalla, .it ad- 
mitted no dispute at all that the town could not exist 
without ;some form of civil^ government.. Depreda^ 


tors crowded in hourly from the country, to the equal 
aonoryance and terror of every body who had property, 
whether catholic orprotestant. The French, it waB 
said, had divided the town and neighbourhood of Cas- 
tlebar into districts, appointing over each a municipal 
officer, with a ^uard at hh command, properly armed 
for the public defence ; and the scheme had there had 
th^ desired success. A proclamation was therefore is- 
sued for e&tablk^hing a similar form through the can- 
ton over which Charost presided. The country was 
thrown into departments ; a magistrate, to be elected 
by his neighbours, was to take charge of each, with 
the help of a guard of sixteen or twenty men ; arms 
and ammunition w^re to be distributed to these, under 
an express stipulation that neither officers nor men 
should be marched out of their respective departments, 
nor employed against their sovereign, nor in any ser- 
vice except that of keeping the peace. The town of 
Killalla was committed to the protection of one hunr 
dred ^nd fifty men, in three bodies, all to be observ- 
ant to the orders of Mr Jame^ Devitt, the civil magis- 
trate^ unanimously chosen by the people, because he 
was a substantial tradesman, a Roman catholic, and 
a man of sense and moderation. He had under him 
two assistants of his own religion. The benefits of 
this regulation v^ere felt immediately in the establish- 
ment of ..tolerable oider and quiet, at least in and 
about th^ town ;, and without doubt they would have 
been felt to a greater extent if the French power had 


•* The exiiraple of Killnlla was presently copied in 
the other departments. Mtfgistrates were elected, al- 
ways Roman catholics, hut commonly of the better 
sort among them, personn who had no desire to take 
arms at^inst the British government. Some of tbese 
Applied to the i>ishop for his opinion, whether they 
should incur the penalties of treason by acting under 
a foreijj^n power, merely for the common safety, aud 
under the conditions stated above. His answer was 
that he was no lawyer: bat having always foand the 
law of En^rjand to be consonant to reason, he would 
take upon him to say there could be no law forhiddins^ 
to do, under these circjamstances, what was absolute- 
ly enjoined by the great law of self-preservation. It 
is reported that, wheiy the rebellion was over, several 
- persons muttered aj^ainst this doctrine : it nnight be 
conceded, they sj^id, to the existing terror, but it was 
not sound, becHi|se it might be employed as an excuse 
for a tame and pronipt submission to ' any invader^ 
To such tranquil declaimers on the merit of casting 
away life an<l pronerty, in preference to bowing the 
head to a storm, it is obvious- to reply, that had they, 
changed situations with tho-e who actually felt the 
distress, it is more than probable they would have seen 
good reason to adopt the very conduct which, in the 
fulness of security, they take upon them to condemn. 
To submit to a kin^ de facto ^ a.^d even to act by a 
commission from such a one to preserve the peace of a 
community, provided by so doing you do not preclude 
yourself from returning under the goveminent of a 


Icing dejvref is a practice sanctioned by the authoritj 
of oar oip^ equitable English law. 

*• For the defence of the castle, which was dec1ar« 
ed to be the heaH-'quarters of the allied army, a guard 
was drawn from the g^rridon, consisting of from six* 
teen to twenty men, who were seldom relieved above 
once in twenty-four hours. Of these four watched at 
the commandant's door, in the lobby of the middle 
storey; four f^er*? plnced in the hall; the rest were 
distributed at the gates in back and front, which had 
luckily been repaired and made secure by the Ushop 
just before the invasion. Policy concurred with cha- 
rity in recommending the^je poor guards to « our daily 
care : they were fed and lodj>ed so much better than 
any other soldiers that it occasioned quarrels and box- 
ings among them sometimes, for a preference to be 
stationed pn the castk-guard. And indeed they re- 
paid the attention shewn to them by every ro:»rk of re- 
spect in their power, and by assisting in little menial 
offices in and about the house whereyer they were ' 

«* Yet was the presence of such protectors a cirrum- 
atance to the iamily most dreadful. The gates, the 
doprs, every thing within as well as without, our very 
existence was in custody of a band of rebels,- who had 
the power at any instant to throw open the house to 
their companions abroad, and let in depredation at 
least, if nothing worse. And this was a mischief, 
too, thai happened not unfrequeutly. At Ca6tle-lac<« 


ken, Castlereagby and other hoases belonging to pro^ 
testantss where guards had beeti stationed , the soldi- 
ers proved traitors and admitted others from without 
to plunder the families they were sent to defend. If 
plunder was attractive> few hoases offered more temp- 
tations in that way than the bishop^s, not only because 
it contained much valnable property of his own, but 
because, in spite of prudence, he could not refuse to 
let it become the repository of other people's goods. 
Plate, casih, leases, and writings of consequence, 
were crowded in upon him, with an eagerness that 
would take no denial, and with too little caution to 
render the affair a secret. The commandant was made 
acquainted with these several causes of apprehension, 
on our part, and distrust of his Irish friends. He 
made lii^ht of them for a long time, in a real or seem- 
ing: confidence of retaining 'his authority over the re- 
bels; thoiio^h, as the iinal period of our captivity 
ap(.roachi'd, his looks, as well as his redoubled pre- 
cautions, shewed that he began to be almost as unea- 
sy as ourselves. 

** The commandant and the bishop, finding each 
other to he honest men, above the meanness of dectit, 
soon came to a mutualgood understanding. Charost 
trusted the bishop with a sight of a letter from gene- 
ral Hurnhert to himself, ordering him either to bury 
privately the powder left in his care, or to throw it in- 
to the sea, according as he should find it most prudent 
and feasible. As to conveying two hundred and eighty 
barrels of powder from the castl&-yard to the sea. 



lliroagh tlie midst of armed rebels, eagerly bent on 
seizing the powder for their own use, it required not 
many words to shew the extreme improbability of ef- 
fectingsuch a scheme. It* remained, therefore, to bu- 
ry it, and that in some ^>lace within the walls of the 
castle, sufficient to contain and hide it. With the 
help of some labourers who continued faithful to him, 
and of his^wTi domestics, the bishop contrived in se- 
veral night's continual work, to bury ninety barrels 
under a hot-bed in the garden : the remainder Was 
committed to a vault in the haggard under the corn- 
stand) where, though it could not be said to be con- 
cealed, it was at least secured as far as might be, un- 
der the given circumstances, from the dreaded danger 
of firing by accident, 

*** No less tban tliree times, during, our troubles, 
was this danger on the point of being realized. The 
first time was in the French reign, when the kitchen 
chimney was set on by the immoderate use of the 
grate, as I mentioned above. On the second occasion, 
we were saved only by the providential direction of the 
wind from catching the flames of a cabin just beside 
us, which was fired by the king's troops when they en- 
tered thfc town on the twenty-third of September. The 
third was the' most alarming danger of all. On the 
evening of that same remarkable twenty-third of Sep- 
tember^ -an honest inoffensive labourer of the bishop's 
quitted the castle to oblige his wife to stay within 
doors, who, with the fears of a woman great wilh 
child, was running wildly about the road in the midst 
Vol. IL R 


of the 6re fironi the army. He had seized her handf and 
fvas harrying her to hia cabin, when a discharge of 
inttsquetry killed the inan» and mortally woanded the 
woman. She was carried up to the granary in the cafr- 
tle, where she died that night. Without leave aahed» 
without even apprising the family that they had brought 
the woman into the house, the foolish people about 
her began to wake the corpse^ by lighting a fire oa 
the floor of the granary, with nothing under the turf 
but a wooden board* Presently smoke and flames 
were seen to roll out of the windows of an apartment 
distant but a few yards from the gunpowder in the 
haggard, and the wind pointing directly that way. At 
the same instant all waa confusion and uproar in the 
house : the victorious army was marching into quar*» 
ten at Killalla, and the principal officers were busy in 
arranging matters for their own accommodation at the 
castle. It cost the bishop some labour to make the 
gentlemen listen to the story, and believe, that if they 
did not bestir themselves, the town and all its contents 
would very probably in a few minutes be erased irom 
the face of the earth. ^By the active exertions princi* 
pally Of the knight of Kerry, the fire-was soon after got 

, ** From the time the French left us to the care of 
M. Charost, he and two officers under him, messed 
with the bishop's family, where they were very wel- 
come, being, under Providence, their bole protectors 
in the midst of so many perils. Whatever could be 
effected by vigilance, resolution, aud conduct^ for 

ih^ fiiifetyof a pkce confided ta them, was to a ttor- 
priiiug degree effected for the dislritt of KiUalla by 
these three French officers without the support of a 
single soldier of their own country 5 atfd that for the 
long Space of twenty*tbree days, from the first of Sep- 
tember to the day of the battle. It is natural to sop- 
pose, that in such a tract of time, a tolerable iuisight 
must have been obtained into their characters ; and 
where the part they acted was of so much oonia* 
^ikeopcf the reader may expect some descitS^ioa of 

<* Lieutenant colonel Charott had attained to the: 
ag<e of fire-aud-fortf • He was born in Paris^ the 90lt 
(as I am told) of a watchmaker in that city, who sent 
him over early to some connections in St Domingo, 
where he was fortunate enough to marry a wife with a 
plantation for her dowry, which yielded him, before 
the troubles, an income of two thousand pounds 8ter« 
ling per annum. By the unhappy war which still de- 
solates that' island, he lost every thing, even to his 
wife and his only diild, « daughter ; they were taken 
on their passage to France, and sent away to Jamaica. 
His eyes would fill when he told the &mily, that he 
had not seen these dear -relatives for six years past, nor 
even had tfdings of them for the last three years. On 
returning to France, he embraced the military life, at 
first in the royal service, afterwards, when the times 
changed, in that of the republic, where he had risen 
by degrees to the rank he now filled. His residence 
had been at Rochelle with a brother, with whom he' 



had shared hed and board till he was called, at only 
three daytt* notice^ to go oat on thefyrese n t expedi-* 
tioD. In person he was strong and vigorous, ineliniDg 
to fat ; his countenance was chearful^and on the whole^ 
pleasing, notwithstanding a bleni>sh in one eye ; he 
had a plain, good understandings which served him 
for all the uses that he put it to, and he had either no 
leisure, or no liking, to strain it with aver labour. His 
religion, he told the binhop, he had yet to seek ; be* 
cause ' his .Ifither being a catholic, and his mother a 
protectant, they had left him the liberty of choosing 
for himself, and he had never yet found time to 
make the inquiry, which however, he was sensible he 
ought to make, and would make at some time when 
Heaven should grant him repose* In the interun, he 
believed in God, was inclined to think there must be 
a future state, and was very sure that, while he lived 
in this world, it was his duty to do all good to his fel- 
low-creatures thajt he could. The bishop offered a 
present to this half-christian of a book that ni.ight have 
satisfied his doubts. La religion naturelle et revelee par 
P Abbe Tremblay. He was thankful ; but it is not 
unlikely the sight even of three small volumes frighten- 
ed him,, for he never afterwards claimed the promise. 
Yet what he did not exhibit in his own conduct, he ap- 
peared to respect in others; for he took care that 
no noise nor disturbance should be made in the cas- 
tle on Sundays, while the family and many protes- 
tants from the tow^u were assembled in the library at 
their devotions. 


^< Boudet, the next in rank to the commandant, was 
a captain of foot, a native of Normandy, twenty-eight 
years of" age. His father, he said, was yet living, 
though sixty-seven years old when he^ was born. . His 
height was six feet, two inches. In person,^ complex-^ 
ion, and gravity, he was no inadequate representi^-*- 
tion of the Knight of La Mancha, whose example he 
followed' in a> recital of his own prowess and wonderful 
exploits, delivered in measured language, and an im- 
posing seriousness of aspect.. He came to Killalla 
Arom.the town of Newport-Pratt, which he assured us- 
hehad talcenwith hisown hand, though defended by- 
four En^ish troopers ;:he had gallantly kept the place 
for three or four days, and retin^d from it only because* 
it was assailed* by fifteen horse — but we were not to be 
surprised that so much should be achieved by an officer, 
bred in the echole Militatre at Paris to be one of the 
late King's body-guard, trained from his childhood to 
arms, a man whohad served in Flanders and on the 
Rhine, and* had. more tiian once been obliged to tram- 
ple on mountains of dead and dying men after a bat- 
tle. To vanity he added a fault that does not often 
go along with it, pride. He valued himself on an eda«* 
cation superior to that of his companions in arms; 
was argumentative,, contradictious, and irrascible ; 
so that his superior ofRcer found it no easy matter to 
maintain peace with him.. His manner, however^, 
though distant,, was polite ; and he seemed to possess- 
a. more than common share of feeling, if a judgment 
might be formed from the energy with which he de- 
claimed on the miseries of wars and revolutions*. His 
R 3 


iutegrlty and coumge appeared'^unquestionable. On 
the whole, when we became familiarized to his failings, 
we ;^w reason every day to respect bis virtues. 

** The last of this trio was named Ponson, a curious 
contiasty in every respect, to the character just de- 
scribed. In stature he did not exceed five feet, six 
inches ; but if the body was little, it was alive from 
head to foot. Navarre gave him birth, the country of 
H^nry IV. and his merry countenance recalled to mind 
the features of that celebrated monarch, though with- 
out the air of benevolence through them ; for this mon- 
key seemed to have no great feeling for any body but 
himself. Wherever he was, his presence was testified 
by a noise as loud and as pertinacious a» that of a corn- 
creak ; it was a continued roll of talk, or laughter, or 
whistling. The decencies of polished life he had pro- 
bably never known ; or if he had,, he affected to de- 
spise them. Yet in a gloomy hour- this eternal rattle 
had its use : it more than once kept our spirits buoyant,. 
when terror pressed heaviest. .1 shall mention two in- 
stances. One day a crowd of pikemen, clamorous 
with some insolent demand upon the commandant, ap« 
peared on the point of breaking down the castle gate. 
The bishop expressed bis apprehensions to Ponson. 

* I will tell you what to do,' said he : * step out among 

* them suddenly, and cry stop thief ^ and they will 

* every man of them take to their heels.' The other 
occasion was that very serious one, when {as shall be 
related presently) the news of the French overthrow 
had weakened the authority of the commandant to 


that d^ree, that the rebek were deterred from laying^ 
kands on the protestants at Killallaonly by the bishop's 
proposalsof sending ambassadors to Castlebar, to ob- 
tain good treatment for the rebel prisoners there. The 
bishop and the commandant stood outside at the gate, 
close circled by malecontents ; authority and argu- 
ment had been tried by turns, mutinous whispers were 
going round, the final issue of the parley was very un<v 
certain. At this critical moment appeared Ponson» 
coming in from the town, with a face expressive of 
horror.. • Commandant/ said he> • I have a shock- 
ing piece of news to tell you^* What news ?. said the 
other, who. was not in a very good humour to listen to 
any news. * I am married,,' crieil Ponson — ' married^ 

* I give you my oath, to miss such a one,! naming 
the prettiest girl in the town.. * This here wicked cu- 

* rate,' (Mr Nixon, whom he held by the arm,) * haa 
' tied the knot> before I could find out what he was 

* about.* This ridiculous- sally, when explained to the 
b3'-standers, relaxed thf* features of the whole com-^ 
pany ; scowling lookiiwece dropt, and peace and mu^ 
tual agreement succeeded., 

** Ponson was hardy, and patient to admiration of 
labour and want of rest.. A continued watching of 
five days and nights together, when the rebels were 
growing desperate for prey and mi^hief, did not ap- 
pear to sink his spirits in the smallest degree. He was 
ready at a moment^s notice to sally out upon the ma- 
rauders, whom, if he caught them in the £9ict, he 
belaboured without xnercy, and without a symptom, 


of fear for his own safety* Tied ta a sWord as long a» 
bimselfi and armed' with pistols^ firelock and bayo- 
net, he stretched himself up to* view till he became 
terrific — at least he frightened many a tall peasant 
most heartily*. He was strictly honast, and cotild not 
bear the want oF this quality in others ; so that his pa^ 
tience was pretty well tried by his Irish allies, for 
whom he could not find names sufficiently expressive 
of contempt. The worst part of his character was thst 
which related to religion. The commandant reported' 
him to be a downright athiest. In his practice be went 
beyond the common herd ol the French army, who, 
though they shewed no desire tx> join in worship with 
any people (a circumstance frightful to all, and asto-- 
liisbing to the Roman catholics) yet respected the de- 
votions of their neighbours* Ponson was a-s^outer sin^ 
ner^ The first time he dined with the family at the 
castle, the bishop observing him suddenly to quit the 
room, asked the commandant what he meant. * You 
••will hardly believe,* said Charost, * that your saying 

* grace to your meat appeared to him an action so very 

* ridiculbus,.thatras he knew it would be ill manners to 
< laugh, he waa forced to leave the table till he could 
' suppress the emotion.* In fact the bishop did not be* 
lieve it ; but in his- own mind attributed the action to 
a more probable cause^. vanity : the miserable affecta* 
tion of appearing to be more wicked than he really 

" With these three Frenchmen was sometimes join- 
ed an officer of theirs from Ballina, who bore the title 


of Major O'KeoD* A native of our barony of Tyraw- 
ley, O'Keon had received his education for the priest- 
hood id Fraiice, and had attained to a benefice of 
some value in the church, when the revolution, strip- 
ping him at once of profession and livlihood, forced 
hira to become a soldier for bread. The common road 
to a commission in the French armies is now, I under- 
staud, length of service in the ranks. By service 
0*Keon was become either a major or a captain, for 
hQ was called indifferently by both names. He was a 
fat, jolly looking man, with a ruddy countenance 
that carried nothing forbidding in it, except that his 
black thick eye-brows ran into each other, as they 
of^ea do in aboriginal Irish faces. Of the English 
tongue he retained enough to be quite intelligible; 
and being also expert in Irish as well as French, he 
was able to render considerable service to his cause. 
His connections with this neighbourhood (for he had 
a father and two brothers near Ballina, heartily affect* 
ed to the French) induce a strong suspicion of. the 
truth of a story which he gave out when he first land- 
ed, and to which he adhered to the last, that hij 
being destined to this expedition was an accident, and 
that the squadron itself which brought him over, was 
intended to inyade, not Killalla, but Donegall. 
From his conversation, the bishop had conceived a 
good opinion of this man. His language breathed 
nothing but mildness and liberality ; and indeed hia 
behaviour was suitable, for he exerted himself on all 
occasions to protect the loyalists, and frequently with 
!the greatest effect. At one time particularly, he i» 


Bald to hare prevailed on an armed mob at B^Htna fo 
drop their declared parpose of marching to Killalla to 
have all the proteatants there imprisoned : it is even 
added, that he tnmed them back after they had ac- 
tually advanced a part of the way. This conduct, 
whether he adopted it from principle or policy, con- 
tributed more, than hia proving himself to be a natu- 
ralized Frenchman, to save his life afterwards on his 
court-martial at Castlebar* He escaped with sdme 
difficulty, with the help of* an attestation in his be- 
half from the bishop among many others, a:nd being 
forbid ever to return to* the British territories, he ex- 
pressed in Dublin, and afterwards by letter frona Yar- 
mouth, the highest sense of his obligations to the 
bishop. It is painful to add, that experience and fur- 
ther inquiry into the character of this quondam priest 
has convinced his benefactor, that the man was de&- 
cient both in morals and common himesty. 

** Before Humbert had quitted Killalla, a person 
came to him from Ballina, of the name of Bellew. 
He was brother to Dr Bellew, the titular bishbp of 
the see, and by his own report was not long since come 
from abroad to recover a patrimony, from the posses- 
sion of which he was unjustly detained by his brother. 
To the loyalists he protested^ that the prospect of 
being enabled to take vengeance on this brother, wa» 
his chief inducement for joining the French r to gene- 
ral Humbert he urged the merit of his military know- 
^dge, acquired by eighteen years service udder tlie 
emperor. He was taken by the general at his word, 


and preseBtlj received from him a pompous commis- 
sion to be generalissimo of all the allies of France,* 
levied and to be levied within a district extending 
from Ballina to Westport. It appeared in the sequel, 
bow little the French regarded their own commissions 
to Irishmen; for this man presently shewing by his 
behavibur that be was a beastly drunkard almost to 
lunacy, Charost turned him out of his office with dis* 
grace, in the face of the rebel army, without waiting 
for Humbert*s orders, and gave the charge of the 
levies to O'DonneU As long as he had any authority, 
M» h general Bellew was a sad nuisance to the people 
of JLiilalla^ particularly to the family of Mr Owen 
Morri^on^ a worthy and very respectable proteslant 
merchant, at whose house he chose to take up his 
quarters* He there lived as in a conquered country, 
«*xtorting by threats from his hosts whatever he wanted, 
even to wearing apparel, getting drunk continually, 
lighting bis pipe with paper torn from the wails of his 
apartment, and Ikying a heavy tax on the sight and 
smell of every body that approached him, being to 
the )a^t degree filthy in bis person, and eaten up with 
the itch. When he got any fresh clothing, his prac- 
tice was to put it over the old habiliments ; so that he 
wore two or three shirts, and a pair of satin small- 
clothes, of Mr Morrison's when he was hanged* For 
to this catastrophe the wretched creature deservedly 
came at last. He was taken at the battle of Kiiialla, 
tried by the court-martial, and executed two days 
af^r in the bishop's demesne. 


*' Bad as the situation of the owners of the cairtle 
durinr;^ their captivity appeared to be, it must he con- 
fessed it was in many respects far better than that of 
the town^s people. The castle, being head-qaarters, 
was regularly supplied with provisions, drawn from 
the plunder of the country; and the presence of the 
French officers, added to the large family always resi- 
dent in it, left little room for intruders from the rebel 
army. In the town the case was diffeTent« Theiea 
scarcity next to famine soon appeared ; rapine, the 
only source of subsistence, often failed of success;- 
in consequence every petty fellow, who could by 
theft or violence provide himself with a sword and a 
case of pistols, immediately took the name. and autho- 
rity of an officer, and lived (especially in protcstant 
houses, which were alnaost the only decent ones) at 
his discretion. Pei^onal injuries, indeed, were rare, 
because the municipal power was always at hand to re- 
strain or punish them ; but insolence and avarice had 
their full swing. In popular commotions it has gene- 
rally been observed, that natural talents go but a little 
way to procure influence ; the leader of a mob is 
almost invariably the man that outgoes all the rest in 
wickedness and audacity. An example, ii& proof of 
tliis observation, occurred on the morning of the «ixth 
of September, 

** The castlefamily were assembled at tea, and Mrs 
Stock and the commandant amusing themselves (as 
well as they could with two separate languages) at a 
party of picquet, when word was brought that a Mr 



GroodfiiQv a protestant of the town» had just been sent - 
to prison by major Flanagan, irithout a shadow of rea- 
son, and that he must remain in custody till the morQ'« 
ing, unless the commandant would come to his aid. 
^his pretended major was a drunken daring wretch, 
who had kept an ale-house at Killalla, and was. but 
lately returned from the gaol of Castlebar, where be 
had been confined on a charge of treason, and nar- 
rowly escaped transportation. Tl\e company rose, 
and the gentleman accompanied the commandant to 
the scene of disturbance," Mr Morrison's house, the 
bishop himself thinking the occasion of that nature 
as to demand some risk of his own person. At thedoor, 
where a great crowd had assembled, ihey found Fla- 
nagan on horseback, drunk and very noisy. The 
commandant, by his interpreter the bishop, asked 
the man his authority for committing people to prison, 
commanded him to go and discharge his prisoner, and 
was answered saucily, that he would not let Goodwin 
stir from the prevot that night, let who would order it. 
It was a very serious crisis. There was just light 
enough to discern in the faces of the surrounding mul- 
titude a donbt, a wavering between the two contend- 
ing {parties, which would probably be decided in fa- 
vour of that which stood firmest to its point. Bellew, 
the mock general, took the part of his fellow-drunkard, 
entreating him in a wheedling tone to give a pro- 
mise that he would set the prisoner at liberty in the 

•« Most of the spectators were armed. Had a spirit , S 


of miscliief prompted any one of them to raise his wea« 
pon agaiast the commaodant and his coropany, a ge* 
neral massacre and anarchy would most probably have 
followed. Charost was sensible that all depended on 
steadiness. With a strong and firm tone he com* 
inanded Flanagan to quit his horse* The culprit, 
looking round for help, and seeing none, obeyed » 
He was then deliberately stnpt by the commandant 
himself of his pistols and sword, and put under arrest 
for disobeying the orders of his superior officer, when 
he was first spoken to. The place of his confinement, 
it was supposed, would, for that night at least, be the 
house near which they were standing, and already 
Flanagan^s comrades^ under a tfhew of respect for the 
arrest, were leading him into Mr Morrison's, when 
the bishop hastily interposing cried out to the com« 
mandaut not to let him go. The hint was taken, for 
the fellow would surely have been liberated as soon as 
we had turned our backs, Charost took bis arm, 
the tall Norman marched before him, Ponson strutted 
behind, supported by the castle gentry, and the pro* 
cession arrived without let or molestation at the guard- 
rt>om by the castle gate, where the mutineer was or« 
dered to take up his quarters for the night. The crowd 
"then dispersed; Goodwin was set at liberty ; andaf** 
ter a two hours' confinement Mr Tojjy Flanagan was 
allowed to go about his business, divested of his bor» 
rowed authority, together with the ensigns of it, his 
pword and pistols, which the commandant would 
never afterwards suffer him to resume. The bishop 
met him at tiroes in the street, and wa» certain from 


)iis scowling visage that he raeditated revenge. In<* 

deed he had at all times an uncommon wickedness in 

bis eyesy which, though dark and piercing, he was 

unable to fix steadily upon an honest man. His death 

therefore, on the day of Killalhi, was the only one at 

the news of which the whole town seemed to concur in 

rejoicing ; nor was the manner of it dissimilar from his 

life. He fled from the battle into a house in the town, 

where he knew he had no chance of being long hid 

from his pursuers. So he joined a party of the victoja 

as they were in full chase alter the rebels, crying out 

• that hc'wottld be their guide to the wicked croppies,* 

tiit coniTng to a place where two passages met, he point* 

edjOQt one of them to the soldiers, and thtew himself 

headlong into the other. * That's a croppie himself** 

exclarmed with an oath a Frazer fencible, who had 

liept'his eyes upon him ; and on the instant he sent a 

biall^terthe wily fugitive,, which terminated all his 

pranks at once.** 



Immediately on intelligence of the invasion, 
lord Cornwallis detennined to march in person apiiost 
the enemy, and accordingly arrived at Phillipstown on 
the 26th of August ; having made a progress of forty- 
fonr Irish miles in two days. He arrived at Kilbeggau 
very early in the rooming of the SBth, when he was in- 
formed of the defeat at Castlebar; he then advanced 
to Athlont^ where he was positively informed by many 
who had fled through Taam» particularly an officer of 
the carabineers, that the French had pursued general 
Lake*s army to Tuam, driven it from that post, and 
taken possession of the town; but the French army 
was too much fatigued with their march through the 
mountains, to pursue the royal troops further than 
Castlebar* When -general Lake arrived at Tuam, he 
judged that post unsafe, particularly as he had lost all 
his artillery and ammunition, and some of the troops 
being disorderly, he judged it expedient to- retreat 
nearer to Athlone. Even in this town an attack was 
expected, though it is sixty-three miles from Castlebar. 


Lord Cornwallis saw that the utmost caution waa 
necessary, as well as vigour in the movements of his 
forces. The motions of the main army» immediately 
under his own command, were calculated to cover the 
country, to intimidate the abettors of rebelliop, ^nd to 
afibrd an opportunity of rallying to any smaller body, 
of troops which might be defeated ; while these troops, 
were ordered to harass the enemy as much as was in 
their power, without running risks, or engaging in bat- 
tle without almost a certainty of success. Lord Corn- 
wallis proceeded on the 30th of August, towards Cas- 
tlebar, and arnved at Holly mount on the 4th of Sep- 
tember, whence he purposed to advance to Castlebar» 
fourteen miles distant, and attack the French army 
posted in that town, till in the evening of the same 
day, he received information that the French had aban« 
doned'that town in jLhe morning, and had proceeded in. 
the direction of Foxford ; having been informed of 
lord CcMmwalUs's approach. 

After the royal army was defeated at Gastlebar, and 
the French had taken possession of the town, great 
numbers of the Irish peasantry (locked to their stand- 
ard, as those had done at Ballina, from the mountain* 
ous parts of the county of Mayo. To fnrnish these 
multitudes with tire-arms, these brought from France, 
were found to be quite insufHcient, though, according 
to the account of colonel Charost, to the bishop of 
Killalla, fifty-five hundred muskets were delivered to 
theih at Castlebar. Those mountaineers were fonnd 
to be very aukward in the use oi iire«-arms> and were of 
S 3 


little ute-to the French* who expected far more powev 
fal astifttaoce from the Irish. They had also expected 
to be immediately followed by a lar^ army and a con- 
siderable number of arms, with amroanitioQ and stores 
•from France, Being entirely disappointed in the for- 
mer expectation, and seeing no prospect of being gra- 
tified with the latter, they began to apprehend that 
they had only been sent to annoy the enemies of their 
country, ' They however, eren in this case, resolved 
to perform their doty, and use every effort in their 
power, ag^Qst the British governments until they 
should be compelled to surrender^ 

On the 1st of September general Humbert ordered 
the troops which he left at Killalla, to repair to the 
main body, and on the 4th of the same month, he 
marched from Castlebar, and directed hb march 
through Foxford, towards the town of Sligo, with a de- 
sign of entering the county of Donegal, where it was 
expected, the addittonal forces from France, would 
land* A body of. the king^s troops, under coleael 
Crawlbrd, supported by another under lieutenant- 
igeneral Lake, hung upon the rear of Humbert's army ; 
another body of troQ|)s, under general Moore,, watched 
the motions of the enemy, at a greater distance; while 
the main army, under lord Cornwallis, proceeded in a 
parallel direction from the town of Hollymoant, 
through jClare and Bally haunis> towards C!arrick«on- 
sKannon, intending' to regulate bis subsequent motions 
by those of the enemy. 


The advanced-guard of the French having passed 
TubbeKtiny, aAer a smart action with some yee,men» 
and arrived at the village of Coloony» about five miles 
from SligOy where it was gallantly opposed by colonel 
Verreker, with a detachment of the city of Limerick 
nUitia, a few yeomen, and thirty of the 94tb dragoons, 
and two 4:urricle guns, tn the whole not exceeding 
three hundred men. Colonel Verreker found the ene« 
my advantageously arranged for hin reception between 
him and Coloony. > The colonel engaged the French 
about an hour and a half<. but was at length obliged to 
retreat to Sligo, with the loss of his artillery, and some 
men killed and wounded* Himself and four 
other officers were wounded, and ensign Rumley kiU 
led* The loss of the French in this action exceeded 
fifty, thirty of whom were wounded. 

Notwithstanding the royal troops were defeated, the 
French army received siich a severe check, that gene- 
ral Humbert thought proper to relinquish his desiga 
of attacking Sligo. Humbert then directed his march 
through Drummahair towards Manorhamilton, in the 
county of Leitrim, leaving on the road, for the sake of 
expedition, three six-pounders dismounted, and throw- 
ing five other pieces of artillery over the bridge into 
the water at Drummahair. When be had come with- 
in a few miles of Manorhamilton, he suddenly wheeled 
to the right, and directed his cours^ through Drum- 
kerin, with intention, as is supposed, of attempting to 
reach, the town of Granard, in the county of Longford^ 
where an insurrection had broken out. The troops 


under colonel Crawfbrd, pursued the enemy with such 
expedition* that on the 7th he came to an action with 
the rear-guard, between, Drnmshambo and Bally na« 
inorey in which be was defeated with some loss. 

The French army then passed the river Shannon at 
Ballintra, and halted' in the night at Cloone, whence it 
proceeded to Ballinamuck, and arrived on the 8th of 
September 9 and was so closely followed by the troop* 
under general Lake and colonei Crawford, that its 
rear-guard had not time to blow up the bridge at Bal- 
llntra, to impede the pursuit* About this time lord 
Comwallis, with the main array, crossed the same 
river at Cnrrick-on-Shannon, and marched by Mbhill 
to Saint •J^ohnstown, in the county of Longford, to in^ 
tercept the enemy in front, should it proceed to Gran- 
ard ; by which movement the French army was re- 
duced to such a situation that, if it bad proceeded, it 
would have been surrounded by an army of near thirty 
thousand men. 

General Humbert then arranged his forces in order 
of battle, and determined to maintain the honour of 
the French arms, until he should be compelled to sur- 
render* The rear-guard of his army was then attack- 
ed by the troops under colonel Crawford, when about 
two hundred iiifantry surrendered* The rest conti- 
nued to defend themselves with great spirit for near an 
hour; but when the main body of the army, under 
general Lake, appeared, they also surrendered, after 
having made lord Roden^ and a small party of dra- 


goons, prisoners. Lord Roden, and the dragoons, ad- 
vanced into the French line, for the parpose of obtain- 
ing their surrendry, without the effusion of blood, 
when they were made prisoners. Soon after the king's 
troops came np, and the French desired lord Roden to 
order them to halt, and they surrendered. 

General Humbert surrendered to lieutenant-general 
Lake, and was afterwards conducted to lord Cornwal- 
Us, who was about five miles oiF» 

The rebels who had joined the French, and accom- 
panied them to Ballynamucky were excluded from 
quarter, and of course fled, as iast as they could, in all 
directions, and were pursued by our cavalry^ who 
made a great slaughter among them, having killed 
near five hundred. The number of French prisoners 
were seven, hundred and forty-eight privates, and 
ninety-six officers ; they having sustained a loss of 
two hundred and eighty-eight men, since their land- 
ing atKillalla. 7 

While the French were marching from Castlebar, 
an alarming insurrection broke out in the neighbour* 
hood of Granard, which was designed to make a diver- 
sion in their favour, and to afford them a commodious 
post, whence they might, when. united, direct their 
operations against the metropolis; to prevent this 
junction lord Cornwallis prudently marched his forces 
in a line between the invading army and the interior 
country* Great numbers of rebels joined this conspi- 


wcy, particularly in the connty of Longford, who were 
headed by the O'Haras, the two Dennistom^, O'Con- 
nell, Farrell, and O'Reilly, all men of property. Their 
plan was to rise at the summons of their chiefs in the 
neighbourhood of Granard, to seize that post and then 
to attack the town of Cavan, where a great quantity of 
arms and ammunition were deposited. On the 5th of 
September, a body of upwards of four thousand of 
these insurgents were on the point of surprising the 
town of Granard, before any considerable force could 
be had for its protection. Between seven and eight ia 
the morning the rebels were within sight of the town, 
under the command of Alexander Denniston. At this 
critical moment captain Cottingham of the Cavan and 
Bally haise yeomen infantry and eighty-five nien ar- 
rived for its defence, and joined the few yeomen who 
were in the town. Captain Cottingham^s force now 
consisted of one hundred and fifty-seven infantry and 
forty-nine cavalry ; which h^ placed in an advanta- 
geous position on a hill, between the insurgeats and 
the town ; but observing t^.atthe rebels, who were ad- 
vancing in one column, divided into three for the pur- 
pose of surrounding his little army, he retreated to 
another 'position still' nearer the town, where he was 
protected by a bank and other fences, and in • this po- 
sition awaited the attack of the rebels, who drove a 
number of cattle before them to annoy the yeomen, 
but they turned the cattle aside without falling into 
confusion ; then the rebels advanced close to their 
line, and received a destructive discharge of musketry' 
notwithstanding which they persevered in their 


f empt during five hour^, from nine in the morning till 
two in th« afternoon, when they fled and were pursued 
with great slaughter. It was said that upwards of four 
hundred rebels were killed in this action, without any 
loss on the part of the yeomen, except two privates 
who were slightly wounded* Great praise is due to 
captain Cottingham, and the men under his command, 
for having repulsed so .superior a force. Besides the 
yeomen, three gentlemen are much praised for their 
gallant behaviour on this occasion, Andrew Bell, pf 
Drumkeel, and.Moutray Erskine, who volunteered, 
and Ralph Dopping who defended the entrance into 
the town by the barracks. This victory was of the 
greatest importance, as it prevented the spreading of 
the insurrection, and those murders and devastations 
which would have been its consequences. 

The mainbody of the rebels, after its defeat, directed 
its march to Wilson*s hospital, a commodious build* 
iug erected for charitable purposes, the maintenance 
of twenty aged men and «n hundred boys, in tjhe 
county of Westmeath, from a legacy bequeathed by 
Andrew Wibojl, of Piersfield. This building had been 
entered and plundered in the morning of the same 
day, by another body of the rebels, who were taking 
measures to murder, on the following day, the 6th of 
September, twenty-seven protestant prisoners, who 
had been conveyed thither from the country, when the 
defeated rebels arrived; which they would have ef- 
fected, had not they been prevented by the approach 
' of a.«maU body of troops nvbich lord Longford bAd^ 

I ' • \ 


ivith great diligence, collected. This force consisted 
of some yeomeD and a detachment of the Argyleshire 
fenciblea, with one field-piece, under the command of 
major Porter, the .whole not esceeding two hundred 
and fifty men. A large body of rebels, five hundred 
of whom were armed with muskets, marched from the 
hospital to meet these troops, near the village of Ban- 
brusna. Here this little army was posted as soon as 
intelligence was received of the advance of the rebels, 
and awaited their attack, which began with a most fu- 
rious attempt to seize the field piece ; but after a few 
discharges of grape shot, by which 'many of them were 
killed, they were obliged to retreat in the greatest con- 
fusion. In their retreat a party of them took shelter 
in a farm-house and out-buildings, which the king's 
troops immediately set fire to, and they were in conse- 
quence burned; together witK many unfortonate 
wretches who had gone into them. It was now al- 
most dark, and the troops determined to lay on their 
arms all night, and attack the insurgents in the hospi- 
tal next morning. With this intention they proceed- 
ed at day light, but found it evacuated by the rebels^ 
who had plundered and destroyed every valuable arti- 
cle they found in it. The loss of the rebels, in this 
action, has been stated at upwards of one hundred in 
killed and wounded ; while that of the royalists was 
only two men killed. 

A ft or this time, the rebels never appeared in arms 
in the neij^^hbourhood of Granard ; but in the western 
r^rts of the country, particularly in the county of 


MayO) where they had first risen to assist the French, 
they still continued in a state of insarrection. They 
"wef^ not informed of the enrrendry of general Hum- 
berths army,, until a few days after it had taken place ; 
and before they knew that circnmstance, a body of 
rebels attacked Castlebar, which had been occupied 
by the KingV troops, immediately on the evacuation 
of it by the French. 

Tlie garrison, consisting of fifty-seven Frazer fen- 
cibleM, thirty-four volunteers, and one troop of ca- 
valry, was so judiciously pOsted by captain Urquart, 
of the fencibles, as to completely rout the insurgents, 
ivhose intention was to plunder the town, and mur- 
der &H the protestant inhabitants, as they were not 
permitted to molest them, while commanded by the 
French officers* 

About this time most of the towns which had fallen 
into the hands of the insurgents were recovered, parti- 
Cttlarly Westportand Newport, by the fenciblesand yeo- 
men «bder the honourable Dennis Browne, and captain. 
Urqnart; but B^Uina and Killalla remained some 
time loiiger in possession of the rebels. 

*** Saturday September 8th, (a day memorable for the 
victory at Ballinamuck) exhibited to the town of Kil- 
lalla« new subject of alarm and terror* Hitherto it 
had been, to such as had any thing to lose, matter of 
comfort to observe bow awkardly the armed peasants 
handled their firelocks, and how slow a progress they 
Vol. If. T 


i^re makitig in the arts of d€»tnictioii. This day, ^ 
the flrftttime, piliee began to be talked of» instead of 
muskets. An ofiicer of the tebels, one of the very 
few anoog tbeoa who seemed to have a head for mis- 
chief as well as a heart* signified to the eomiBandant 
(still by the bisfaoj^, who ipa^e it a point to 4|iterpret 
faitbfoDy, even where the matter of discourse made 
him shudder) that the friends of liberty, seeing the 
fire-arms were all distributed, and that they were not 
thought worthy of being trusted with the ammunition 
brought from France, had come to a resolution of 
forming a striKig body of pikeroen, who, they trusted, 
would be found capable of doiug at least as much ex« 
ecution on the enemy as any of their fellows. ' There- 
fore desired permission to seize upon all the iron they 
conid find in the stores^f Mr Kirkwood, or elsewhere, 
to fabricate pike->heads» 

*< Charotft liked the proposal almost as Kttle as the 
bbhop did. As a soldier, he despised the service of 
pike^men against regular troops ; as a mem. He hated 
the use to which these weapons might be applied by 
the robber and the murderer. But it was not his 
place to throw obstacles in the way of any offer to ad- 
vance the common cause. He contented himself there- 
fore with applauding the zeal of the people, who, he 
said, should have leave to use Mr Kirkwood*s iron, 
as soon as there was an absolute need of making free 
with that gentleman's property, but advised ^hem. to 
try first whether they could not get iron enough in an 
honest way, by converting into pike-heads what they 


bad at home of that materia^ their own forks anVi 
other iioplements of husbandry^ The answer was 
taken in good part, and saved the stores for the pre- 
sent. But as pikes were not forbidden, all the smiths 
and carpenters were presently set to work at making 
them, and every thief was busy in supplying materials 
for them. Pitch^forks were lawful prize from that 
day forth ; and young trees were more becoming as 
pike-handks in the grasp of a lover of liberty, thaii as 
ornaments to a gentleman's &rm. in a short time a' 
body of pike-men was raised, under the direction of 
the <^cer above mentioned, whkh receiving datty 
accessions of nambere> Wcause they carried their wea« 
pons every where, did no reguter military duty, «nd 
mixed in every tumaltaous assembly with a superior 
aptness for mischief. 

«* Pre^arioiis as the state of things at this time evi«^ 
dently was, it created surprise to observe, that the 
country folk had the hardiness to cqntinue bringing 
their goods to the market, where they found a ready 
sale. Charost availed himself of his power, only to 
take the weightier articles of provision ; from the lower 
class of people he drew little or nothing without pay- 
ing ibr it. Of course, what ready money he had 
brought with him, which did not exceed forty louis, 
was soon expended. The other officers were poorer 
than himself, ^nd their pay from home was not to be 
expected. In this exigency there was no resourse, 
but in a requisition of money from the district, which 
T 2 


enjoyed the benefit of^he French protection. The 
bishop was applied to for a list of names of persons, 
most competent to con tribute. Ht» answer was, that 
he saw no objection eillier to the demand itself, or the 
quantnm, which was fifty guineas, and that he should 
himself pay one-fifth of the contribution ; but he de- 
wed to be excused iirom the buaness of assessing the 
other inhabitants^ as he was too new a comer to he 
acquainted with -i their circumstances. Mr Devitt, 
their new magistrate, occurred as the person most 
likely to execute the business for them. Presently 
comes a translated letter from the commandant to the 
citixen magistrate Devitt, kwiting him * to entreat 

* the town and district of Rillalla to shew, by their 

* contributions, their seal for the glorious cause of 

* the people. Some had come forward already with 
^ presents oP money ; and the writer doubted not, but 

* many would be. ready to imitate the good example. 

* An exact register should be kept of the names eliid 

* the sums subscribed, and the French government 

* only asked it under the name of a loan.* With some 
delay and grumbling the sum was raised at last, .a 
good part of which remuned in the hands of Mrs 
Stock (the bishop^s lady) till it proved a seasonable 
supply to Charost and his companions when they were 
ordered away to Dublin. 

*' About this time O'Donnel, the young man men* 
tioned before as having helped to protect Mr Kirk* 
wood in Erris, came to KiUalla, with no other riew^ 


as he pretended, than to offer his senriees in pteserr«> 
kiff l^e peaoe of the towtiy by exerting bis influence 
over the mountaineers of Ms own dicrtrict* To this 
object heeeemed ^ some^ time to eon£ne bis atten* 
tioB, and gained so upon the eenifiiandant by an ap« 
pearanee of sense and aetivity, that he was presently 
appointed to the <^ftce of town-majcH*,. with a eom*« 
sMHid over the ttigb% watch. It is posstble, he did 
aot mean at first to aecept any military comtmsioil 
front the French; but having a large share of yanity 
in hie composition, and feeling himself grow into coo* 
sequence amon^ the vebela by comparison with thehP 
dranken general BeUew, he aspii^d to hts place, and 
in feet (though never formally) sncceeded to it, after 
the other was turned bnt. jCharost had more than 
once €K!caf»on^ in , the sequel, to repent of having 
placed a confidence in this man before he had time to 
know his character* The airs the ymmg jackanapes 
gave himself became every day niore troublsome* Oft 
pretence that he mast hare a bed at the castie to take 
the ordera of the commandant in case of any distur* 
bance at night»> he took to himself one of the bed« 
chambera of the middle floor, from which it was^ not 
fiotsiUe ^terwftrds to dislodge him ;. and this apart- 
ment he waa pleased to distinguish by the name of A£l 
zoona. His next attempt was «o be admitted to mes^ 
wich dte^iSttily; but here he failed of success. The 
bia^op, disgusted with his ftirwardness and valgar 
manneni, avoided aa. much as possible all intereours^ 
with bkn^ and when he did ask him to sit dOwn at bia 
T a 


table (as at time* he could scarcely help doing so irith* 
out radeaeSB) it was efidently the result ^ooastraint ; 
so that Mr O^Donoel kept luiiiself at a dbtance for 
the most part, but cooiplained OHich of the ii^ratU 
tnde with which he was treatedt after his great ser* 
Yices in protecting the bishop and his family. The 
presence of soch a lodger taught the people at the 
castle to feel for the titnation of thar neighboors of 
the town, annoyed» as they were known to he, by 
company of a still coarser mold. Day and night the 
Stair-case was infested with 0*Donners levee^ either 
with drunken boors from Erris. or his own kinslblk 
Ae Macgutres of Crosmalinst the principal of whom 
«as a brewer of some substance, who for his good ser- 
vices to France by engaging himself and three or four 
sons in this rebellion, has lately been requited with a 
halter. His sons, strong brutes without mind or man* 
ners, but by aid of pillage provided wtih good clothes 
and anus, w.ere back and forward at Killalla, con« 
cerling measures with their cousin 0*Donnel, and^ 
indeed* helping to make him less odious, when his 
behaviour was viewed in comparisoa with theirs. 

*' One of the Macguires, under colour of delivering a 
message to the commandant, bad the insolence one 
day to thrust himself into the dining parlour, while 
the faipily were at dinner, and seemed ta^ enjoy the 
alarm which bis saucy countenance, his sword and pis* 
tob, occasioned among the ladies* The eomraandant 
iastimtly ordered him to leave the room> with a sharp 


igeinikft far his pfesumptioD, declaring at the Mtte 
time* tbftt thore were tw» hours of the twenty*foiir 
which he would not suffer to. be wrested ftom him by 
Any business whatsoever. Another of these three 
youths* Roger M«<^ire» carried himself with so 
much impertinence in his embassy at Castlebar (to bo 
mentioned presiently) as would have drawn destruction 
on his own head, if the safety of better people had not 
happened at that time to be included in his» 

'* Disagreeable ^ an inmate, 0*Donnel was nott 
however, without merit as an officer, and a guardian of' 
the public peace. Hi» first exertions were directed io 
preventing waste by the unnecessary slaughter of beasts^ 
To supply the rebel camp, sheep and oxen had been 
driven in daily in such numbers, and with so little at» 
tention to economy* that as thtre was very little salt 
to be bad, and the weather was rather warm, it was 
found necessary to bury many joints of ijresh meat in 
the earth to prevent an infection. Of this abuse the 
commandant and the bishop were eye-witnesses one 
morning, being led to a back-yatd in the town where 
lay the carcases of half « dozen bullocks just killed. 
O'Donnel received orders to lay before the magistrate 
Deritt, regular accounts of what fresh meat would 
be wanted by the troops on permanent duty. The 
magistrate was to issue a requisition for the supply de* 
manded, sending a guard to take so mnch from the 
fanners, and no more. The beasts were to be tbk«a 
to oue. particular sp^t^ appointed for^ killing them : 


«|dpiod«natioil WMDiiide, that my person, cftvgbt 
io drmag 9o4 kiUiag» YitiMot a writteo onler fmta 
the nagbtfite, should be instaatly shot* Sy the ti» 
fifamce of O'Donnol the order was tolerably well obey* 
od, though die coDsninptiott after ak waA ceflataly 
tnry great. 

** It wai o novel ntoaliofi to the bishop to be ibrcecl 
to sabsist oa plooder, both of meat and drink. The 
choicest beef and mutton from gfazing' grounds that 
$Md the boost of the markets of Dublin, excellent 
^iues and spirits OK^vcted fvo«i the celiafs of his very 
good friends the ■eighboariog gentry, mode Iheir 
visits indne^order at the castle, and were received, at 
first with groans and lamentations over the times, and 
at last with great equanimity, as a misfortune that 
could not be helped.' 'At times> the eompany at the 
eastle even ielt a dispositioa to be merry on the arrival 
«l one of these feloaious cargoes* Some bottles of ex«- 
oellent hock, dvawa from the cellars of the right 
bon. colonel King at Ballitia, came as a present from 
the Freuch ofices there to M. Charost. The wine on 
trial was ibuad so good, that conscience began to mut- 
ter at the sin of assisting in the robbery of so hospi- 
table a geiitieman as- the owner must hav^ been, un- 
less hf might be prov^ guilty of some crime* He 
was tber&fore fiormaUy indicted for hyfiity, fbr an ob» 
atinace adherence to his sovereignr sxid to the eonstitn- 
tion under which he was born. The charge was easily 
pxovod^ as colonel King was then j^ust recovering iroxa 



a shot through the body, which he had received at the 
battle of New Ross, fighting stoutly at the head of his 
regiment against the United Irishmen, the meritori« 
ous allies of France, and lovers of revolution* Of 
course he was pronounced guUty. with acclamations^ 
and his wine was confiscated without a dissenting 


^* ^^H£ confasioQ of the timet bad unavoidably sua* 
pended the exercise of public worship by the members 
of the established church. On the Lord's-day, a con* 
eiderable number from the town nsed to Tenture into 
the caa^le to join the family there at devotions^ oflPered 
up frith a seriousness and fervency suitable to the pre- 
sent distress, TH^ worthy mi!U2t€r cf the p;id8b,desa 
ThoaipsoOf went through the church service^ assiisted 
by his cui^te ; the bishop preached. We all found by 
experiencey both lay and clergy, the truth of the 
psalmist's declaration;, It is good for me that I have 
been in affiiction. Happy, if we shall be enabled by 
the diving aid, through the varying scenes of our fu- 
ture life, to retain the good feeling, and practise the . 
lessons, which that awful period impressed upon us ! 
Prayers were offering at the castle on the ninth of Sep- 
tember, 'when the congregation was alarmed by hear- 
ing the sound of the cathedral bell. On inquiry it 
was found, that Mr O'Donnel had taken the key of 
the church out of the sexton^s house, and ordered the 


bell to be rang for the parpose of ccdHng his Romait 
catbelic foUowep to bbbsb in tbf hoitte<^Mr Morrisoiit 
a protestftnt merchiiiit, who with his faiikily, was forc« 
«d to witness the ceremonj. The bishop was deter** 
mined not to overlook saeh en encroaehment. He 
went* immediately after dirine service, to O'Donnel, 
expostulated. calmly with htm on an action whkh must 
awake the jealousy of the established church fdr the 
saf«?ty of what the law had put into their hands, and in 
conclusion, desired he would returii the key, and for 
the future, give up all thotight of using the churcb 
bell. With this demand O'DOnoel,, apparently sof? 
tened by the manner in which it was urged, com plied; 
nor was any attempt afterwards actually made on the 
catbedral by the Roxpanins, thongbin the camptliey 
often expressed a resolution to seize upon it. The pre* 
seace of the French always restrained them. 

*« Indeed, the contrast wi^J regard to' religious sen- 
timents, between the French and their Irish allies, 
was extremely curious. The athiest despised and af- 
fronted the bigot ; but the wonder was, how the zea- 
lous papist should come to any terms of agreement with 
a set of men^ who boasted openly in our hearing,' 

* that they had just diiven Mr Pope out of Italy, and 

* did not expect to find him agaia so suddenly in Ire- 

* land** It astonished the French officers to hear the 
recruits, when they offered their service, declare, 

* that they were come to take arms for France, and 

* the Blessed Virgin: The conddCt of the several 
priests, who engaged iu the same treasonable enters 


]>me, was yet iMore tarpiiriag tlisn tbat of tfadr peo« 
pie. Nosetofnieii could be treated with more ap« 
parent markt of dislike, and evm contempt, than 
these were bj the French, though agaiilBt the plain- 
est suggestions of policy, which recommended atten- 
tion to them, both as having an influence over their 
flocks, and as useful interpreters, most of them, (from 
their ^reign education,) bemg able to speak a little 
French. Yet the commandant would not trust to their 
interpretation: if he wanted to know the truth, he 
waited till he could see the bishop. A hatr-braiaed 
priest of the name of Sweeney had escaped along with 
Bondet from Newport, when it was re^taken, appre* 
hensive of the punishment which afterwards overtook 
the poor wretch for the active part he had adopted in 
exciting his parishioners to rebellion/ The man had 
a smattering of science, particularly in the antiquities 
of his country, of which he seemed to be passionately 
fond. On being introduced by Boudet to the com* 
mandaut, he preferred an humble request to that offi- 
cer, that whereas ewerj thing lately belonging to the 
protestants must now be French property, and inas- . 
much as soldiers were not usually covetous of books, 
he should be extremely obliged to M. Charost, if he 
would make him a present of the bishop of Killalla's 
library. • The bishop^s library !' answered Charost, 
turning from him with contempt, < is just as much his 
' own now, as ever it was.' 

«* What powerful motive could prevail on this order 
of men to lend their hearts and hands to a revolution^ 


which so manifeslly threatened to overwhelm their 
own credit and consequence, supposing even thai 
th«y were indifferent to the fate of that religion of 
which tbey profSessedtlieinselves to be the consecrated 
miniBters ? I will tell the reader what I conceive to 
be the true key to this mystery, if I may have his 
pardon for tbetitgressioii. 

** The almost total dependence of the llomish clergy 
of Iceland upon their people for the means of subsis-* 
tence is the cause, according to my best judgmeut, 
why, upon every popular commotion, many priests of 
that communion' have^ been, and until measureb of 
batter policy are adopted, always will be found in the 
ranks of sedition and opposition to the established 
government. The peasant will love a revolution, be- 
cause he feels the weight of povert}*^, and has not often 
the sense to perceive that a change of masters may 
Tender it heavier : the priest must follow the impulse 
of the popular wave, or be k^ft behind on the beach to 
perish. There was a time indeed, when superstition 
was of force to uphold the credit and revenues of the 
^lurch of Rome, even where convulsions shook to 
pieces the fabric of the civil government. But the 
reign of superstition is either past, or passing: at least 
if it holds the mind of the believer, it is not, by many 
degrees, so effectual as formerly to open iiis purse^ 
Holy oil, and indul;^encies, and absolutions, have 
fallen very mueh in their price ; confessions are, com* 
paraitively speaking, unproductive; and even the 
golden mine of purgatory seems to be running to a 
Vol. IL U 


thread. Voluntary contribationy the main resource 
of the priest, most depend on popularity. * Live 
with mc, and live as I do. Oppress me not with su- 
perior learning or refinement. Take thankfully what 
I choose to give you, and earn it by compliance witli 
my political creed and conduct* — 6uch> when justly 
translated, is the language of the Irish cottager to his 
priest. It IS language which will be listened to in pro- 
portion to the exigency of the case. A sturdy moralist 
will do his duty in spite of penury : admirable, and 
not to be looked for among the common herd of man" 
Icind, is the virtue which can withstand the menace of 
absolute want of bread. The remedy for this defect 
in the present political system of Ireland, should seem 
to be as easy as it is obvious. But it is not for a private 
individual to sugq^est to our enligfhtened legislature 
either th^ time or the measure in which such a remedy 
ought to be applied. 

" Althopgh the cathedral church of Killalla escaped 
violence in the manner related, there was scarcely ano- 
ther protestant place of worship throughout the united 
dioceses, that did not quickly bear evident marks of 
the religious intolerance of the rebels. But their ma- 
lice was chiefly directed against a presbyterian meet- 
in'jj-house between Killalla and BalUna, the only one 
of the kind in the county. It had lately been fitted 
up and decently ornamented by the unwearied exer- 
tions of the minister, the reverend Mr Marshall, whose 
exemplary character had entitled him to so much re- 
spect, that all his protestant neighbours^ without dis- 


tinctfOB,^ had contributed to give him a handsome 
place of worship. In a very short time after the cora- 
mencement of the rebellion, nothing remained of the 
meeting-house except the walls. The congregation 
experienced no better treatment than their temple. 
They were a colony of very industrious weavers from 
the north, translated hither some years back by the 
esirl of Arran, to a village of his called MuUifarrah, 
where they had flourished so much, that they were 
grown rich, and had increased to the number of a 
thousand persons. The nam« of Orangemen had but 
just begun to be heard of in Connaught ; and much it 
were to be wished, that no such society had ever ap- 
peared among us, to furnish to the Romanists too 
plausible a pretext for alarm and hostility against their 
protestaut bretlirea. The bishop had opposed their 
estabhshtuent with all his might. On the very day 
when the invasion happened, he was busied in entering 
a protest, in his primary visitation charge, against the 
first sentence of the oath by which Orangemen are 
united together, * I am not a Roman catholic* The 
words sounded in his ears too much like those in the 
prophet. Stand off^ I am holier than thau; and assur- 
edly they are not calculated to conciliate. The society 
had originated in the same northern county, which, 
some years before had disgraced itself by an infamy 
new to protestants, an actual expulsion of Roman 
catholics from their homes. The perpetrators of this 
lawless deed were supposed to be chiefly presbyterians ; 
and now upon the unofiending people of that persua- 
^iou in Conaaught were to be retaliated the injuries 
U 2 


done to the Romanifits in Ulster. The ?iITage of 
Mallifurrah, on pretence of searching for arms, was 
ransacked in three nocturnal invasions of the rebels, 
till there was nothing left in it worth carrying away ; 
and this in defiance of a protection under the hand of 
the commandant, obtained for them and their pastor 
by the bishop. The poor sufferers came in tears to 
M. Charost, to retnrn him a jirotection which had 
done them no good. It shocked him very much. 
Often did he whisper the bishop, that no considera- 
tion should prevail on him again to trust himself to 
such a horde of savages as the Irish* 

•• The cloud of common suffering makes the fea- 
tures of distinction between protestants, in the matter 
of religion, appear as .nothing* Mr Marshall having 
lost his own chapel, readily and devoutly joined us in 
our worship. Service being ended, he informed us, 
that the people of Sligo, after a smart action or two at 
Coloopey on the preceding Thur^d.ay, had succeeded 
in turning the French from their own town towards 
the county of Leitrim, where jt was probable they 
would meet a force from Enniskfllen and Dublin, 
that would be able to give a good account of them. 
Castlebar, Nswport-Pratt, and VVeBtport, he assured 
us, were recovered, and nothing remained in the 
hands of the enemy but our town and Baltina. The 
joy of this news was presently dashed with the reflec- 
tion, that if the French should push on, and be de- 
feated at length in some place far removed from ue, 
we must be left, absolutely destitute of defence, at 


the mercy of rebels irritated by <Iesp9ir» and for a 
space of time quite sufficient to accomplish our de- 
struction. The danger was felt aud acknowledged ; 
but as we could not by our own foresight avert it, we 
cast ourselves for the event on the good pleasure of 
Him> who knew best what was fitting for us* 

** Mr Marshall was .the bearer this morning, Sept. 
dtb» of a fresh complaint from his people at MuUifar" 
rah : they had not only been robbed* of their goods, 
but a considerable number of them had been carried 
piisoners to Ballina for the alledged crime of being 
Orangemen, where, by permission of the French offi- 
cer True, they remained close prisoners, with scarcely 
any thing for their support. This behaviour of True 
much displeased the commandant, as he had straitly 
charged that officer not to listen to accusations on a 
religious account, nor suffer any person to be confined 
for them. He thought it incumbent on him therefore 
to go immediately to Ballina to rectify matters there, 
aud enforce a better execution of his orders, which he 
did, taking Ponson along with him. The business 
employed him the whole day, as he had above sixty pri- 
spners to examine and discharge. During his absence, 
the loyalists at Killalla had not been very easy in their 
minds, committed as they were to the protection of 
M. Boudet only, and on the day of the week when 
danger was most to be apprehended^ from the con- 
fluence of people out of ths country to their prayers. 

^* Nothing, however, of an unpleasant nature oc 
U 3 


conrej this or the t^w> foHowto^ days, except the usual 
oniioyauce from lies of tKe ftppitacb t^ an eaetuy, 
fabricated by the rebels to colour their impertantty 
for ammunitiou. Seven hoadred and fifty recruits 
were counted before the castle gate on the eleventh, 
who came to offer their eerviceafor Tetaking the net^- 
bouring towns that had vetumed to their allegmnce ; 
«Qd thisy after arms bad been delivered out by the 
Freneh, as I mentioned before* to upwards of fire 
thoDsand. The population in the mountiiinons parts 
of the county <^Mayo much exceeds what the country, 
from its haggard appearanee, would be thought ca- 
pable of sustaining. These fast recruits wore extremely 
lirgent to cut down two ash groves,, planted to screen 
the see^house from the w>Dds that blew with ao mqdi 
fury in this cltmate. Piltes they mutt have, they 
said, SHice they were not supplied with other weapons ; 
but they paid the bishop tlie aompliment of pramisipg 
to spare his trees, if he would only get them leave 
from thecooHBondant to cut down those that beloi^ed 
to his neighboM' Roger Palmer, esq. or to the agent 
of that gentlcHMUB, sVr Joha Edmund Bcowfie^ who 
seemed to be vevy «Bpop«)ar among tAMm*. With^ 
mwM difficulty, and with the sacrifice of three or feuT 
very good tvees, they were prevailed upoa to desist at 
that time fi^om further mischief.. 

•* September twe'lfth and thirteenth, the i^esseagers 
of ill news poured m upon us conthiUtfUy, announcing 
fresh depredations on every side. Castlereagh, the 
Beatof Arthur Knox, es<|. (brother-ift-law to the earl 


.<yf Meath) CastTe LaGk«i), tiie peperty of sir John 
Ptflmer, feart. were broke open and completely rified. 
Mr B9t»ke» of Samiiier-hiU, informed tbe bisbop 
by miBSagey tbiit he was threatened gi^voasly, and 
ia cianger ofm/atder^ if he was -not «»pplied pffeseotly 
wnstfa^agtKwd ankl aKDiiianJtion? be added m his note^ 
that he ihad ctash in the boaae^ mdiich be wial)«d vto have 
conveyed to the castle. A faithful domestic of Mr 
Knox's eame witih 1ieai« in bis eyes to the bishop, to 
beg he would send a party lO-f «tea to^Oast1«yeag^h, to^ 
•onatob np .what •mighit be reaciied fr^m the &poi4ers9 
-l^articiiiaily atqnaiBtity sof mae, »piri^» and groceries^. 
•wbieh» ifikey fnnstibe lost to his master, had better 
^ to tbe ufie of ^he garrison w the eadile^. than to a 
pared i&k' Tuiliaiis* 

« Tbe wanil of horsea waa now felt sererdy. Tfce 
bUkop^ bad but «ae left>. which had been sent back U^ 
him iby the Frreneh frMn Casflkbar* This was die* 
polchttd wi*b a ear to Castkreagh, together with a 
party under ^*DoiUkeU to bring »S what goods be 
«oald to the eaatle^ Another horse was £»u«d. tome- 
where, to convey M» iSeudet to tihiuatteMitU ; and as* 
he coold effect ootbing withotit aa tnteo^neter; the 
bisbopy ^m«eh agakiA Ins wM, wa» «biaged to trmt 
his eidcst so» with tins ofiicer^ throiagh a eoantry reiv- 
dered alaaost as -dangorons as a*iield of batde, by the 
to^enaulorate imig of sbott by the rebels in all direc- 
ttons. Tbe pair walked and rode by ^arns^ aad a very 
anpieasant suspense prevailed at (he castle till their . 
return late in the er-ening. By their appearaace at 


Summerhill, quiet was for the present restored to that 
place. Boudet rendered honourable testimony to the 
spirit with which Mr Bourke defended his property 
a|2^iD8t a host of marauders. , But the bishop trem- 
bled at the hazard his son Edwin had incurred , when 
Mr Bourke prevailed on him to be the bearer to the 
castle of a hundred aiwl seventy guineas is cash.^ 

** While this was passtng*, crfl was confusion fn tfie 
lower part of the castle, by the condition in which the 
party returnctl that had gone to Castlerea^h. No ex- 
pedient for saving the wine and spirits from the un- 
worthy mouths that were preparing tor swallow them 
appeared to the messengers to be so reedy and effec- 
tual, as that of using the liquors instantly themselves^ 
In consequence, the bishop*s butler returned from 
the expedition pot-valiant, quarrelled withr the garde- 
ner and carter, presented a blunderbuss at the ibrmer, 
and provoked the bishops himself so much by saucy 
language, that he lost his temper, and almost knock- 
ed the fellow down with a box on the ear. The com- 
tnandant interposing, locked hi'm up in his own pantry, 
and leflt him to sleep there till .momrog. The man 
had been an excellent servant^ and it is hoped will 
continue to be so in a place of iess temptation. But 
the opportunity of gaining by thearnval of the Freneh 
was too alluring: he dedaied for them immediately, 
served tbera only, to the neglecting of his master, be« 
trayed the secrets of the cellar to them, talked often 
like a rebel, and iu short did such things, as might 
have brought his neck- in question^ if his master had 


not, after the action at Killalla, recrnnmeuded to 
liim a speedy retreat oat of the country. Some liquor, 
the groceries, and a quantity of furnitare, the pro- 
perty of Mr John Knox, were safely deposited in the 

*' From Castle Lacken little or nothing could be 
saved. Tlie manner in \^hich this mansion, the old 
family seat of sir John Palmer, was surprised, is worth 
desribing. Mr Waldron, ag^ent to the baronet, wlio 
rented the house, and had a vety considerafble pro- 
perty in and about it, had received a g\iard from the 
French, with which for some days he had 'been able 
to protect himself against Ms disorderly neighbours* 
The guards however required gtiarding as much es 
the rest of theif countrymen ; and a plan was con- 
certed, in consequence oTwhieh the 'house should ap- 
pear to be taken hy a sudden assault, in spite of all 
opposition. A horseman came in full ga(lop through 
the snrrouilding crowd to the door, announcing him- 
self to be an express from the bislvop at Killalla. The 
unwary owner unbarred his door, and in an instatrt 
the mob without and the guards within threw the un- 
fortunate man on the floor, ran over him many times> 
dispersed his affrighted family of children and grand- 
children, completely gutted the house, and even car- 
ried away the flooring, drove off his stock, and ia 
short did him damage (as he afterwards proved to the 
committee) little short of three thousand pounds. It 
^Hs melancholy to see a family, accustomed to ease and 
comfort, arrive the next day at Killalla on foot^witb 


notluDg saved but the clothes on their backt. But 
this was a spectacle, to which we had now been too 
much famiUarized. Mr \ValdroQ had auother hoose 
and farm in the vicinity, which were presently afler 
destroyed in as merciless a manner by the same sa- 

•* The farm<hoase of Mr John Boyd (a worthy man, 
respectable also for his skill as a surveyer) thoui^li 
greatly exposed by standing single ftt a considerable 
distance from town» was preserved by a eircurastance 
that may be reckoned curtons, a» it shew^ the Hgbt \n 
which the insurgents beheld their French allies* Two 
soldiers of that nation, wounded, biit not dangerous- 
ly, at Castlebar, were sent to the ccMnmandant to 
be put into some place where they ought l>e recovered. 
Mr Boyd, by the bishop's advice,, offered hifi own 
house as a quiet retreat for the men, who at the same 
time, from the respect paid by the rebels to the French, 
might be a security to him and his famiiy. The offer 
was accepted, and proved effectual for the purpose in- 
tended ; for though gangs of robbers frequently 
threatened the house, no attack was actually made on 
it, as long as the foreigners (very well behaved poor 
fellows) continued in it, which was for upwards of a 
fortnight. It cost much exertion afterwards to defead 
the same house to the end of the troubles^** 


*• September the twelfth, in the evenln.?, the 
]igbt of hope beoran to open on the loyalists ofKillalla. 
Something must have happened, they whispered one 
another, to the prejudice of the French arms, as an , 
express arrived from Ballina, and was sent back in 
wet and darkness almost immediately : the French . 
ofRcers also, from that time, looked very much de- 
jected. Next morning, a prisoner was brouglit in 
from Ballina, supposed to be of note, because the 
commaDdant wished the bishop to be present at his 

** It proved to be William Charles Fortescue, epq, 
nephew and heir to Lord Clermont, and member for 
the county of Louth, a gentleman with whom the 
bishop bad not the honour of being before acquainted. 
The conversation between him and M. Charost pass- 
ing in the French language, and in a low tone of voice, 
the bishop was on the point of quitting the room 9 
whea Mr Fortescue announced himself in English to 


be the brother of the young clergymen already men- 
tioned, as having received a mortal wound in the first 
rencounter with the French. No certain inteUigence 
of his death had reached Dublin ; so that Mr F. was 
instigated by affection for an excellentand only brother 
to set out on horseback for Balliua. attended by one 
.ervant, resolved to take his chance, if that town 
should yet be in the hands of the rebels, though, when 
be left the capital, it was believed to have returned, 
along with the rest of the county, to the king's peace. 
On his way he had passed through Granard, just after 
the battle of BalUnamuck, where he bad seen general 
Humbert and his officers, going as prisoners of war to 
Dublin ; and even then he had no intimation, that he 
might not proceed without danger as far as 
He did not discover his mistake, till he wa« arrested 
bv a patrole within a short distance from that to«n. 
The con-manding officer there. M. True, h,s 
usual brutality charged hi.a with coming there as a 
spy to intimidate the Trends of liberty by a false report 
ofthe defeat of their army, detained the servant a..d , 
bae-age, and sent the master to KiUalla to be exa- 
inined byCharost. From the description Mr For- 
teseue gave h.m of the persons of the French officers 
^homhehad seen pv.soners, the commandant could 
have no do«bt of the defeat of his countrymen, eveo 
though hehnd not been furnished with a mo.-e con- 
vincing proof by the receipt of two letters from officers 
ia the Fr«.cb stafn^ tb« capture of their whole 
force near the iron mines in the co.nty of Leitnm. to- 


gether.with the dispersion of their Irish allies^ on the 
Saturday preceding. 

** These letters the commandant made no scruple 
of imparting to the bishop, with an air of confidence in 
his honour, and his discretion, which was cert?iinly 
very flattering. He gave him leave at the same time 
to discourse on the subject with Mr Fortescue, only 
admonishing; them both of the present danger of di^ 
vulging the secret. Of such a caution, in truth, they 
stood in very little need : for it was plainly the interest 
of the loyalists to observe the strictest silence with re- 
gard to the ill posture of the affairs of the rebels, lest 
these should be on their backs before the king's army 
could come to their relief. Mr Fortescue was taking 
his leave of the commandant to return to his disagree- 
able confinement under True, when the bishop, in 
French, (that Charost might object, if he pleased) 
invited him to shafe bed and board with them at the 
castle, an offer which, after some apologies, was thank- 
fully accepted, and Mr Fortescue's condition, though 
far inferior to that he was used to, became easy from 
thenceforth in <:omparison of what he had endured at 
Ballina* The presence of this gentleman was of great 
service in supporting the spirits of the company at the 
castle ; for, having attained to the rank of major in 
the army, he possessed a steadiness of mind in danger, 
and a prudence, the result of experience, which oftea 
suggested the most salutary counsels* 

" Concealment of the news from Ballinamuck ww^ 
Vox*. II. X 


nc^t long practicable, ^epple vha h^d escaped from 
the slaughter came in hourly to offer their services to 
the commandant, though several of them carried in 
their persons evident marks how little they had gained 
by their zeal for the cause. The intelligence did not 
seem by any means to produce on tU^ minds of the re- 
bels the effect that mig;ht uq^urally have been expect- 
ied> their gradual dispersion and ret uvh to their own 
homes. On the contrary, the resort to the camp in 
the bishop^s meadows grew greater every day ; the 
talk of vengeance on the protestants was louder and 
more frequent ; the rebels were drilled regujarly, am- 
munition was demanded, and every preparation made 
for an obstinate defence ^agaiost th^ arms of their spve« 
reign.. Careless of the futujte, or trusting to the de* 
lay which must be occasioned by the distance of the 
lcing*s army> they thought, of nojthing bat living 
merrily, as long as they mighty ^P9^ th<? property 
that lay at their. raej*cy ; pnd they did use their, power 
of doing mischief most terribly. Spoil w^s not the 
sole, or eveUj the principal, object of tjieir leaders ;- 
for they destroyed in ^very decent habitation much 
more than they carried aiyay. Depression of ^the in- 
dustrious and better sort, the universal levelling of 
conditions, in order to bring on the glorioua reign of 
equallity, such appeared to he the wish of thpse wbo> 
aspired at all to the pj^aise of thinking, and called 
themselves. reptihlUcms : the mob had no proniptqrs- 
but lust of pillage and superstition. For, ih-aX enmity 
to the protestant religion entered into the motives of 
the devastatiou. ifl^ Conoaught^ cannot witl^ any sjiew 


of reasoB hedeni^jd, since it is n0tprious that, excep^t 
during the indiscriKiinate plunder which took place at. 
the capture of Castlebar, v/ery few iostancea occwrred^ 
throughout the provin<:e> of the house ox property of ^ 
lioman catholic being injured by the rebels. 

** Very different from those of the natives were the- 
feelings of the French officers at Kiilalla, after they 
were assured of the miscarriage of their enterprise^ 
Conceiving their task of anr^oying Britain to be fo«* 
the present concluded^ and expecting shortly to joi^ 
their brother ofllicers in Dublin, they looked to ixothing^ 
but t,o the preserving of peace and quiet round about 
them, till ^ regular English force should approacl^^, 
to which they might, witho.ut discredit, render tbemr 
8ely:€s, prisoners* They did . not> ijndeed^ profess so-; 
iniichtothe rebel^. On the contrary, they appe^r^dl 
always^ ready to train the men to aiit|i3, and to head 
them in any enterprise tl?ey proposed against the oonj* 
mon enemy. But j^t tjie s^pae tinrip the commandaa^b. 
frequently warned tl^etn^ that he wo.uld. haiv.e. n.a hq^pd 
in incursions for pillage : • he was CJ^^fd^ Br^ade^ 
he saidj * but not Chef 4? ^ri^mds / and if ever h« . 
caughjt theo^ preparing tp spoil aa4 murder p^rotese^ 
tant(^4 li^ apd his ofl^qers: should sid^ with, the prote^^ 
tants against them iii, the "H^^ry la^t. extremity*, H/a-, 
took extraordinary care also to be provided against 
the worst* Twelve good carabine?, propierJy. loaded > 
stood always reijdy in the bed-chiimbeF wl^ere the three^. 
officers. slept, Arrap were distributed to seven or eighfc 
tri^8ty persons of the bi^hQp'a fcpaily^ A ^ja^cd e^j 


eighteen (whom, as I said, it was necesary to keep an 
eye upon) watched in and round the house. The 
Frenchuieji themselves were extremely alert, allowing 
themselves very little sleep, and scarcely any in the 
night, for ten days together. The steady undisturb- 
ed countenance of Charost added weight to his pr^a.- 

•* The 18th of Sept. was a Jay of continual alarm. 
Reports from the rebel camp just besFde us grew 
stronger than ever, that a mutiny was breaking out. 
About three o'clock, as the bishop and commandant 
were walking in the garden, one of the leaders of the 
rebels came in a great hurry to assure them, it was 
the determined purpose of the camp immediately to 
imprison, in the cathedral, every protestant as a pledge 
for their own security, in case of the arrival of the 
king's array. The man was dismissed with thanks 
for the warning, and desire to tell his countrymen, 
* that we were ready for them.' A good dinner soon 
after stopt their mouths, as it used to do: for we re- 
marked, that the rebels in camp were always most in- 
clined to cabal, and do mischief, while their dinner was 
preparing : when they had been regal-ed with beef and 
mutton,, and a moderate share of whiskey, they be- 
came good-humoured and tractable^ 

** On the 19th, at noon, they were hungry and quar- 
relsome again. The commandant, with a guard of 
thirty men, marched about the town, proclaiming 
hn orders to the nxen to go to their homes, immediately 


-after they had received their allowance of beef. While 
he was thus engaged, a crowd gathered about the 
gate* The armed began to mutter as well as the un- 
armed. At iast the bishop btept out to them, and 
asked what they wanted. 

«* They had heard, tliat many of their kinsmen and 
friends were in close confinement at Castlebar ; and if 
tliey thought that was really the case, they could not 
be blamed for wishing to retaliate on the protestants 

" Are you sure of the fact ?— No. 

" Why then, said the bishop, would it not be just 
and prudent to send messengers to Castlebar, whom 
you could trust, for a true report, before you proceed 
further ? 

** Right : but who will go on such an errand ? 


" Take one of your own people, replied the bishop, 
with one of ours, to go immediately to the command* 
ing officer at Castlebar. Let them carry a flag of 
truce, and a letter from me to general Trench, or 
other officer commanding there, setting forth our situ- 
ation, and our hope that nothing would be done to 
the prisoners at Castlebar which may provoke reprisals 
on the "protestanta at Ki1lalla» Disperse now, and 
you shall have a full and fair "Statement of things by 
Vol. IL Y 


to-inoirow. Let the persons to go with the flag be 
dean Thompson and Mr R^er Macguire. 

'* With the populace half the work of persoasion is 
frequently over, when you can get them to listen. 
The bishop made the family one day merry by relating 
what he had just overheard. Two country lellows 
were disputing and pnHing each other by the throat in 
the court-yard, when one cried to the other, • Come 
away to the bishop, he will settle it for us-p-he makes 
us hear one another^* 

** The promised letter was prese«>tly written, and 
received with applause by the mutineers. The choice 
of ambassadors was likewise ratified by general con- 
sent ; for young Macguire was an active partizan of 
the rebels, and dean Thompson's character high 
in the estimation of all descriptions of people, and 
his influence at Castlebar, where he had been curate 
lor nineteen years, was known to be equal to his 
nerit. - It was agreed, that the messengers should set 
out for Castlebar at four the next morning, and till 
they returned, nothing should be attempted, 

** It was a great exertion for dean Thompson to un- 
dertake this perilous errand, and greater on the part 
of his wife to consent to it. The mountain road was 
to be taken to Castlebar, as the shortest ; but it was 
a wild country, awarming with robbers; neither was 
it at all certain, that the protestant messenger would 
not be arrested on the way by the friends of Macg'uire^ 


tvTio might have consented to th^ embassy only to get 
such a person as the dean into their hands. If he was 
judtly uilea&yy his lady was still more to be pitied, en* 
cumbered as she was with the charge of four young 
chtldfexiy and {ir advanced in her pregnancy. But 
this worthy couple, seeing no measure so likely as the 
proposed one to rescue themselves and their friends* 
acquiesced in it without a murmur, and committed 
the issue to Providence. 

•* Mysterious arc the ways of Divine Providence I 
unfathomable the depth of that wisdom, which often 
concedes a boon, only to try n» afterwards by with- 
drawing it! Little 4}idst thou foresee, amiable and 
unhappy woman, that the husbandr whose escape 
from that peril transported thee with so much joy and 
gratitade to heaven, thonld in the succeeding year be 
torn #»r ever from thee by a fever, contracted in the 
coarse of his miniptry by attendance on a sick bed* 
Be ccnoforted, however. His Virtues, thoogh in the 
mid season of life,. h«d vendered him ftiU ripe for the 
great harvest. Thou hast it in thy power to earn n 
splendid recompence hereafter by patience, by atten* 
tion to thy fatherless offspring ! 

** The night of the nineteenth was past by almost 
the entire family at the castle without sleep. At mid<« 
night, as they were going to rest, one pf the Mac- 
guires, from Crosmalina, burst in %ipon them with 
the news, that his troop had just been fired upon by 
'ihe English^ who might be expected at Killalla im-- 
' Y 2 


mediately. It was not probable, tbat a regular force 
would be exposed to the chances of an engageroeot 
with such a crew in the night; but the story had the 
same effect as if it was true. The house was up all 
night, and had the pleasure of !i«tennig^ to the up- 
roar made by the two Macguires, Roger and the new 
comer, in getting most beastly drunk in their cousin 
0*DonnePs room, till the commandant at last cuffed, 
and turned them both out of doors. In themorningr 
the false reporter from Crosraalina slipt home again, 
rather ashamed of himself; but his brother, the am- 
bassador, could not be found to go on his errand til^ 
it was near nooii. The dean and he then set out ou 
horse'back> well armed with swocds and )»istols.. 

*' A trbublesome consequence of the* report brought 
by Macguirc was, that it furnished a prieteoce to the 
pikemen, dismissed the day before by the commaB- 
dant, to return to the town with offers of serving 
against the approaching enemy. In two boars the 
camp was said to number two thousand men. To do 
them justice, tlie peasantry never appeared to want 
animal courage, for they ffocked together to meet 
danger whenever it wajs expected. Had it pleased 
heaven to be qs liberal to them of brains as of hands, 
it is not easy to say to what length of mischief they 
might have proceeded j but they were all along un» 
provided with leaders of any abihty. Bellew, their 
earliest officer, was a drunken brute, to whom nobody 
paid obedience, even before he was turned out of 
office by the commandant. Little better, either for 


taleat or sobriety, was O^Dowd, a man of some estate 
in the county, and almost the only gentleman that 
took arms with the rebeis, for which he paid the forfeit 
of his life at Ballinamuck. Mr Richard Bourke, of 
Ballina, before-mentioned, had some military know^* 
ledge» was a good drill sergeant, ^firm m combat, and 
popular ; so that he might liavc done the harm he 
wished, if the habitual stupefaction of drink had not 
been an overmatch for his malice. O'Donnel knew 
nothing of arms, nor was be likely to learn the pro-^ 
fessioa quickly, his petulance making him unfit for 
discipline, insomuch that at one time Charost was 
forced to lay him under an* arrest fur some hours for 
quitting the neighbourhood, the night before, with- 
out orders. Yet the vulgar, who can discern in others 
what they have not in themselves, followed this young- 
man more readily than any qther who pretended to- 
lead them, because they- saw h/e had more sense, more 
command of himself, and more moderation in the ex- 
ercise of guth on ^. Even the loyalist^ at Killalla ac* 
knowledged obligation to him for the industry with 
ivhich they saw him exf rt himself to prevent pillage, 
patrolrng the streets on horseback for sei^eral nights 
together, and withholdings both by threats and 
persuasion, those whom he found beat upon mis* 
chief. ^ 

** There were times, when nothing could withhold 
them but blows. On the 20th, the house of the cus- 
tom-house officer, Mr Rutledge, was again attacked 
Igiif a band of ruffians, after it had been three or four 


times ransacked before. The pretence was» that it 
contained tobacco, an article of which the couotrj 
people are so fond, that they bear the want of it more 
1 m patiently than t hat of food. To q uell the riot. Pon- 
ton was called from a nap he was takings, after being 
up all night* Alone he fell upon the whole crew» and 
aiming a blow at the foremost piUager> brought the 
fellow to the ground, to his -infinite diamay ; but the 
efi'ort bent and broke the bayonet. Yet the dastardly 
assailants were poltotke rout by this spirited exertion, 
and dispersed. 

** Friday morning, the ^Tst, bronght another disorder^ 
^y S^^g ^ molest the castle. These called them- 
selves a depixtKMtt from the camp. They had Iieard, 
that Mr Bourke of Summerhill wajs M)y purposed to 
employ a guard he hadneeeived from. tiie com mandbnf 
in harassing the familes of his poor iMighboars, while 
the heads of them w«re fighting for liberty ; and they 
were come to ask leave to take him up. * Yoq maf 
' go» if y^ please,' answered Charost, ' bat I wilt 
* follow you with my offieers, and fire open you, iff 
■ catch yoft 1a the act ofplunderii^ Summerhilk* The 
affiur was compromised by O'Donners going over to 
SummerhHl with a letter to Mr Bourke from the com- 
mandant, to warn him that he should content himself 
with acting on the defensive only, as he expected to 
have his guard left with him. M^ Bourke needed no 
such warning, for he had never trusted the guard with- 
in his doors. What provoked the commonalty so much 
•gainst this gentleman was the thought, that be should 


hftve it to boast he had set the ii^hole body of united 
irisil at defianee for a month together. Even O^Don- 
o^ did not like to give him such matter of triumph* 

" After breakfast th« same day, the bt^op went into 
the town with M« Charodt, to assist him in ordering a 
newly-arrived body «f fuk«men to go home to their 
tiarveat. It wa«'a service of danger. About one hun- 
dred surly looking f(^loiT8 were to be told, that the 
conraiandant had got men enough to guard the place 
^whicb ^ae now his only bumneas here) and did not 
desire to be tMMtbled with a pack of robbers. Charost 
begged bis interpreter to signify this to the people in 
words of odmmamdf such as would lea\% no doubt or 
dispute about his meaning; and Ponson, to enforce 
the order, pursued the rear of the body with his fire- 
lock,, with expressions of contempt and anger so ridi- 
culous, as to provoke the siQiles of the loyalists, 
though plainly contrary to prudence. The pikemen 
miittered threats ks they retired, both against the 
protestaots and their abettors, as they called tlie 
French'; and from that time accounts came in hourly, 
. that they were resolved not to disperse, as they were 
ordered to do, but would choose new leaders, and 
plunder the- town that very evening, in spite of the 
French and of O'Donnel. They seemed to wait only 
for tbe return of the ambassadors, whose arrival was 
indeed anxiously expected by all parties. 

** At four o*clock the castle family had a message, just 
before dinner> from an eye-witness, that the king*s 


«rmy were adi'ancin* in great numbers, and by two 
Toads from Castlebar. They must be at BalUoa, it 
was sau)» by this time. Dinner was laid on the table, 
notwithstanding. In the midst of it, in rushed Tho- 
tnas Kirkwood, a young officer of yeoman caTairy, 
with news that the attack on our front ^ate was com- 
mencing by about a score of armed men. SucKa num- 
ber did not frighten us. * Stay till they get to a 
bead,* saj's the commandant. We drank away, till 
they had increased to near fifty. Then the coni- 
niandant took his liat, and marching out with his two 
officers fully armed, be steps forward to the pikemen, 
orders them to retire from the musqueteers, divides 
the latter into three platoons, and sets them directly 
to go throuj^h their exercise. Occupied for some time 
with these movements, they bad not leisure .to apply 
themselves to woise, and thus were easily persuaded 
at Jubt to disperbe. 

*' A loud sbout at six in the evening proclaimed tlie 
safe return of our two ambassadors. Great was the 
joy of the whole town at tUe sight of them, when we 
begun to despair of their appearance, at least before 
TOdrniiig. They brought back a very polite letter 
to the'bishop from general Trench, assuring him that 
his prisoners were, and should be, treated with all 
possible tenderness and humanity. The letter was 
publicly read to the multitude, and left in their hands. 
No disturbance ensued that night; but the trepida- 
tion was so great, that the castle could scarcely con- 
tain the refugees. Not fewer than fourscore persons 



were housed in it. Nine of these, including Mr For« 
tescue, slept on the floor of the hishop*s study. In 
their own bed-chamber the bishop and his lady were 
obliged to find room for four little children of their 
own, and as many more of a neighbour, together with 
their terrified mother. Fear, we know, is a [Mission 
oot much troubled with qualms of delicacy. 
Vol. II. Z 


** Our mission to Castlebar had the effect that wng 
foreseen and wished. Dean Thompson, though, very 
closely watched by his fellow-Boessenger, as long ss 
the latter was able to keep himself awake, found 
mraus to. have a private conference with general 
Trench, in which he painted to him the desperate 
situation of the loyaUsts afKiUalla in so «trdng a light, 
that the geqeral promised to march to our relief two 
days sooner than lie had purposed to do^. and desired 
him to tell the bishop.^ but with a strict injunction of 
secrecy, that he might «xpect his army by Sunday 
forenoon. Arthur Stock sent his iatber a note, that 
he was very well and happy at Castlebar, and hoped 
to be with us shortly. The bishop shook his head, as 
if he doubled much whether his son should find us 

" In effect the whole interval of time between gene- 
ral Trench's promise and its completion, was a period 
of keener anxiety than is commonly crowded into an 


equal space in way man^s lifV?. Claitoar» atnd then ar 
silence more terrible than clamottiry. reigtted' by turns 
in and about the castle; Our guards cast their eyes 
upon U8 with an uncertainty truly ^l^rnEiing:; they 
seemed to hesitate whether they should plunge the' 
bayonet in our breasts, or fall on their knees to ihi^ 
pi ore our protection* 

" Early on Saturday mornings the loyalists were 
desired by t\\e rebels to come up with them to tlie hill 
en which the Needle-tower is built, in ordfer to be eye 
witnesses of-the havock a^ party of the king*^s army was 
making, as it advanced towards us from Sligo, A 
train of fire too clearly distinguished their line of 
niarch^ fianung up. from^ the- bouses of unfortunate 
peasants.' * They are wi\y a few cabins/ retriarked. 
the bishop; and he had scarcely uttered the words, 
vhen. h€ fdt the i japradeuee of tbeit>«^ * A poor mtfn*s 
cabin/ answered one of the rebels, * b tOKhim as Valu- 
ablie aa a. palace.* Presently after comes a priest ffx>m 
Easky-^bridge in that country, natiied Mucdonald, 
with intelligence apparently calculated to quiet their 
minds : ^ It was only a few farm-houses that had been ' 
Imrned^ because they belonged to noted plHagersi* 
This he said in public; many believed at the timcj 
that he told a different story privately to those of his^ 
eomnuuiion. 0*Donnel, the busiest of all men thia 
day, made an offer of his service : he would go at the 
head of a party, and bring back information to be re- 
lied on. The people were silent, Thev did not know 
whom to trust* The captain might be as bad as the 


on his feet m a momeDt, and with the buil; end of h.. 
pistol laid open the si nil of the offender^ whom v. 
left in the gnard-room. Hte hiwHelf was soon in a con 
dition to resume his marehy and- away he went with 
about three hundred followers, taking the road to 
Crosmalina, Ponson, who vfas sent oat toreconnoitre^ 
now came back with news, that the English were with- 
in fbur mil^s of Killalla ; and with this the inconside- 
fate creature betook himself to his customary employ^ 
xnent of singing and whistiing*. 

*• The night was uncommonly wetj which contri- 
buted to our quiet. Favourable in thi^ respect, the 
season was much against us iu another; for it. retarded 
the march of our deliverers to that degree, that gene« 
ral Trench was not able to keep his promise of being 
with us in the forenoon of next day, hailing found it 
necessary to encamp for the night at Cfsosmalinai 
Here an alarm, and some confusion among the king^s 
troops, was occasioned by their picqiiet of sixteen 
horse fall'mg in with young Macguire, who with two 
horsemen had advanced about a mile before 0*I>onf 
XI el's men from Killalla, and came up with the pic- 
quet after nij^ht-fall. l^acgoire boldly charged them, 
fired his pistol, and followed them into the very town, 
assisted by the dapkness, till on hearing the drums 
beat to arms, he thought it prudent to retire. His 
cousin O'Donnel had committed the charge of his 
party to this youth, being himself unable to procieed 
on the march farther than Rappagh, the seat of Mr 
Kaox> where a sicknoes at itomach overtook bim^ 


cvhieb forced bim to accept a bed from, young Mr 
Kqox> after be had' ptocured from that gentlemau a 
drink for bi9 three hundred men* Oo the strength of 
this liqnor the rebels bore the fatigae of a rainy march 
very well, till Macgutre^ their vauut Geu.rier» brought 
them word that the royal army was beating to anns-at 
Croamalina.. Then^ for the first time, they began to 
Kecallect> that they hadtoo.lijLtle ammunitiou to stand 
a regular engagement.. So they took counsel from 
their leader (oc their fear») and iistcuing with pleasure 
to the salutary word ^ Retreat^* they broke, and made 
the best of their way,, most of them» to tiieir 0W9 
booies; about thirty of the stoutest were collected ia 
the morning fa^ 0'Dounel«. wlio led tliem back to* 

^ On this Bignt, as. well as for the nine that preceded 
ky the gentlemen that slept in the bbrary touk their 
turns at watching lill morning fur the co^nmon safety, 
and Ttsitiog the guards posted through the house. AU 
were harrassed by a duty so fatiguing, but the French 
officers most,, who for several nights together did not 
enjoy aa honr's repose The family spoke in. whispers 
one to another, some despondiug, some blaming the 
tardiness of go>i:er lament iu sending us relief, some iiv- 
quiring auxLoubly for news, and some endeavouring to 
steal into privacy, where they might unload their 
hearts with freedom before the ThrOiie of Mercy. 

«• The twenty-third of September, Sunday, and 
the day of the equiaoxj opened on us with the same 


heavy fall of raiA whicb had continacd ihrotighoot the 
night; but the sky cleared before noon* At break- 
fast our company Has- eiilat^ed by the addition of two 
ivg'.tive officers iixmi •Ba)litia> Messrs True and 
O'Keon. — * The EngUsb werecoaic to Balliua. What 
nan could do, the heroic True had atchieviKi. An 
EugUsh officer had stimnioDcd hina to render himself 
prisoner, and advaiiced to* lay hold of him ; but he 
ahook him off^ and in the struggle pisUed away the 
officer's fipaulette,* wfaieh he produced in trinmpb, 
* got on horseback, and with O'Kcon, whom he over* 
took on the road, was come to fight it out to the last 
at KillaUa*r Tht» vapoarrng tile was soon discovered 
to be a downright lie* True, in the confuMon when 
BalUna was entered by the king's troops, had escaped 
on the first horse he conid catch, bringing with hinv 
an old volunteer epaulette, the property of colonel 
Ring, and stolen by True out of the colonel's ward- 
robe* The appearance of this man corresponded with 
the character we had heard of him— a front of brass, 
an incessant fraudfuf smile, manners altogether vulgar, 
and in his dre^s and person a neglect of cleanliness, 
even beyond thfe affected negligence of republicans. 
Our poor coitlQ^todatit seemed to like him no bettet' 
than we did ourselvesr, though he was forced to wcl- 
coHic him at our breakfast ^ith a kiss on each cheek, 
the modern fiatemal embface-^--a sight that would 
have provoked our smiles, had we been in a humour 
to be amused. But every thought was now absorbed 
by the expectation of the approaching scene : even the 


sacred duties of the day were for the Erst time &tts«> 

•* Before he took horse for the engagement, 0*D(yn^ 
nel claimed the privilege of a Vnessmate to ask counsel 
of Mr Fortescne and the bishop what he should do» 
^ 1 think 1 might expect pardon,* said he, • from the 
share I hare had in preserving the peace of this dis- 
trict. But the fieople would never forgive me if I did 
not stand by them now ; and their revenge wotild foU 
low me into Erris, shoo Id I attempt to retreat home» 
1 am not afraid to die ; but if T couM save my life witb 
honour^ I would.* No counsel, it was evident, could* 
be given him, but that he should fight till he saw the- 
battle turn (which, his advisers t€«ld him, would not be 
a long time) and then endeavour to escape to his own 
country* The young man followed this advice, a» tiir 
as he was able* Poshed into the town with the fu^- 
tives, he galloped about the streets to bring up a rein- 
forcement, when a spirited mare was shot under him.. 
He then escaped on foot to the £eldft on tlie other side 
from tke scene of actibn, where incumbered as he was 
with boots' and a long French snrtout coat, he was 
soon overtaken, and pierced with a ball through the 
back. The Highlander that killed him reported his 
last words to be, * I am Ferdy O* Don nel t go tell the 
bishop 1 am shot.* The bishop was> sorry for his deathv 
Harrassed as he had been by his forward and pert be-^ 
hnviour, during the long space of* time O'Donnel had 
)>assed under his roof, an uninvited guest, he could 
not forget the serviced he had rendered to the town by 


fVfiquently haxardiog his pereoD to rcstrata pluoda'ert^ 
The body, which after being stript bad been thmvn 
into a potatoe ridge, was by the bishop's order remov- 
ed three days after, and int^ired ia the eburch-yard^ 

** The peacefttl inhabitants of Killallar were now to 
be spectators of a scene they had. never expected to- 
behold— a battle ! a sight which no person that has 
seen it onee, and possesses the feelings of a human 
creature, would choose to witness a second time.- A 
troop of fugitives from Ballina, women and children 
tumbling, over one another to get into the castle, or 
into any house in the town where they might hope for 
a momentary shelter, continued for a painful length of 
time to give notice of the approach of aaacoif • 

** The rebel)! q.oitt«d theiv ouBtp to occupji the riaiog 
ground close by the towOf on the road to Bttllia*,, 
posting theuaselvte under the low sttohe walla on each 
side, in such a manner as bnabled them with great 
advantage to take aim at the king's troofM*- They had 
a strong guard. illso on the other gide of the town to- 
wards Fox£»rd». having probably received intelligence,, 
which was trne,, that geneitit Trench htid divided his 
forces at Crosmalina, and sent ooe part of them by a 
detour of three mile» to intercept the fhgrtives that 
might take that couive in thar fiight. Thaa last de- 
tachment eonsittted chie% of the Kisrry oiUitia, under 
the orders of lieutenant-colonel Crosbie and Maurice 
Fitagerald, the knight of Kerry; their colonel, the 
«wl of Qlandorej^ altendiog the ^neraL It is a dr- 


^curostahce^ Wbkth oogbt iwver to be forgotten by the 
loydlUts-of Killalla, tliit tbe Kerry militia were so 
ivrooght upon by the exhoptatrions'ef those two spirited 
officers to lose no time m coming to tbe relief of their 
pert^htns^ friends, tbat they appeared oh the south 
side of tbe town at the same »i>9taht with theie felk)ws 
on tbe opposite side, ^bou^b they had a league more 
of road toperfoim. 

•* Tbe two divisions off tbe royal atmy were supposed 
io tnake up about twelve hondfed xaen^ and they had 
Sve pieces of caBnott. Tbe nu niter of the rebels coidd 
not be ascer-taiaed. Many ran nway before the en- 
^^gemettt, wbiie a very considerable number flocked 
into the town in. the very hsat of it, passing under the 
castle windows in view of the French officers on horse- 
•back, 'and running ^pon death, %ith as little appear- 
ance of reflection oi^cnDcero, as if they wereliaftenin^ 
■to auluw^. About feur bund red -of these misguided 
men fell in tbe battle, and . immediately after H. 
Wheuee it may -be cofiject-ured, that their entire num- 
h&r scared y exceeded ei^ht or uine hundred. 

** Tbe whole soene passed in sight of the castle, and 
j60 near it,, that tbie family couJd disttnetly bear tbe 
balls whistling by their ears, Mr Fortescne very hu- 
manely took upon him tbe direction of the women and 
cbddres, whom be placed as far as be could from the 
wiodoiis, and made tkem renniin' prostrate on tbe car- 
pets till th^ busiuesis wa8<]uite over. He himself could 
f)ot i^efmin from taking 'bis stand at a window of the 


library looking ^eawnrd, which, with the other win- 
^ws of Hint room, he had barricaded with beds, 
•leavini^ room to peep over them. A malicious rascal 
tn the sea-^grove observed his position, and calling to 
a woman in the road to stand out of his way till he 
ahonld ^ do for that tall fellow,* he discharged the 
contents of a carabine full at the window, with snch 
effect, that twelve slusrs made as many holes in passing 
through the glass* The bed saved the lives of Mr 
Fortescuc and Henry Stock, the bishop's son, who was 
atanding behind ; hut two of the sings were lodged in 
Mr Fortescne's forehead, providentially without pene- 
trating the bone, or hurting bim materially, though 
one slug was not extracted till a con^derable time 
afterward* when be reached Dobliu* 

•*♦ The bishop saw the action from behind the breast 
of a chimney, where be could only be reached by an 
oblique shot. Curiosity » and the interest we all felt 
in the event, prompted every man in the house to ex- 
pose his person by creeping to the windows. Oar 
French officers thought it their duty to lead the rebels, 
aa many as they could bring forward to the onset, 
though they were sure it was in vain, and had avowed 
to us their determination to surrender to the very supe- 
rjor force that was coming against- them* 

" We kept our eyes on the rebels, who seemed to 
be posted with so much advantage behind the stone 
walls that lined the road. They levelled their pieces, 
fired very deliberately from each'side onthe advancing 


enemy, yet (strange to teU!)ivere able only to kill 
one man, a corporal, and wound one common soldier* 
Their shot, in general, went over the heads of their" 
opponents, A regiment of Highlanders (Eraser's fen- 
cibles) filed off to right and left, to flank the fustleers 
behind the hedges and walls ; they had marshy ground' 
on the left to surmount before they coiild cotne upon' 
their object, which 'occasioned some delay, but at 
length they reached them, and made sad havoc among 
them. Then followed the QueenVcounty militia and 
the Downshire, winch last regiment had u great shi^re 
itt the honour of the day* 

** After a resistance of about twenty minutes, the 
rebels began 4o fly in all directions, and were pursued 
by the Roxburgh cavalry into the town in full cry. 
This was not agreeable to military practice, according 
to which it is usual to commit the assault of a town to 
the infantry ; but here the general wisely reversed the 
mode, in order to prevent the rebels, by a rapid pur- 
suit, from taking shelter in the houses of the towns- 
folk, a circumstance which was likely to provoke in- 
disKrriminate slaughter and pillage; It happened that 
the measure was attended with the desired success* 
A i^reat number was cut down in the streets, and of 
the remainder but a few were able to escape into the 
houses, being either pushed through the town till they 
fell irh with the Kerry militia from Crosmaltna, or 
obliged to take to the shore, where it winds round a 
promontory forming one of the horns of the bay of 
VuL. II. Aa 


KiUalia. And Kere too the fagHivfs were swept away 
hy tmnn^t ftcaon^^Wmg placed cm the opposite ^side 
of tke hay, which did ^ent eKe^Btiea. 

. *<S4Maie»^.the .defeated rebela, however^ did force 
tjieir w«y wto bouses and by couseqaeoce brought 
miacbief upoa the inaocent iDbabitaDts, withotut bene- 
fit to -th^aftselves. The firet house, after passiiag the 
^tfifaiop^*8» is that of Mr William KirkwfM>d, . the magi- 
ebrateso often meatioiied, It« situatioa -exposed it on 
thtt peculiar danger, as it fronts the maia 
y street, which was raked entirely by a line of fire* A 
flying rebel had burst through the door, followed by 
si:Cpr 8^Ten foldiers; they poured a voHey of Jzias- 
quetry- after hioa, that proved fatal to Mr Andrew 
Kirkwood» a; roost loyal and respectable citizen, iwhile 
he was r^oieing ut fche victory, and 4» the very act of 
shouting out, < God save the king/ Presentiments, 
as^they are called, of evil should be resisted, for they 
often work their own accoaipHdiroent. This poor 
man, though- nobody wished more ardently than he 
did to see the town recovered from the rebels, had 
taken op aistrong persuasion that he should not out- 
live that ewent. Gf course, be grew more restless 
every hour^ in proportion as the time ^the conflict 
drew nigh, ^ The whole of the evening before, he con^ 
tinoed to importune bis wife with directions how he 
would have his family ooucerns disposed.; and when 
the firing began^. he couTd not contain himself in his 
own house, where. he had the best chance of remaining 
safe, and where those who staid received no hurtj but 


fetnoi^ed to the very ioflecnre d^eiHo^ of his kinsman ! 
here be met hts fate in the manner' related, by u foftll 
through the bhild. A p^i;se of gaineas, mWich, with 
^e ioconsasteiMiy <i€ a 4>^tra«ted nkind) he had cftowed 
into his pocket, though he expected detfth, disHp- 
peared» while they were moTvngf his body ftotn - the 
passage into the kitchen** 

** In spite of the exertions of the general and Ms 
officers, the town exhibited' aliaioet ail the nMtrke'^a 
place taken by storm. Some honses were perforated 
liken riddle, most of them had^their doers aixt win^^ 
dows d^st^oyied^ the trembling inhabitants scarcely 
eicnp^rt^ with Hfe by lymg plro^ate V>h thcfloot* as at 
the castle; Nor was it till the close frf^ the' wext da^,- 
that our ears were relieved from the fc6rri(§'scJnhd*of 
muskets discharged every mfinnte at f!yh)g and po#fiw 
liess rebels. The plague of war so oft^n* visits the 
world, that we are apt to listen to any description oT^ 
it with the indifference of satiety; it is acttaal inspec-^ 
tion only, that shews the monster'in its proper defor<» 

«« When the army was begintfing tb move fi^om Cros* 
malina, they passed by a wounded- man lying at' the 
road side, bleeding to death by a dreadful cut across 
the face, and to appearance expiring. Not a few 
6topt to look at him, and remarked that it would be 
an act of charity to put him out of his pain by dis- 
patching him ; but nobody had the heart to do it. 
Af^er all had passed him, Arthur Stock,' the bishopV 
Aa 2 


800, who bronglit up the rear, looking back saw the 
poor creature lift op his hands iu a despairing tnannef, 
as if he cowplaiued of them for not terminating his 
miaery. Familiarity with scenes of this kind blunts 
and overcomes the instincts of our nature ; and it h 
necessary for the cotnmon safety, that in some breasts 
they should be overcome. But it would be well if the 
thoughtless multitude, who are so ready to rush into 
civil war, could have^an insight from time to timu 
into its sanguinary eiEet;ts« 

*' What heart can forget the impression it lias re- 
ceived from die glance of a fellow-creature pleading 
for his lifci -with a crowd of bayonets at his breast ? 
The eye of Demosthenes never emitted so penetrating; 
a beam, in bis most enraptured flight of oratory. Such 
a man was dragged before the bishop on the day after 
the battle, while the hand of slaughter was etill iu 
pursuit of unresisting peasant^ through the town. In 
the agonies of terror, the prisoner thoui^lit to save his 
life by crying out, ' that he was known to the bishop.' 
Alas! the bishop knew him not; neither did he look 
like a good man. But the arms and the whole body of 
the person to whom he flew for protection were over 
him immediately. IMcmory suggested rapidly— 

* What s p'ece of worlunanship is man ! the bi^auty of the 
' world, the paragon of auihials !— ** * 

♦ Hamlet. 



^ ' And you are going to deface this admirable 
work.* , As indeed they did* For though the soldiers 
promised to let t)ie unfortunate man remain ia custody 
till he should have a trial; yet when they fotind he 
wad not known, they pulled him out of the court* 
yard, as soon as the bisbop*s back, was turned, and 
ahot.him at the gate. 

A.a 3 

C II A P. XX. 

As soon 09 matters had been brought to the decision 
of the sword, the friends of government had little 
cause to be apprehensive for themselves ; but their 
fears were justly awake for the condition in which they 
mii;^ t possibly find those of their own party at Kil- 
lalla^ * Is the bishop alive? are his family unhurt?' 
These were the first questions that were aaked by every 
officer as he came up to the castle g^ate, and with an 
earnestness that warmed the hearts of those that heard 
them. That amiable nobleman, the earl of Portar- 
lin^ton, colonel of the QueenVcounty militia (who 
has since paid, alas ! the forfeit of a most valuable life 
to exertions beyond his strength in suppressing the 
rebellion) when he was told the bishop was safe, ex- 
claimed with clasped hands, * God be praised !' and 
continued his pursuit of the rebels, so that the bishop 
never had the opportunity of thanking his lordship 
for his kindness to one almost a stranger to him. In 
the troop of horse that swept the rebels before, them 
into the town, was Arthur Stock, armed only with a 


3abre« and in an old red jacket quite too large for 
him. The humanity of general Trench had provided 
this mode of conveying him to us £jx>m Custlebar^ as 
the safest he could contrive for him.. With a breathe 
less impatience the poor: youth threw himself from his 
horse at the gate to ask the qiiestion that Joseph puts 
to his brethren. Doth my father yet live ? It was a 
tender scene ;, for every body was, eager to press to his 
bosom an adventurer of. six teen^ years, who had suifer* 
ed so much hardship^. He had been in the action at 
Ca^tlebar, where the pike-men. under O'Keon were 
put to the ri>ut; and he had passed the last night 
iiader so heavy a. rain, that he. was compelled after 
some time to tak^; off all his clothes, and make his 
bed of wet straw on the floor of a cabin. A slight dis-* 
order was. the consequence^ -which bappilji' soon wenl 

y Charost expressed as much joy at seeing Arthn» 
safe, ^9 if he had himself been one .of the tuinily. Yet 
the poor commandant had no reason to be pleased at 
the treatment he had received immediately after the 
action. He had returned to the castle for his sabre» 
and advanced with, it to the gatt^,. in order to deliver 
it up to some English officer, when it was seized and 
forced from his hand by a com mop. soldier of Pjrazer's. 
He came in, got another sword, which he surrendered 
to an officer, and turned to re-enter the halU At this 
moment a second Highlander burst through the gate« 
in spite of the centinel plactd there a) clit* ^eiural,i and 
fired at the commandant, with an aim that was near 


provinj'' fatal ; for the ball passed under his arm, pierc-- 
ing a very thick door entrrely through, aod lodging iftj 
the jamb. Had we lost the worthy man by such an ac- 
cident, hi« dt»ath would hare spoiled the whole relish - 
of our present enjoyment. He complained, and re- 
ceived an apology for the soldier's behaviour from hrs^ 
officer. Leave was immediately granted to the Ffench* 
officers to keep their ftwords^ th^it effects, abd erea 
fhi ir bed-chamber in the house. But the bishop found 
a difficulty to obtain tlie same indulgence for O'Keon;. 
^hose plea that he «- as a naturalized Frenchnnan, wa^ 
j>retty generally disregai^ded, aiKl himself con^dered 
as an Irish rebel, fo be- speedily brought before a court- 
martial. However, at l^st tbey Were allowed to be 
Ifrept together,* incfuding tKeii^ cannoneer, aud a little. 
Ifreiicb servant of O'Kecto's^.till the Mlowtngday... 

" General Trencb was received by the bishop • and' 
His family^ in th^ iobby, with a welcome, otthe^in- 
eerftyof >«hieh tiiere coaUi be vefy Utile doubt, fie 
expressed, in very poi4te ttinns, his sat^taiclioo at th^ 
deliverance of this family from so great a perit as had 
kun^over us for the last month ; adding, thai he had 
not failed to use every exeftioti to come to our relief^, 
from the moment that 6ur embaaisy bad .folly apprised 
him of our distressful situation. He then prteeated tO< 
the bishop his^jrincipu^ officers,^. with «6iue ot- whom he 
was previcusi} well acquainted, partivukirly his much 
valued college intimate,., the earl ol Giandore. Lien^ 
tenan1«colonet Crosbie, majot Fitzgerald (coiumonly 
called the knight of Kert^;} major Trench, brother t<»^ 


the general' .his nephew and aiJe-de'-camp, major 
Taylor ; major Achesoo, son to Lord Gosford» co- 
lonel Eraser, major McDonald, captain Harrison, the 
conamissary, colouelJackson, and some officers of the 
county militia, as Mr Orniesby, Mr Orme, and 
others, paid their compliments of congratulationi and 
wer« accommodated by the bishop in tKe best manner 
he was able. Bed and board was provided for five 
resident officers, and occasionally every day far some 

^* The commandant and his party were ordered away 
on Tuesday, to Castlebar, with the Kerry regiment. 
Horses were fixund, not.without difficulty, to convey 
their persons : the bulk of their etffects was forwarded 
to the^, on their, arrival in Dublin,, by the bishojv 
We parted, not without tears,, with our friends and 
protectors. The good-natured reader will doubtless 
share in the pleasure, with which w.c record the rioticu 
that was taken every where of our French officers, fo» 
the part they had acted atKillaUa. Our government 
was pleased to forward them presently to London,, 
giving them wliat money they wanted, for their draft 
on the commissary of prisoners, Niou ; so that, passr 
ing but two or three days in Dublio» they could dine 
but twice with the bibhop's counectLonJ>, my lordPri? 
male making them partake of his hospitality one day,, 
and alderman Kirkpatrick another. From London,, 
the bishop had a letter from the committee for taking 
care of French prisoners, desiring to be informed ia 
wimt ipanner he, and his, had been treated by the 


French officers ; andi on the bishop'g report^ an order 
was obtained, that citizens Charost, Boudet, and 
PonaoDy should be set at Uberty, and sent home 
without exchange *.- They overtook thfeir general at 
Dover ; who was so sensible of the attention shewn to 
his officers) that he wrote to the bishop a letter, of 
whioh a trauslation appeared iiv the Dublin journaV 
and since, in th< narrative published by Jones. The 
original will be found in our appendix* 

•• The week that followed the battle was employed 
in coarts-martial in the morning, and in most crowded* 
dinners at the ea^t4e in the evening, awhole btiHock 
was con^'med in two^dayii, asihe bishop had' not less 
than forty peopVe tb feedi besides the officers* and 
the ]>rtnci(>als of his own houshold. Gene^l Trench 
did his best to help ' out the mess j sharing' his bread, 
and' fuel w»th us, and supplying us with beef when he 
could get it. Mr Dents Br^wtiej lord AltHmont's 
brother, sent the general at one time a whole, and 
*gain half a bu6k,- desiring,, in return, an iminediate 
remittance of three hundred men to drive away the re- 
bels- from Westpottt. Whether the party went, I did 
not hear ; the venismi de^served it. Our greatest want 
was W4iie and groceries. A large order was sent to 
Sligo by the commissary of stores ahd the^ bishop ; 

*' Niou, the Frci<cb commissary, refused on the part of bis 
gevcniuicut. to scccpt Qf this uiiuk of respect from our mU 
nistry. ^' 


bnt the dloop conld not sail for seme iime on accouiit 
of the equindctial storms* The officers made out their 
entertaintrient as they could, wi^ great patiente and 
oheerfulaess, being very agreeable men, and the ge- 
neral ei^tremely so. The French had made the bishop 
a present of «cven barrels of flour brought from their 
own country, which l>ad been 'Very good, but was a 
little heated in the voyage : tbis, made into wbiat is 
^called slim cakes served tolerably well for bread, as 
there was. neither bre^vmg. for some ttme, nor barni« 
The sloop did not arrive to oivr relief till after .the ge- * 
.neral was gone. 

•** If the people of Kiiyila were distessed to find ac- 
commodation for the multitude of oncers that now 
poured in upon them, they experienced yet greater in- 
convenience from the preditory habits of the soldiery. 
The regiments that came to their assistance, being all 
militia, seemed to think they hiKJ a right to take the 
property they had l^een the means of preservinjjf, and 
to use it as their own, whenever they stood in need of 
it. Their rapacity <ii^red in no other respect from 
that of the rebels, except that they seized upon things 
with somewhat less of ceremony or excuse, and that 
his majesty's, s^dievs were inconlparably superior to 
the Irish traitoM in dexterity at stealing. In conse- 
quence, the town very soon grew weary of their guests, 
and were glad to see then! marched off to other quar- 
ters. It is Imt justice to the regiment that has re- 
mained at KiDttUa ever since, the prince of Wale's fen* 
cibles, to ackttowledge, . that theJy have always bdiav- 


ed themselves with the ji^reatest propriety* under the 
orders of those two excellent officers^ lieutenant-co- 
lonel Macartney ainl major Winstauley. Let it be 
remembered also, to the honour of our excellent chief 
governor, that as soon as the country was reduced to 
quiet, marquis Cornwallis sent two commissioners to 
Killulla and its vicinity, for the express purpose of as- 
ccrtaitting the damacres done by the king^s troops, and 
that, in March following, all authenticated claims on 
that account were discharged in full by an order on the 
national bank. 

** The court-marshal began the day after the battle, 
and sat in the house of INIr Morrison. Their proceed- 
ings at first appeared extremely slow, considering the 
luultrtudes they had to try, not less than seventy-five 
prisoners at Killalla, and a hundred and ten at Ballina, 
besides those who might be brought in daily. The 
two tirst i^ert^ons tried at this, tribunal were general 
Bellew. and Mr Ricliard Bourke, who have been 
already introduced to the acquaintance of the reader. 
The latter after exerting his best endeavours to pro- 
long the contest with the king's troops, had imitated 
the craft sometimes observable in the fox ; he had slipt 
iu with the crowd of loyalists, and was found, with 
every appearance of a peaceable subject, sitting in the 
biathop's lobby, and chatting familiarly with different 
|ieople as they entered, till he was recognized and 
taken into custody by Mr Ormsby. The trial of these 
two criminals was short. They were found guilty on 
Monday evening, and banged the next morning in 


the park behind the castle. Contemptible for drunk- 
eoness and vulgar manners, they fell without exciting 
a-sentiuiient of compassion. 

** Roger Macguire, our late ambassador to Castle- 
bar, occasionied considerable delay. It was urged in 
his favour, particularly by deanThorapsom, that in 
their late journey he had often heard him speak to the 
people in favour of pacific measures, and of lenity to 
the Protestants. On the other hand, general Trench 
«ind his officers could not readily forget the insolent 
behaviour of this young fellow at Castlebar, under 
which assumed carriage lie strove to conceal his appre-» 
hension of danger, when he was so grievously (and 
indeed so inconsiderately) threatened by Mr Denis 
Browne and others, on his entering the towD> as we 
have already observed. After a long imprisonment at 
Kill alia, Macguire was transmitted to Castlebar, 
where at last be received sentence to be transported to 
Botany-bay. His father, the brewer, was hanged: 
his brothers, more active in treason and mischief than 
himself, have not yet been taken. 

*« Broken weather increased the difficulty of keeping 
a force together in such a place as Killalla, their 
tents affording a poor shelter against the rain and 
storms of this season of the j'ear. General Trench 
therefore made haste to clear the wild districts of the 
Laggan and Erris by pushing detachments into each, 
who were able to. do little more than to burn a num- 
ber of cabins; for the people had too many hiding 
\ou II. B b 


places to be easily ovettalcen. Eqqu^Ii however was 
effected to impress upon the minds of the aufferers a 
conviction, that joining with the enemies of, their 
country against their' lawful sovereign was not a mat- 
ter of so little kooment as they had ignorant! y imagin- 
ed ; and probably the memory of what they now en- 
dured will not be eHaced for years. There ^re those» 
however, who think duOferently ; who say these moun- 
taineers will be always ripe for insurrection, and who 
urge in proof the mischief they have done very lately 
by robbery and houghing of cattle. Yet surely our 
common nature will incline us to make some conces- 
sion to the feelings of men driven, thou2^h by their 
own fault, from their farms and from their dwellings, 
wretched dwellings to be sore, but to them — (that 
poor fellow's lesson to the bishop* is worth remem- 
bring!) certainly as valuable a^ to the gi*andee his 
palace. Let a man look round from the summit of one 
of those mountains that guard our islands against the 
incursion** of the Atlantic, and say what he should 
think of passing a^ winter among them without the 
covering of a hut. 

" The disposal of the powder left at the castle by 
the French, was one of the first things that occupied 
the attention of general Trench ; especially after the 
accident, mentioned above, had jnade every body sen- 
sible of the necessity of speedily removing it. He 

♦ Pa|;e9]9. 


wrote that v^ry clay to governtneiit, and desired to 
have the lord lieutenat^t's commandis resjjecting it; 
yd the carriages did not arrive for tmnsportitlg it to 
Athlone till the fifth of October, probably from the 
difficulty of prot^uring the meaiis of c6Qveyai(ice at that 
.iseasOD. The bishop was» heartily glad to l>e rid of this 
deposit, if that might be so natned, which was placed 
in his hands against his will and consentr The French, 
.as the readeir will see by the annexed afllidaVit of cap- 
tain Bull, took it into their heads to be angry with the 
bishop for betraying their powder to the king-s officer ; 
as if he owed (hem allegiance, or was responsible to 
•tii^m for a trnst he had liot nildertakeiiv add which he 
wo^id have rejected with abhorrence. AH the shai^ 
'h^ had in saving thris powder for his majesty^s use, 
cfonsnted in suggesting to the French commandant the 
real and absolute iihpossibility of throwing it into the 
•aea»in the^presenceof |ivop}e who waited eagerly an4 
xrontinually to seize it for their own destructive pur- 
poses* The powder, though coarse, was said, to be 
good enough for use : the whole, at one shilling the 
poiibd, must have been worth upwanda of thirteen 
hundred pounds sterliiig.. 

*^ Oft the ^th, art addresd was presented to geneml 
Trench from the barony of T^yrawley, thinking him 
and his army Ibr the good service of Sunday fast, to 
which a polite answer was presently returned by tlie 
gbnerah They have apiieared in the public {iHnts; 

** The opportunity of an escort to Gastlebar, carried 
, Bb 2 


away from us this day our worthy fftieads^ the Tbomp- 
6ons, with their three boys and a gi^l ; a (amily whose 
real value we sho«ld hardly have koown but for our 
captivity* Mr Fortescue embraced the same opppor- 
tttoity. Aud the succeeding day» by the departure 
of general French with the Kerry officers to Caftttebar^ 
the town of Killalla was left to the defence of the 
prince of Wales's lencibles. The detachment that had 
been sent into Erris on the thirtieth o£ Septecnber^ 
returned the seventh of the following roonth> after 
suffering and iofiictiug a good deal of misery,. 

'< As the storm of war seemed now to have spent its 
force, the bishop began to try what he could do la 
order to vender bis situation at Kiilaita easy at least,^ 
if be eould not restore the comfortable posture ia 
which the invasion, foood biro. His greatest inconve- 
nience was» that it was out of his power, as matters 
stood, to return to the exclusive use of his own house. 
Theguard^ which was relieved every day, h&ng sta?- 
lioned in one of the oiices at the castle, it became a 
duty of common politeness to offer a bed to the officer 
that commanded the guard.. The same compliment 
could hardly be refused to another offir^er of the regi- 
ment, who coming later than the rest to KiUa41a» 
could not possibly find a lodging in. the town. And 
these two officers naturally grew to bo messmates in 
the family, the bishop wishiug by every means in his 
power to shew his sense of the protection afforded to 
the town by his majesty's army. But -the labour and 
weariness of living thus in a manner in public, and for 


a constancy^ nday be easily conceiTed, at least it need 
Dot be described to any idbd that is fond of retirement 
and study. The messing indeed was laid aside, from 
the moment the gentlemen were aware of the bishop's 
inability to bear the annoyance of continual public 
dinners ; but the bedchambers could not be refused ; 
a circumstance which precluded the exercise of hospi- 
tality towa^s the bishop's friends or his clergy, his. 
owa foraiiy being so numerous. Neither was it by any 
means clear to the people of Killalla, if they'set them- 
selves to repair the damages they had sustained by the 
war« that they would be able to enjoy the fruits of 
their laboun. The winter was coming on ; a multi- 
tude of rebela were scattered through the mountains^ 
likely to be rendered desperate by want ; and perhaps, 
too the French might find means to effect another and 
a more powerful invasion in the same place where they 
bad landed beiore^ 

" These reasons were often urged to the huhtyp by 
his friends in the capital, to induce him to remove 
with his family thither without delay; but he had 
fixed bis resolution to remaia where he* was for that 
wiuter* After the losses he had sustained, his circnow 
stances stood in the way of an expensive joorney to 
DubJin; and il'that had not. been the case^ he found 
by many trials, that his presence was likely to be ase« 
fol to his country neighbours^ either in assisting to 
obtain compensation for them, or clearing them from< 
ilUfounded charges of disaffection. From the rebels, 
iin the mjountaina he a{>pceheaded na danger^ as VMig^ 


as ilve ttiiiitary were left to protect the towa ; and s» 
to another attempt fr»m tbe French hi the very same 
qudrter, and on the verge of winter^ il* wa^ an event 
too far removed from probability to be a r*i»olaable 
ground lor retreating* 

'< But eK|ierienee qviickly^ proved^ that Whut is not 
probable may nevertheless be very tru^, Oli th* moro- 
i«8: of the 27th of October, 179^, three of the ^rae 
frigates which had brought over Humbert's army in 
August, in company with a fourth, carrying all to- 
gether 2000 land forces, anchored in th6 bay of KHUiilla, 
pi'ecisely in the spot where they had madie gbdd their 
first hindiDg^ They formed a part of tbe armament, 
which, so happily fVr Ii^l^ftud and the Svitt^h empire, 
wasidestroy^ by the gloYi6t;is action off Rutland ud- 
^er the ^usfpiceg of Sir John B. Wanieri. Th^ alarm 
was taken, the moment these ships ap^^ared ; for our 
late 6ulferings had taught us what might be expected 
fi^n^i vessels <5f that stis^e. Two i^cei^ of the prince of 
Wales's, captain Bull dnd lieUt^ilUht LeurVy, were 
sent at different ttmes by mffjor Wiiistinlt^y, to inquire 
what they were, and if friends, tO^ deliver dispatches 
which had just come dbwn to him frOm the capital.. 
A party under the orders of captain Frazer went <o 
take th^ir station behind Kileumnliu . bcmd, under 
which the ships were moored, about a le&gue froii) 
Killalla^, to watch and make reports*. 

•* The officers not returning in the time expected, 


tlie p»Dic l^ec^m^ uolversa). Every male i Dhabi taut in 
the pU(;e crow4ed te St^eple-hjill^ anxiously looking 
out t# tJi^e ship^ and fqrp^yf^g coDJ,ectures« An old 
sailor, who ha4 often 9eep the like, pr.ongu^iced theoi 
td be Fr/ei^h % ^ejir wbi^te s^}«, and by tl^eir seem- 
ing to stand out oF tl>e water more than ours. Ac 
lengjth a yeomaji^ horseman appeared oq the opposite 
hill, cpming down in full gaUop. To the spectators 
his out*s;tretcbed arms told the b^d newQ even before 
his wprjda : ' Captaio Frazer bad bid him say to the 
' major, th^e ships were certainly Freqch, and the 
* enemy was landing/ It was dii^covered, after the 
fright wa^ p^sed, that this pestilent fellow hafl truly 
reported 9Qly half his'message : fof he wa^ charged to 
eay, * the en.emy was not yet landed.* But either his 
wits were unsettled by terror, or he was carried avvay 
by the passion men feel for relating marveUous news* 
let it be jever so hflrrihie. 

" In half an hour, the toyjrn pf Killalla had scarcely 
an inhabitaat left, except the military. The occasion 
was so instant, that every body was in motion before 
they had time to reflect how they should go, -or whe- 
ther they plight to go at all : for the weather was cold 
lod stormy, the road to the next town (BalUua) deep 
nud, especially near Killalla, and the last invasioii 
iftd left to VCTy few any other means of conveyance 
mt their feet. Ou foot the bishop set out at the head 
)f his whole household, except twp sous who staid to 
Meserye. their father's property as long as they could. 
r>vo h%t}^ daughters by his sijde waded through the 


dirt. The other children got upon cars, with their 
mother and aunt, invalids, that had not been expos- 
ed to the air for the last two months; and one of them, 
Mrs Stock, liable on any cold to a sudden attack of 
the gout in her stomach, which had more than once 
thi^atened her existence. While they were on the 
road, gusts of wind, and at last a heavy shower of 
bail, unfortunately fell on them. All seemed to the 
bishop to be now over. He must expect to lose the 
mother of such a family, the companion with whom he 
had passed twenty years of hislife in the sunshine ab- 
solutely uninterrupted by one transient clond. He 
«,w it. almost without a reflection. There is a pause 
of mind on the apprehended explosion of some enor- 
mous mischief, resembling the stillness that fills the 
horizon before a thunder clap. At intervals-when 
thought returned-what he was able to do he d.d. 
He raised hi* eyes, and adored in silence the uplifted 
hand of the Almighty. That hand, as he had soon 
the happiness to experience, was lifted, not to destroy, 
but to save. 

.« The procession reached Ballina about six in the 
evening, after a march of two hours, in the course of 
which they passed the Armagh militia, hastemngto 
KiUalla to join the prince of Wales's. And here the 
bishop and his family were much indebted to the ho- 
spitality of brigade-major Cunningham and hislady. 
that they did not suffer more by so unseasonable a 
flight. The house in which the major resided was co- 
lonel King's, in happier times one of the best and most 


comfortable dwellings in the whole country ; but it 
had suffered so much damage in the rebellion, when 
it was occupied by True, that it was now no easy mat^ 
ter to find a warm seat in it, scarcely a window being 
without one or more broken panes of glass, and a fu- 
rious wind pervading the whole house. However, the 
entire groupe of fugitives had got into bed, when at 
midnight an express came to the major from Killalla, 
with iDtelligence, which that good-natured officer 
thought his guests would be glad to hear immediately, 
though they were awaked out of their sleep for it. 
Major Winstanley had sent word, that the French 
frigates had suddenly slipt their cables, and withdrawn 
from our bay,. 

•* The two officers that were carried off by this squa- 
dron to France, messrs. Bull and Leurry, found their 
way back again to their regiment near four months af- 
terwards. From their report it appears, that a cutter 
they had on the watch having apprised the enemy that 
an English squadron was heaving in sights for which 
they were conscious they were not a match, they made 
off to sea, with so much precipitation, that the largest 
frigate cut her cable, leaving an anchor behind her, 
which is thought to be very well worth the weighing 
up. The squadron was close pursued by two line of 
battle ships, the Caesar and the Tremendous (as report 
said) even to the distance of ninety leagues, and had 
for a considerable time very little hope of an escape, 
though they at last effected it by throwing every thing 
they could spare overboard, and thus outsailipg 
Vol. IL C c 

3^0 R£B£bLlON IN IRiqiLAND^ 

ships tbat were crii)p]ed iu the late action with the 
Hoche apd others^ 

" Next day with joyful hearts al| the inhabitants of 
Killal la returned home, where no n^i^chief. had hap« 
pened during their shon ab^eqf^e. By. the go«d pro- 
^ vidence of GckI the ladies of the bishop's family, escap- 
ed the dangjej to, tl^eir health, of which they had so 
much reason to be apprehensive ; nor did any of the 
children take colcjj except one littje girl, that walked, 
who had a low fever in consequence^, which. did. not 
quit he^ foir tl^ree weeks. 

** After this alarm, there was no resisting the im- 
portunity of the bishop's friends, recalling him to 
Dublin. To stay longer in a post of so niuch danger 
was generally prono.unced to be a tempting of Provi- 
dence* Their arguments would have carried irresisti- 
ble weight (had a further weight been necessary,) if 
the bishop or his friends had ^hen been in. possession of 
the intelligence, which they have since received from 
captain Bull, whose testimony is here laid before the 

** Captain Joseph Bull, of the prince of Wales's 
fencible infantry, who was taken prisoner by the 
fleet in Kiilalla bay, being sent out with dispatches 
by order of the commanding^ officer, maketh oath and 
•aith : 


** That on his being taken. on board, and during his- 
voyage to France in La Concorde French frigate, he 
was often told by ipost of the officers on board, both 
naval and military, that had they landed their troops 
when they appeared in the bay of Killalla on the 27th 
of October, they had the most positive orders to send 
the bishop of Killalla aod his faq^ily immediately prl* 
sonexs to France* 

" That on his (captain Ball's) asking, them therea- 
son of this step,, their answer was, that the bibhop. had 
betrayed to the King's troops, and had likewise deli- 
vered up the ammunition that was brought in by the 
French during the time they were in possession of the 
townof Killalla* 

" Captain Bull further say^, he took every step that 
he thought was likely to prove this report entirely 
groundless, but is sorry to saj,. without effect. Aod 
says, that had they met. with any opposition in land- 
ing, their determinatioa was, , to lay the, town in 

** Sworn befpr^ me at KiUaJla,. March. 1, 1799* 

William. KiiuDwoeD^i'* 

Joseph BtaU; captftin of* 

tlM' prince of Wales^s 

fmciblA. regiment. 

Id the course of this unfortunate and ill-conducted 
rebellious among a nuipber of chiefs .and inferior insur- 


gents who were tried and executed, " particular no*- 
tice and particular compassion are due to two men, 
who. Irishmen by birth, had been in the military ser* 
vice of France before the invasion, had come to Ire- 
land in the French fleet, and had, as well as the best 
of the French officers, used the most active exertions 
to save the lives and properties of loyalists. These 
were Bartholomew Teeling and Matthew Tone, whose 
generous humanity, made evident on their trials,, and 
steady fortitude under sentence and execution, coiB'- 
niand our pity, and for their personal qualities our 
esteem. They were tried in Dublin barrack, and 
executed— the former on the twenty-fourth of Sep- 
tember, the latter a few days after*. 

•* The little army of Humbert had been intended 
only to be a vanguard of a much more formidable 
ibrce, which was in a short time to follow. Providen- 
tially for the safety of the British empire, the French 
administrators were as tardy in seconding the opera- 
tions of Humbert, as they had been in seconding those 
of the southern rebels of Ireland. The want of money 
is assigned as the cause of delay in the equipment of 
the second fleet, andinthe interim, before its appear- 
ance on the Irish coast, a brig from France arrived at 
the little island of Rutland, near the north-west coast 
of Donegal, on the sixteenth of Se(>tember, and land- 
ed its crew ; among whom was the celebrated James 
Napper Tandy, now bearing the title of general of 
brigade in the French service. Informed of the sur- 
render of Humbert's troops, and unable to excite an 


insurrection by their manifestoes in that quarter, they 
re-em barlkeds and abandoned the shores of Ireland* 
Tandy was afterwaitls arrested nt Hamburgh by soma. 
British agents. In this action the dignity of a neutral 
^tate vm» contemptuously violated, and the influences 
of the emperor of Russia was solicited and obtained 
to intimidate the Ham burghers into an acquiescence 
in this violatiooy which exposed them at the same time 
to the resentment of the French government. So . 
mig^hty a fuss about such an object, suGh;a mountain 
in labour, confirmed many in an opinion of a puerile 
weakness in the British ministers. Tandy was tfied at 
Lifford, at the spring assizes for 1801, aud pleading 
guilty, received his majesty's pardon on condition of 
•emigration^ in consequence of which he emigrated to 
France, where he died. 

** On board one of the French ships, captured by 
admiral Warren, was found Theobald Wolfe Tone^ 
a celebrated lawyer, and , brother to Matthew Tone, 
already mentioned, whose activit/* and talents had 
contributed to give life to a formidable conspiracy, 
which received a deadly wound by the miscarriage of 
the French armament, and which can hardly be said 
to have survived his fate. Tritd by a court-martial in 
the capital, he rested bis defence on bin being a deni« 
zen of France, an officer in the service of that coun« 
try, and pretended not to deny the charge against 
him, nor even to excuse his political conduct. Found 
guilty, he requested the, indulgence of being shot 
as a soldier, instead of being ignoniiuioosly hanged 
Vol. II. Dd 


«• a lelon ; and, on the refasal of this request, cut 
his own throat in the prison. The operation being in- 
completely performed, hopes were entertained of bis 
KGOvery; and on the next morning John Philpot 
Curran, esq. the lamous barrister, made a motion in 
die court of kind's bench for a writ of habeas corpus 
in bis &ronr, upon the ground that ** courts^martial 
have no jnrisdifTtioo over subjects not in military ser* 
▼ice while the court of king^'s bench is sitting.*' After 
a fuU discussion of the subject, the plea was admit- 
ted ; but from the condition of Tone, his removal 
ftom prison, according to the writ, was deemed un- 
safe, and he shortly after died from the self^nflicted 

♦• With the redaction of the ravaging bands in the 
mountains of Wicklow, under Holt and Hacket, the 
last professed champioas in arms of the united con- 
spiracy, and with the death of Tone, its chief onginal 
projector, ended a rebellion, of which the deep and 
artful scheme demonstrated the ability, but the imme- 
diate consequences, the ignorance of its authors with 
respect to the instruments which they were obliged to 

** The evil consequences of this rebellion were, not- 
withstanding the small extent and d oration of armed 
opposition to government, too many to be distinctly 
particularized. To the general mass of evils, ofsome 
of which a faint idea may be formed from the ibre- 
g^ing pages» a corruption of morals in. the disturbed 


parts made a lamentable addition. To dwell on the 
sad propensity to extortion, cheating, pilfering, and 
robbing, acquired or encouraged by a temporary dis* 
solution of civil government ; on the practice of per«» 
jury and bribery in the accnsation^and defence of real 
or supposed criminals ; and of perjury in cldms of 
losses, even by persons who might well be supposed 
superior to such meanness, laying aside religious con- 
siderations, would be attended with more pain than 
utility. Even dissipation, which might reasonably be 
expected to bt checked by the calamities attendant on 
this cruel commotion, seemed to revive with aug- 
mented force on the subsiding of the insurrection. 
Collected in towns, in the following winter, many of 
the lower sort of loyalists spent the days in drunken- 
ness, and their superiors the nights in late suppers 
and riotous conviviality. One * good consequence, 
however, of their assembling in towns was the promo- 
tion of matrimony. Young people of the two seaies 
being brought together, who might otherwise have 
remained unacquainted with one another, an extraor- 
dinary number of marriages took place, as if Provi- 
dence intended thus to repair the waste of ciril war.'* 
Dd 2 


No. !• — ^VoL. I. p. 222. 

Constitution of the Society of limited Irishmen of the 
city of Duhliny as first agreed upon. 

The society is constituted for the purpose of for« 
warding a brotherhood of affection, an identity of in- 
terestsy a communion of rights, and an union of power^ 
among Irishmen of ail religious persuasions, and there- 
by obtaining an impartial and adequate representatioa 
of the nation in parliament. 

The members of this society are either ordinary or 

Such persons only are eligible as honorary members, 
who have distinguished themselves by promoting the 
liberties of mankind, and are not inhabitants of Ire* 

ETcry candidate for admission into the society, whe- 
tber as an ordinary or honorary member, shall be pro- 
posed by two ordinary members, who shall sign a cer* 
tificate of his being, from their knowledge of bliOy « 


fit penoD to "be admitted, that he has seen the test^ 
i^d is williog to take it. This certificate, delivered 
to the secretary, shall be read from the chair, at the 
ensuing meeting of the society ; and on the next sub- 
sequent night of meetiag the society shall proceed ta 
the election. The names and additions of the candi^v 
date, with the names of those by whom he has been. 
proposed, shall be inserted in the sammons for the 
night of election. The election shall be conducted by 
ballot, and if one-fifth of the pumber of beans be 
black, the candidate «tand8 rejected. The election, 
with re8|>ect to an ordinary member, shall be void, if 
be does not attend within four meetings afterwards, un- 
less he can plead some reasonable excuse for his ab-^ 

Every person elected a member of the society, whe-^ 
ther honorary or ordinary,, shall, previous to his ad-^ 
mi 881011, take and subscribe the following test :-—«Sf« 
VoL I. p. 234. 

A member of another society of United Irishmen 
^eing introduced to the president by a member of this 
society, shall, upon producing a certificate signed by 
the secretary, and sealed with the seal of the society 
to which he belongs, and taking the before-^nentioned 
test, be ihereupott admitted to attend the sittings of 
this society. 

The oiBcers of the society shall consist of a presi- 
dent, treasurer, and secretary, who shall be severally 


elected three mcmthsi vid^Hcii, on every first night of 
meeting in the months df November, February, M'ay^ 
and Augnst ; the election to be determined by each 
member present writing on a piece of paper the names 
of the object of his choice, and putting it into a box. ^ 
The majority of vc^es shall decide ; if the votes are 
equal,, the president shall have a casting voice.. No 
person shall be capable of being re-elected to any office 
for the quarter next succeeding the determination of 
his office.. In case o£^ an occasional vacancy in any 
office by death or otherwise,, the society shall, on the 
next night of meeting, elect a person to the same for 
the remainder of the quarter.. 

The society shall meet on every second Friday night>, 
or oftener if necessary^ The chair shall be taken at 
eight o'clock, from twenty-ninth September to twenty* 
Bfth March; and at nine o'clock, frpm twenty- tiftb 
March to twenty*ninth September^ Fifteen members- 
shall form a quorum ; no new basiness shall lie inlro*^ 
duced after ten o'clock.. 

Every respect and deference shall be paid to the pre-^ 
sid«nt;^ his chair shall be raised three steps above the 
seats of the members ; the treasiurer and secretary shall 
have seats under him, two steps above the seats of the 
members. On his rising from his cbair, and taking 
off his hat, there must be silence, and the members be 
seated ; he shall be judge of order and propriety, be 
impowered to direct an apology> and to fine refractory 
members in any sum not exceeding one crown ; if the 


member refuse to pay the fine, or make the apology, 
be 18 thereupon expelled from the aocietf* 

There sball be a committee of constitution, of 
finance, of correspondence, and of accommodatioo. 
The committee of constitution shall consist of nine 
members, that of finance of seven members, that of 
correspondence of five members : each committee shall, 
independent of occasional reports, make general re- 
ports on every quarterly meeting. The treasurer shall 
be under the direction of the committee of finance, 
and the secretary under the direction of the committee 
of correspondence ; the election for committees shall 
be on every quarterly meeting, and decided by the 
majority of votes. 

In order to defray the necessary ^ipences, and 
establish a fund for the use of the society, each ordi- 
nary member shall on his election pay to the treasurer, 
by those who proposed him, one guinea admission fee; 
and also one guinea annually, by half-yearly pay- 
ments, on every first night of meeting in November 
and May; the first payment thereof to be on the first 
night of meeting in November, 1799* On every qoar^ 
terly meeting following, the names of the defaulters, 
as they appear in the treasury-book, shall be read 
from the chair. If any member, after the second 
reading, neglecjt to pay his subscription, he shall be 
excluded the society, unless be can shew some reason- 
able excuse for his default. 


The secretary shall be furnished with the following 
seal, videlicit, a harp ; at the top, " / am new stttrng ;"" 
at the bottom, " / will be heard;^' and on the ex- 
ergue, *' Society of United Irishmen of Dublin,** 

No motion for an alteration of, or addition to, the 
constitution shall be made but at the quarterly meet- 
ings, and notice of such motion shall be given four- 
teen days previous to those meetings. If upon such 
motion the society shall see ground for the proposed 
alteration or addition, the same shall be referred to 
the proper committee, with instructions to report on 
the next Aigbt of meeting their opinion thereupon ;: 
and upon suoh report the question shall be decidedly 
the society. 

No. II. 


Friday, 90th of December, 1791b 
Society of United Irishmen of Dublin. — The Hom. ' . 
Simon Butler in the chair* 

Resolved unanimously. 
That the following circular letter, reported by our 
committee of correspondence, be adopted and printed : 

This letter is addressed to you from the correspond- 


iogconnmitteeoftlie Society of United Irishmen of 

We aooeK the declaration of political principles 
which we have Bobscribedy and the test which we have 
taken, aa a social and sacred compact to bind us more 
closely together. 

The object of this institation is to make an united 
society of the Irish nation ; to make all Irishmen citi- 
zens ; all citisens. Irishmen : nothing appearing to us 
more natural at all times, and at this crisis of Europe 
more seasonable, than that those who have common 
interests, and common enemies, who suffer common 
wrongs, and lay claim to common right, should know 
each other, and should act together. In our opinion, 
ignorance has been the demon of ditcord, which has 
•o long deprived Irishmen, not only of the blessings of 
well-regulated goverument, but even the common 
beoeits of civil society* Peace in this island has 
hitherto been a peace on the principles and with the 
consequences of civil war. For a century past there 
has indeed been tranquillity, but to most of our dear 
countrymen it has been the tranquillity of a dungeon; 
and if the land has lately prospered, it has been owing 
to the goodness of Providence, and the strong eflbrts 
of human nature, resisting and overcoming the malig* 
nant influence of a miserable administration* 

To resist this influence, which rules by discord and 
embroils by system, it is vain to act as individuals or 


as parties ; it becomes necessary by an union of minds, 
and a knowledge of each other, to will and act as a 
nation. To know each other is to know ourselves ; the 
weakness of one and the strength of many. Union, 
therefore, is power ; it is wisdom ; it must prove li* 

Oar design, therefore, in forming this society, is 
to give an example, which, when well followed, must 
collect the public will, and consecrate the public 
power into one solid mass, the effect of which, once 
put in motion, must be rapid, momentous, and con« 

In thus associating, we have thought little about 
our ancestors, much of our posterity. Are we for 
ever to walk like beasts of prey, over fields which these 
ancestors stained. with blood ? in looking back,- we 
see nothing on the one part but savage force succeeded 
by savage policy ; on the other, an unfortunate na- 
tion, " scattered and peeled, meted out and trodden 
down P' We see a mutual intolerance, and a common 
carnage of the first moral emotions of the heart, which 
lead us to esteem and place confidence in our fellow- 
creatures. We see this, and are silent : but we g^lad- 
ly look forward to brighter prospects, to a people 
united in the fellowship of freedom, to a parliament 
the express image of the people, to a prosperity esta- 
blished on civil, political, and religious liberty, to a 
peace, not the gloomy and precarious stillness of men 
brooding over their wrong<«, but that stable tranquil- 


lity whrch rests on the n<|[bt8 of hamaa nature, and 
leaiM on the aras Hy which these rights are to be maiu- 

Onr principal role of cosickicthas'been to attend to 
those things iii'which we agree, to exclude frona our 
thoughts tho?e in which we differ. We agree in 
■knowing what are our rights, and in daring to assert 
them : If the rights of men be duties, to Grod, we are 
in this respect of one religion. Onr creed of civil 
faith is the same i we agree in thinking th£^t there is 
not an individual among our millionsy whose happi- 
ness can be established on any foundation so rational 
:and so solid, as. on the happiness of the whole com- 
«n«rnity. We agree, therefore, in the necessity of 
giving political value and station to the great majority 
of the people ; and we think that whoever desires an 
amended coastitjition* without including the grant 
bo<ly of the people, must on his own principles be 
couvicti'd of political persecution, and political mono- 
poly* If the present electors be themselves a morbid 
part of our co'jstitution, where are we to recur for re- 
<lress but to the whole community ? " A more unjust 
^ and absurd ^constitution cannot be devised, thau 
-*' that whith condemns the natives of a country to per- 
*« petuai servitude, under the arbitrary dominion of 
*• and slaves,'* 

We agree in thinking, that the first and most in- 
dispensable condition of the laws in a free state, is tlie 
assent of those whose obedience they require, and for 


whMe beaefit only tbey are desigBed* Withoati thare- 
fore^ an impartial and adequate representation of tha 
cotnmonity ; we a^ree in declarin[^» we can have no 
€!onstituttOQ, no country, no Ireland. Without this, 
oar late revolution we declare to be fallacious and 
ideal ; a thing much talked of» but neither felt or 
seeo* The act of Irish sovereignty has been merely 
tossed out of the Eogtish houses iuto the cabinet of 
the minister ; and nothiBg re^nains to the people, who 
of right are every thing, but a servile majeaty and a 
vagged independence. 

We call earnestly on every great and good maot 
who at the late sera spoke or acted for his country, to 
consider less of what was done than of wImA there re* 
mains to do. We call upon the^r senatorial wisdom 
to consider the monstrous and immeasilfable distance 
which separates, in this island, the ranks of social 
life, makes labour iueffectual, taxation unproductive, 
and divides the nation into petty despotism and public 
misery. We call upon their tutelar genius, to re- 
member, that government is instituted to remedy, 
not to render more grievous, the natural ioequaiity 
of mankind, and that unless the rights of the whole 
commonity be asserted, anarchy (we cannot call it ga- 
veroment) masit continue to prevail, When the strong 
tyrannize, the rich oppress, and the mass are brayed 
in a mortar. We call apon them, therefore, to build 
tbeir arguments and their action on the broad plat- 
kam of general good. 

VoL.lL Ee 


Let not the rig;hts of uatare be enjoyed merely by 
connivance, and the rights of conscience merdy by 
toleration. If yon raise up a prone people, let it not 
be merely to their knees : Let the nation stand. 
Then will it castaway the bad habit of servitude, which 
has brought with it indolence, ignorance, an extinc- 
tion of our facnlties, an abandonment of our very na- 
ture. Then will every right obtained, every franchise 
exercised, prove a seed of sobriety, industry, and 
regard to character, and the manners of the people 
will be formed on the model of their free constitu* 

This rapid exposition of our principles, our ob- 
ject, and our rule of conduct, must naturally suggest 
the wish of multiplying similar societies, and the pro- 
priety of addressing such a desire to you. Is it ne- 
cessary for ns to request, that you will hold out your 
hand, and open your heart to your countryman, 
townsman, neighbour ? Can you form a hope fot 
political redemption, and by political penalties, or 
civil excommunications, withhold the rights of nature 
from your brother ? We beseech you to rally all the 
friends of liberty round a society of this kind as a 
centre. Draw together yonr best and bravest thoughts, 
.your best and bravest men. You will experience, as 
we have done, that these points of union will quickly 
attract number, while the assemblage of such socie- 
ties, acting in concert, moving as one body, with one 
impulse and one direction, will, in no long time^ be* 


come not parts of the nation, but the nation itself ; 
speaking with its voice, expressing its >vi1I, resistless 
iu its power. We again entreat you to look around 
for men fit to form those stable supports on which Ire« 
laud may rest the lever of liberty. If there be but ten, 
take those ten* If there be but two, take those two, 
and trust with confidence to the sincerity of your in- 
tention, the justice of your cause,' and the sfipport 
of your country. 

Two objects interest the nation, a plan of repi^ 
sentatipn, and the means of accomplishing it. These 
societies will be a most powerful means ; but a popu* 
lar plan would itself be a means for its own accom« 
plishment. We have, therefore, to request, that 
you will favour us with your ideas respecting the plan 
which appears to you most eligible and practicable, on 
the present more enlarged and liberal principles which 
actuate the people ; at the same time giving your sen- 
timents upon our national coalition, on the means of 
promoting it, and on the political slate and disposi- 
tion of the county or town where you reside* We 
know what resistance will be made to your patriotic 
efforts by those who triumph in the disunion and de- 
gradation of their country. The greater the necessity 
for reform, the greater probably will be the resis- 
tance : We know that there is much spirit that re- 
quires being brought into mass, as well as much massy 
body that must be refined into spirit* We have ene« 
niies, and no enemy is contemptible ; we do not de- 
spise the enemies of the union, the liberty aud the 


peace of Ireland, but we are not ef a oature, nor Bare 
we enconraged t>ie habit ef feanng any man, or any 
body of men, ra an honest and honourable caase. In 
great undertakings, like the pfesent, we declare that 
we have foand it always more diAcult to attempt, than 
to accompliah. The people of Irelaod oott perform 
M that they wirii, if they attempt all that diey can. 

Signed by oider^ 


Tne cATseatsM ov this uititeo iribhmek. 

Published mud ciradated since the rebellion wag put d»ien, 
far the purpose of keeping the fame of it alive* 

I BBiiCTC in the Irish Uhion, in the supreme ma* 
jcsty of the people, in the equalky of man,, in the law- 
fdlness of insurrection, and of resistance to oppression* 
I believe in a revolution founded on the rights of man, 
in the natural and imprescriptabie right of all the IribU 
citizens to aH the land. I believe the soil, or any part 
of it, cannot be transferred without the consent of the 
people, or their representatives, convened and aiitiM* 
rised, by the votes of every man having arrived at the 
age of tweutj-one years. I believe the land, or any 
•f it, cannot became the property of any raan^ but 


by purchase, or as rewards for forwarding and pre* 
serving the public liberty. I believe our present con* 
Tiexion with England must be speedily dissolved. I 
believe that old age, pregnant women, and labour 
should be honoured. I believe that treason is the 
crime of betraying the people. I believe religious dis- 
tinctions are only protected by tyrants. I believe ap* 
plying the lauds of the church to relieve old age, to 
give education and protection to infancy, will be more 
acceptable to an united people, that maintaining lazy 
hypocrites and ravenous tytbe-gatherere. 

In this faith I mean to live, or bravely die. 

Question. What are you ^ 

Answer. An Irishman* 

Q* As an Irishman, what do you hope for ? 

A. The emancipation of my country, and equality 
of rights, a fair division of the land, an abolition of re-^ 
ligious establishments, and a representative govern* 

Q. What benefit do you propose to your country, 
by what you call emancipation } 

A« Deliverance from the odious influence of England, 
and that domestic tyranny it generated, which is cal« 
£e 3 


cttlated to eomipt oor omnmIs, tmpoirertth o«r people^ 
and retard our ind«»iryw 

Q. How do you concern this ? 

A, By A« lOTomertble injuriet we evpenence from 
£ngHmd---tke shoto us oat from any mereantile con^ 
»«xioo with, tbo world* whilo she tdfe w «ie aM ao in- 
dopendent people ; vhe ioMxra establishnioiito in ous 
hkwd, contriving to make ber agcote ia tbe land heir 
friends and our oppi>e6Sor9 ? 

Q. How ate Irish morals iajuredVy Et^ad^ 

A^ By monopoliang the tfade of the world,, and: 
confining us to deal only widi her.. 

Q. Does^ that affect your morals. ? 

A. Yes, her contrivance leaves ua at her mercy : 
ahe sells to its at l»er own prices, she depriiraa ua of the 
choice of otker rBarketa».eitbci} to buy or sOll i by 8i>ch 
. means she liaa the eooiioaud of M. our produco ; we 
buy dear and sell cheap ; consequently we are poor, 
and poverty begets crimes, as Job says, •* Lord,, make 
«< am not poor, lest I she«ild stedw** 

Q. What other reasons have you against English 
QOiuiectiotis, and what other prools have yon ei iaiu- 
fluence on yoiur moraU } 


A. England has organized a kkid of legislators, 
here, devoted to h«r interests, and holding their in- 
fluence and power at her wni. 

Q. Explain yoiif8el£. 

„ A« Those law-oiakers are land-lioldieiiry. all of ona 
trade, which in itself is criminal ; as men making laws>, 
l^ing of one profession, will always he unanimous in^ 
promoting the welfare of a particular ohjeot. A legi- 
sl^We assembly of tanners woufd make leather dear;^^ 
of weavers, would increase the price of cloth; or 
schooloiaslers,. woold menopoltze instruction* Our 
iSaw-makers contrive to make spirituoi^s liquors in more 
geaeral use than bread,, they are constantly canting; 
•n the drunkenness of the people,, and take no paina 
to discourage distillation, as it raises the value of their 
IftUdsi, under. the pretext of promoting the revenue*. 
They encourage grazing and the exportation of cattle;- 
they sfeU the liquor and accuse usof drunkennesH ; they 
exf»ort o«r raw materials; they say we are idUrfl, and 
iDock our poverty ;. they import tobacco for our use,, 
and export our beef and butt en. Thus the necessa-^ 
ries of life are put otit of our reach,, to promote their 
own ends, and a poisonous plant given us for the same 

(^ What adv«tiltage can. our poverty be to our lair* 
makers > 

A« By b^iig poor wc mu^t be on the alert, to pro* 


cure the necessaries of life, wTiich makes true the old 
xnaxiin* they •* keep us poor and busy,** Our time 
will be spent studying to avoid want, instead of in-' 
quiring the cause of it ; for enquiry is dangerous to 

Q. What benefit^ in a general sense, would eman* 
cipation be ? 

A* Ireland, delivered from England, would give us 
immense resources, innumerable means of employing 
our people, would extend our trade and agriculture, 
we could have the sugars of the West-Indies, seventy 
per cent, cheaper from the Danes, the Dutch, or the 
French, than we can get them from the retail market 
of England* The teas and produce of the Indies, we 
could also have, in the same advantageous manner, 
from the same nations, or from the Americans, or by 
a direct importation. Other branches of trade and 
other resources of riches and employments would un- 
fold themselves to independent Ireland^ now impos- 
sible to enumerate.. 

Q* What is meant by equafity ^ 

A. Men being bom equal, is evident to every und«i^ 
standing. If the Creator intended any superior rank 
among men,, it is that of superior abiUties or superior 
virtue; if he intended any other nobility than the 
noble of nature, we should see noblemen, not the 
same impotent, ignorant, vieious, sod untaught 


creatures, so common »moiig the artificial orders. We 
should have them born without wanting any of those 
acquirements that a[>{^iear so necessary to every raukt 
which is the resuit of tedious instruction, and perse-* 
venug industry » their childhood would be distinguish** 
ed by a knowledge of every talent that is known or 
valued; they would come into the world finished 
steteftmeu^ orators, mathematActans, generals, daao* 
lagHnastevs, bair-dreawfrs,. taylorsy &c* nay, they 
would come from the womb covered wi|h embroidery^ 
iibbo»8, stars,, and coronets. 

Q. Not appearing in infancy to have any visible or 
ibentsd acqutrameots, mose than other okortak, yoa 
think is an argument to defend the opinions of those- 
who are advocates for equality ? 

A* LTndoobtedly. Maay persons in Ireland mtkj 
remember men who are raaked as nobility, to be 
raised by accidental circumstances from the loins of 
footmen, low tradesmen, and infamous gamblers; the 
whole of them may be said, within the last cen« 
tury, to be the descendants of Euglish ru^iaus, ad* 
venUirers, wiiose crimes or obscurity denied them a 
livelihood in their own couAtry, but were the cruel 
agents of foreign force or foreign seduction. The ori« 
gin of nobles in every country is the same ; but tboe^ 
and revolutions have c^aceakd their hateful origin. 

Q. What inconvenience do Irishmen find by tbt- 
privileged orders? 


A. We haye mantfold coroplaiDtft against the onQa* 
tural institution : they are an association in aUiance 
Vfiih the common enemy. They consider the people 
as an inferior and degraded mass, only made for their 
amusement or convenience, to dig, plow, or enlist, 
whenever the tyrant's amjisement or amhition is the 
mode. They infiueuce the whok race of land-holdera, 
who are their creatures or admirers, whose conduct, 
honour and religion, is regulated by an uniform com* 
pliance, that wUl promise a hope of arriving at the 
rank and emoluments that are at the disposal of the 
plunderers of the people. 

Q, Do you mean an equality of property as a part 
of your system? 

A. By no means ^ 'tis too absurd to imagine: I mesa 
only an equality of rights, that Is, that every man is 
eligible to public employment, whose honesty and 
abilities are approved of by bis countrymen ; that no 
Bian should be deprived of his liberty or property by 
any others, of supposed superiority of rank; that every 
man, however rich, however connected, should be as 
amenable to the laws and as subject to. punishment as 
the meanest; that labour^ honesty, and public vir- 
tue should be protected, and should be the tests o£ 

Q. What good could a fair division of the land be to 
Ireland ? 


A.^As the land and its produce was intended for the 
use of man, it is unfair for fifty or an hundred men 
to possess what is for the subsistence of near five nii1« 
lions : it exposes the great body of the people to every 
veant and every misery. It is a blasphemy to say the 
present land-holders in Ireland are to be the >* lords 
<of the soil.'* The Almighty intended all mankind to 
lord the soil. As man cannot, in the present improv- 
ed manners of life, do without shoes, clothes, or food, 
which are produced from the grass and corn, surely it 
is unfair that one or one hundred should hold in their 
hands those necessaries which none ought to want; it 
is not possible that God can be pleased to see a whole 
nation depending on the caprice and pride of a small 
faction, who can deny the common property in the 
land to his people, or at least tell them, how much 
they shall eat, and what kind ; and how much they 
shall wear, and wh»t kind. As we every day expe- 
rience from the hands of these cruel usurpers, who 
have formed themselves into a corporation of law- 
makers, and are constantly exporting our provisions, 
or curtailing its. growth, on the horrid policy of pre* 
serving subordination, by degrading our characters, 
and forcing on^ us every servile occupation to earn a 
scanty livelihood in a country capable of the greatest 

Q. How would you alter the property in land, and 
preserve the country from anarchy ? 

A. By dividing the ancient estates among the de« 

rfi REBELLION IN IRfiLi^n). 

•cendftnt of tho9i* Trith (aroiliesy who were piUag^by 
En^tiAh invadersy giving to eveiy pefson wMiont ex« 
ception, a competent share to eoable him or her to get 
a romlbrtable liTelihood ; this provisicm not to extend 
to any person who impeded the deliverance of tbe 
tsoantry by cowardice or treachery, ttj^ remainder 
to be «old by public cant^ and the money applied lo 
paying off the debts contracted by the former confede- 
racy* aiid for rewarding the citizens who fooght for 
their country, and providing for their wives and mo- 
thers, and giving education to tbdr children and in- 
fant relations. 

Q. What u your view by wishing to abolish religi- 
ous establishments ? 

A. To eradicate every reason of jealousy and dis- 
trusty to ease the nation of a useless and weighty bod}'^ 
formed of hypocrites and cheats. 

Q. How would this provide against jealousy and dis- 
trust ? 

A. As every man has a right to malce use of any 
form of worship he thinks most acceptable to his Crea- 
tor, it is unfair to tax him for the maintenance of an 
order he does not acknowledge, and cannot approve 
of. It is unjust to take his property, his corn, his 
cattle, his hny and potatoes, to maintain a man he 
can do without, or perhaps abhors. The system of 
tythes forces a man*s property from his familyf to ap- 


|»«piri«tioDy bef popO'latioa caanot be so formidaible 
m to Imxan^ our safety^ 

Q» Why, she has a more nmneroixs peopled 

A« She has, hi the iskmd of Great Britain^ about 
seven millions, we have near five, she could not send 
her seven millions on an invasion ; though we could 
fight our whole population against the redundancy of 
hers^ a» we eonld be on the defensive*. 

Q. But she has a navy ^ 

A« Her navy eould make little impreision on Ire- 
land ; a navy may cover a debarkation of troops, and 
support them while within the reach of the ships guns; 
but after that, any number of troops, however well 
appointed, though all the navies of Europe were em- 
ployed in conveying themv would be a very insufficient 
force to conquer the united people of Ireland, fight* , 
ing for a valuable country, and a more valuable inde* 

Q. Would not the navy of England destroy our 

A. We have no trade, nor have we foreign posses- 
•ions, so we have nothing to apprehend on that ac» 

Ff 5t 


Q. Would not blockiDg up eur ports be Mme id!- 
convenlencc ? 

A. None ; as our mUerable and cooftned commerce 
IS calciilated rather to injure the poor, the suppressing 
of it would ba benaficml in a state of hostility ; oar 
exports are necessaries of life, taken from them who 
labour; and our imports luxtiries to pamper the idle. 
Were the eorn» cattle, and btttter^ kept at home, and 
wines, teas, sugar and tobacco, kept away, we need 
not be much alarmed at the naval consequence of 

. Q. How slwU me amve At At Uessto^i- m certaia 
from independence ? 

A. By a union of alk the people. 

Q« Do you mean the privileged ordeva in this union? 

A. No: were we to. wait their Goncurrence^ our de- 
livery would be as distant as the general death of 

Q. Who do you mean should compose this favoorite 
object ? 

A. Every man that is oppressed, every man that 
labours^ every honest man of every religion, every 
man who loves, and whose love of his country raises 
the human mind above other trifling distinctions, and 
loses the petty idea of sects, in the name of Irishmao, 


No. IV.— Vol. L p. 299; 

If^mes of the Members of the Court-martial on Si> 
Edward Croshie. 

Major Deois, of Uie 9th dragooos, president. 
Captain Martin^ of the 9th dragoons.- 
Captain Sherdton,. d2d regiment.. 
Captain- Bathin» unattached. 
Lieutenant Loftus, 9th dragoons. 
Lieutenant Roe»- Armagh regiment.- 
Lieutenant Best*- half pay. 
Lieutenant Higgins, 9th dragoons. ^ 
Lieutenant Ogle, Armagh regiment. 
Lieutenant Magrath, North Cork regimentl- 
Lieutenant Bagwell, 9th dragoons. 
Ensign Ellis, Armagh regiment. 
Cornet Fleming, 9th dragoons.* 

* «« The insults offered tb her,'* (lady Crosbie, widow 
of sir Edward) ** after his death, by the military, 
became now so alarming, that these, together with a 
midnight visit from colonel Mahon, of the 9th dra- 
goons, and a party of dragoons, on a frivolous pre-* 
tence, after what had befallen- her lamented husband^ 
excited in her no unreasonable apprehensions for her 
own security ;. and she was obliged at length literally 
to fly for refuge to £0gland."~See the pamphlet, p. 9« 


An exact copy of a letter frwn major Denis, m ansicer 
to an application for- the copy of the minvtes of Sir 
Edtvard^s triaL 

Movnt-Melliclc, Feb. T^ l8o<h 

** Madam — I have been honoured with your letter, 
representing a conversation I had with a lady at Har- 
rowgate, respecting a transaction which occurred dur- 
ing the late rebellion. It cancerns me much to renew 
a subject, \»hieh I hoped was butied in oblivion. But 
as the lady has thought proper to mention the busi- 
ness, and which I thought I was only speaking in con- 
fidence, I aiust beg leave to say, that on her repre- 
senting to me, that reflection had been cast on the 
proceedings of the court-martitil,. of which I was a 
member, in vindication 1 declared my seutiments, 
observing I could by the proceedings prove the asser- 
tion! made. The lady will, 1 am sure, do me jus- 
tice to recollect what my sentiments were: — that I 
should be extremely s^rry to bring forward any thing 
to hurt the feelings of any of the family, part of whom 
I had been acquainted wilh a long time, and had the 
highest respect fhr. No stranger has seen from me, 
since the unfortunate lime 1 allude to, any copy, 1 
understand applications have already been made to 
my superior officers for such a copy : I think myself 
unwarrantable in doing so at present. Any thing in 
my power, consistent with what I conceive propriety, 
I would do to serve lady Crosbie, or any 6f the family ; 
but ill the present case, I am snre she will excuse me. 

•• I am, mudam, yours, ice. &:c. 

Hum, Deni?. 


Caiiuty qfthe cifyl George Luca9» of Browoe's- 
qf Dublin^ to unt.j bilU in the couoty of Carlow» 
farmer, late shepherd of sir Edward WilliacQ>Crosbie» 
of Vie\v-mouat» in the said countyy Quiketh oath» 
that from the nature of this the deponent's employ-* 
ment^ he was constantly about the house and demesne 
of the said sir Edward Williaai Crosbie, at View«» 
mount, aforesaid,, and from thence, and from his 
observations of the conduct of the said sir Edward 
William Crosbie, both before and alter the attack of 
the rebels on the town of Carlow, this deponent waa 
enabled to give very material evidence in tavour of the 
said sir Edward William Crosbie upon* his trial, for 
which purpose this deponent was directed to attend at 
the place of trial by lady Crosbie, the wife of the said 
sir Edward William Crosbie.. And this depotient 
.^.ailh, he has reason to belieye that, if the said sir £d«- 
ward William Ccosbie had left his house at View- 
mount, on the morning of the day of the attack of 
Carlow by the rebels, and had gone, or attempted to 
go, into the town of Carlow, for the purpose of giving 
any information, or at all, the family and property of 
the said sir Edward William would have been destroy- 
ed by the rebels, who were in full force about the said 
town of Carlow. This deponent saith, that he accor^ 
dingly attended on the 2d and 4th days of June, at 
the barrack gate in the town of Carlow, to give evi*- 
dence upon the said trial ; and saith, that on the 4fh 
day of June this deponent was called upon to go into 
the courtj and to give evidence for the said sir Edward 


Willtaniy by Robert Kirwan, gaoler of Cariow, wbo 
was the person (as this deponent heard and- believes)' 
kistmcted by the said sir Edward William to call for 
his witnesses; and this deponent thereupon went for* 
ward, and attempted to go into the banrapk^yard^ for 
the purpose of giring* his evidence before the said' 
court, upon the tria^ of the said* sir Edward Williain 
Crosbie, which was then going on* And this depo* 
uent saith, that upon* his attempting- to go forward; 
for that purpose,, the sentinel then on guard presented' 
his bayonet against this deponent, and refused him 
entrance, and said deponent should not go in, though 
he was informed, upon this deponent being so called; 
that he attended as a witness upon the said trial; And 
* this deponent saith, that Mary Hutchinson, and odier 
material witnesses, who attended to give evidence 
upon the said trial; io favour of the said sir Edward 
William Crosbie, were refused admittance in the like 
manners And this deponent saith, that he is, and 
always was, aprotestant of the church of Ireland, as 
}ij law established, and saith,. he never was concerned 
in the said Febellion, or in any act in fiivour tb^eof ; 
and wa»^alwaysa true and faithful subject to the pre* 
s^t established government. And this dep<ment fur- 
ther saithr that this affidavit is made at the special 
instance and request of the said lady Crosbie. 

^ ^ , GfBORGE Lucas*- 

Sworn before me, Pec. 95, ISOS^ 

John Carletost. 


77if Jhilowing^ is an extract of a letter to Mrs Boissiere 
Jrom the Rev. Robert Robinson;, dated TulloWf. 
January 30, 1799- 

" Yo«r letter fotitid me in a large and gay com- 
pany, and the revulsion it occasioned had such an 
effect oti me, as' I shall not attempt to describe, but 
which no friend of sir Edward Crdsbie need be ashamed* 
to- avow ;. and that I was sudi is my boast and my: 
pride, notwithstanding the rash and fbtal sentence 
which deprived him of life. No difference of opinion* 
could ever loosen the bonds of amity between him and 
me, or cdol our afitection ; and as to party spirit, al- 
though t profess myself as l6yal a subject a& any in his 
majesty's dominions, and sincerely Hbhor the rebeU 
lionj which has Of late dtfetracted this unhappy coun- 
try » yet I should be soi'ry to consider myself as a par*^ 
tizan. I knew sii* EdWard*s political sentiments w«Uv 
and do solemnly declare, that he never, to my recol- 
lection^ uttered a wofd of treasonable tendency ; and 
with me he was ever unreserved. Would to God h^ 
bad been less so to others ! I will tell you the two 
grand points on which he was most warm» One was, 
that he thought this kingdom governed by England 
rather as a colony than a federal state. The other 
was, that his noble heart spurned at the hauteui^and. 
oppression of the great and rich toward the poor and 
lowly. On these topics he always expressed himself 
with ardour, and often in the presence of those wha 
felt themselves galled; and this attached to him tho- 


character of ditaifected aud repabltcan. Bat I will' 
give you a strong proof that he was not so : the morn- 
ing that he fought young Burton (d which no doubt 
you heard) I was saying to hiin» that I much feared 
the duel would be imputed to politics, as I>knew he 
had the name of being & republican. His reply was, 
** If such be the character they give me, it is most 
undeserved; and I call upon you as my friend,, if 1 
fall, to clear my memory from so unfounded a charge,, 
as I am a steady friend to the constitution of king, 
lords, and commons, with a parliamentary reform, 
striking off the rotten boroughs*^** These sentiments, 
uttered on such an occasioD, by a man. whom, in a 
long course of most intimate acq^aaintaoce, I never 
knew guilty of the minutest falsehood, must be ad* 
mitted as the genuine effusions of his heart ; and that 
be did sa express himself ta me,. I declare on the word 
of a Christian dergvmao. Was>he then a republican.^ 
No*. His own declaration a little before he suffered, 
and which I read i|^ his own hand writing, clears him 
from the imputatibn of being a member of any trea-^ 
Bonabk society,.**' 


ply it to the use of a disorderly idler, or useless fool, 
protected by power, often uniting every vice that dis- 
figures society, under the specious cloke of religion. 
By leaving every minister of religion on the bounty of 
his hearers, you generally find the people choose men 
t>f education and morals, as objects of their esteem, 
if there were no other advantages than that of adding 
the chnrch lands to the national stock, and relievin*' 
the people from tythes, it would be of sufficient utility 
to abolish church establishments. 

Q. Let me hear your reasons for a representative 
government ? 

A. By givitig a power t>f voting to every man who 
has not forfeited his right by any crime, you create 
«uch an immense number of electors, that no candi- 
xiate can «ver purchase their sufirage* 

<i. W>ould that be sufficient to promote your plan ? 

A. No : I^ mention it as the first towards true repre- 
sentation : besides the justice of universal suffrage, 
it has that beauty which must make every man its 

Q. How would the poor see the advantage of it? ^ 

A. As every man, in a free state* votes to secure his 
liberty and property : the poor man has but his labour, 
yet It is to him a property : he should hav«i represen- 
Vol. IL Ff 


tative8» who would be earefal of the value of khour, 
and watch* with a vigilant eye, the different and com- 
bioiog circumatances occurring in legislative asBem- 
bliea, leat the labour or employments of the artizaa or 
husbandman should be made uncertain or unfiishioa- 

Q. Should there be any qualification for a ret»e5en« 
Utire ? 

A. None but honesty and abilities ; as every man 
should be eligible* 

Q. Might not a representative betray the trust re- 
posed in him, and be an accomplice in the destruc- 
tion of his country ? 

A. By limiting the eidstence of representative assem- 
blies, to the period of one or two years, the people have 
a frequent check on the conduct of their representa- 
tives, and should any displease by ignorant or trea- 
cherous conduct, he could be replaced; by that 
means corruption or tyranny could be prevented, 8& 
near as human wisdom can devise* 

Q. Were we to regain our freedom, would not the 
power of England be dangerous to our existence as a 
free state ? 

A* By no means. As power principally consists in 




Prociamation of thejpeepie of the county of Wexford* 

Whereas it stands manifestly .notorious th.^t J^^ies 
Boyd, Haw trey White, Hunter Gowan, and Ardw^ald 
Hamilton Jacob, late magistrates of this county, have 
committed the most horrid actst>/ cruelty, violepce, 
and oppression, against our peaceable and well-affect- 
ed countrymen : / 

Now we, the. people, associated aad united for the 
purpose of procurinjg our just rights, and being deter- 
mined to protect the persons and properties of tho^e of 
all religious persuasions who have not oppressed us, 
and are willing, ^ith heart aiid hand, to, join our glor- 
rious cause, as well as ^o shew our marked rdis0[)pro- 
]ba^ion and horror of the crimes of the a^ove dQlin- 
quents, do call on our countrymen at large, to use 
every exertion in their power to apprehend the bodies 
of the aforesaid James Boyd, Hawtrey White, Hun- 
ter GoWan, and Archibald Hamilton Jacob, and to' 
secure and convey them to the gaol of Wexford, to be 
brought before the tribunal of trhe people. Done at 
Wexford, this ninth day of June, 1798. 

God save the People. 
Vol, II. G g ' 



To all Ifiihmen and soldiers f who wish to join their 
brethren in armst assembled far the defence of their 
roinifry» their rights and Hberiies, these few lines are 

We, the honest patriots of our conntry, do most 
earnestly intreat and invite you to join your natural 
Irish standard. This is the time for Irishmen to shew 
their zeal for their country's good, the good of their 
posterity^ and the natural rights and liberties of Ire- 
land. Repair then to the camps of liberty, where you 
will be generonsly received, and amply rewarded. We 
know your hearts are with us ; and all you want is an 
opportunity to desert those tyrants who wish to keep 
you as the support of their oppressive and hellish 
schemes, ^o enslave our country. Done at Wexford 
by the unanimoos voice of the people, fourteenth 
June, 1798. 

God save the People^ 

No. VI.— -Vol. Ef. p. 52. 


County of the cityi>f\ The information of William 
£>ublin, to wit. J Flemings of Taghmon, in the 


county of Wexford, ^eonlan, who being duly sworn 
on the Holy Evangalists, maketb oath, and saith. 
That he, this informant, was a yeoraan in the Tagh- 
mon cavalry, was taken prisoner by the rebels atKil- 
burn, near Taghmon, aforesaid, on Thursday, the 
tbirly^first day of May last, by a ronn of the name of. 
Brien, who was a captain of said rebels ; and that said 
Brien asked informant, whether he would be baptiz- 
ed ? on which informant replied, that he was baptized 
before, and that he did not think a second baptism 
necessary. Informant saith, that said Brien asked 
him, whether he knew that this was a religious war ? 
to which informant replied, he did not ; on which said 
Brien told informant that no person would he suffered 
to live but he that was a true Roman catholic. Infor-^ 
mant saith, that said Brien, thereon, cocked his gun» 
presented it at informant's breast, and declared he 
would shoot iufortnant, as he did another orange ras- 
cal at the camp of Taghmon aforesaid : but that ano« 
ther of said rebels told said Brien, that he had no right 
or authority to shoot him« unless it was done at the 
camp. That informant was conducted to the said 
camp, in the midst of a great crowd of rebels, who 
cried out aloud. Which is the orange rascal that is to 
be shot ? Informant stuth, that his life was saved that 
evening, by the interference, as informant verily be- 
lieves, of Mr William Devereux, a Roman catholic 
gentleman, of Taghmon aforesaid, who was a captain 
of said rebels. That the guards who were placed over 
him that night, having a knowledge of, and a regard 
for informant, gave him his liberty, on which he re- 
Gg 2 


paired to a furze brake, where informant lay concealed 
for two days and two nights. Informant saith, he was 
advised by a friend to return to tlie said town ofTagh- 
nion, as the rebel camp had marched to Carrickbyrne, 
and which informant did on the second day of Jone, to 
the best of his recollection. That some days after, on 
or abont the third day of June, he was ordered to re- 
pair to the camp of Carrickbyrne, in said county, 
which informant did from motives of fear. Informant 
saith, he Was compelled to march with said rebels, on 
the fourth of June, to a camp at Corbet-hill, within 
a mile of New Ross, in said county, where the rebel 
officers fixed their head-quarters, at the house of one 
Murphy ; that when hfe was returning thence, after 
. the battle of Ross, hip, this said informant, was taken 
prisoner by a body of febfels, at the briclge of Ballyna- 
bola, in eaid county. Informant saith, that one of 
the sai4 rebels told him, that he had just put an end 
to an oranj^e rascal, of the name of Byron ; and infor- 
mant saith, he saw, lying in a ditch at Ballynabola 
aforesaid, John Byron, a protestant inhabitant of the 
parish of Taghmoo aforesaid, with whom informant 
was wdl acquainted ; and that said Byron was grie- 
vouslj^ wounded, and covered wiih blood, and on the 
point of ejcpiring. Informant saith, that said rebels 
called informant an orange rascal, and threatened to 
serve him as they did Byron ; and informant saith, he 
is convinced in his mind, that the s^id rebels would 
have put him to death, but that he produced a pass 
which he had obtained from Brien Murphy, a priest 
of Taghmon, and that ^aid pass saved the life of infor- 


mant. That said rebds had a custom of warning the 
inhabitants of each townland to attend 'their army* 
under pain of death, in case of disobedience ; and that 
informant was <rompel1ed by such warning, to attend 
a rebel camp at Slievekelta, sometime in the begin- 
ning of June,^ where the said rebels were on the point 
of trying^him for being an orangeman ; but that infor- 
mant was relieved by the kind interference of Mr John 
Devereux,^ of Taghmon. Informant saith, that fa« 
ther Roche, a priest, and who was commander in 
chief of said camp, preached a sermon, or exhortation, 
to the rebels therein, of the following tenoir : " That 
they were fighting for their religion | their liberty, and 
the rights of their ancestors, and that they must per- 
severe. That they should examine their ranks, and 
if they found any orangemen, or disaifected men 
among them, to ^extirpate them, as they could not 
prosper or thrive while they had such «mong them." 
Informant saith, he was again taken prisoner by a 
body of the said rebels, at Kilburn mountain aforesaid, 
on the nineteen of June, and compelled to repair to 
the Three-rock camp, near Wexford, where many 
thousands of the rebels were assembled and arrayed 
for the purpose of marching next day to fight the king's 
troops, at Foulkes's mill in said county : and that 
the said camp was commanded by generals Bagenal 
Harvey and father Roche, a priest. That the said re- 
bels, in said camp, marched on the twentieth of June, 
to Foulkes's mill aforesaid, where they fought, and 
were defeated by his majesty's forces. That the said 
rebels returned on one night of the twentietkof June, 


to the said camp, at Three-rock hill aforesaiti, aud 
that tlie next day, on the approach of the king'& 
troops, the said reheU fled in differeut directions, some 
towards Wexford, and -others towards the barony of 
Forth, in said county. Informant saith, that a barn 
at Scullabogne, in said county, having a great num* 
ber of protestaixts in it, was consumed ou the fifth 
day of June ; and that informant went to said barn on 
the seventh day of said month, to look for the body of 
one Robert Cooke, a friend, who perished therein, 
for the purpose of interring it ; but informant saith, 
he could not distinguish one body from another, frona 
the injuries the said bodies sustained from the fire* 
That some of said bodies were entirely consumed, that 
the head^ and limbs of others were also consumed, but 
the bodies remained entire, and very much discolour- 
ed, , That the features of such persons as were not con- 
sumed, were so black and so discoloured,, that he 
could not distinguish one from the other. That the 
bowels of some of the scud bodies lay exposed on the 
floor. That some of the said bodies lay against the 
-wall, as if in the act of praying. That a heap of the 
said bodies lay near the door of said barn, to which 
they flocked, as informant verily believes, for the 
aake of fresh air, to prevent suffocation* Informant 
saith, that he found a guard of rebels at said barn, 
and that o(ie of the said rebels told informant, and 
some others who were with informant, and seemingly 
with much joy and pleasure, that he, the said rebel, 
had been assisting in burning said barn, and in shoot- 
ing a number of protestant prisoners^ who were buc 


ried in the gripe of a ditch, which Said rebel shewed,, 
with much seeming satitsfuction, to inf^rtnaiit, and 
those who accompanied hiin. Informant saith, that 
said rebel informed him» that' one hundred and nine- 
ty-nine persons were consumed in said burn, or shot 
at Sculiabo^ue aforesaid, and that said rebel turned^ 
to one of his comrades, and said, the number wanted 
one of two hundred ; and that said rebel told inftA-- 
ma»t, that a man with a pike had been at said barn> 
turning up and examingthe bodies therein, for money 
and watches, which informant veril}' believes to be 
true, «s the said bodies showed evident marks of hav- 
ing been stirred> and as the bowels of some of the said 
bodies lay exposed on the ground. 

WllLIAM FxtMlK«* 

Sworn before me, this 20th day 

of September, 1793. 


^ Redmond MitchelVs Trial. 

On the trial of Redmond Mitchell, alias Miskelly, 
held at Wexibrd, the 18thof Jmw, 1799» it appear- 
ed, that he was active ftmoHg the rebels at Scuila- 
bogue, in murdering the loyalists, being armed with a 
firelock, with the foutt end of which he was knocking 
and battering such of the prisoners as were expiring 
at the front of the dwelling-house. He had a pair of 
new boots osii which were much bespattered with 


bloody which, and a watch, he obtained from Loftos 
Frizzel, a prisoner in the dwelling-house, who, and 
Kichard Grundy, were the only prisoners that made 
their escape. He was so much admired by the rebels, 
for his sanguinary and ferocious disposition, that they 
called him the trat-boru Roman. 

He gave Mr Frizzel his shoes on getting his boots. 
Mr Frizzel gave Mitchell his watch and boots, hoping 
that he would save his life, which he did, and con- 
veyed him to the rebel camp at Carrickbyrne. 

That numbers were trying to set the barn on fire, 
which was diflBcult, as the walls were high ; that a 
number of rebels in front were piking and firing on 
the prisoners, who drew in the door to protect them* 
selves ; that they put a bundle of lighted straw in at 
the door, which set fire to the barn, which fire they 
kept up till the prisoners were destroyed ; but many 
were shot dead before. 

Trial of Matthew Furlang^ Sfc. 

Ok the trial of Matthew Furlong, at Wexford, in 
September, 1799, Robert Mills swore, that he was 
at Scullabogue, and was ordered to stand guard over 
the loyalists who were in the barn. That all the orders 
to bum the barn were resisted, till three men arrived 
and said, that a certain priest had given orders that 
the prisoners abould be put to death ; on which the 


'rebels all set aboat the murderB) and it was iitipossijblie 
to say who wa» mOst active* Orders were given to put 
any man to death who shbiiid quit hid pitet at the . 
barn. A man ordered the vritness to guard the door, . 
and not let the loyalists out. The roof was on fire, 
aad the loyalists were trying, to force open the door to 
effect their escape, but were prevented by the rebels, 
of wbom the prisoner was one ; and he made several 
stabs of his pike at those who endeavoured to get out, 
particularly a wotnan, and on striking her. he bent hig 
pike. He afterwards went to the forge of Scuilabogpe, 
and straightened his pike there« Patrick Kerrivaa 
swore, that the prisoner, in assisting the rebels to i 
burn the barn, lifted up the thatch with his pike, that 
others might put faggots under it, and that he called 
for more straw. That he saw him strike with a spear 
a man i^ho was endeavouring to make his cbcape* 

On the trial of Michael Murpliy, at 'Wexford, on 
the 14lh of September, 17iJ9» it appeared, that he 
was raising the thatch of the barn for the admission of 
fire, and that he was followed by persons with lighted 
bushes, who were putting them into the apertures 
which he had made. That he and Matthew Furlong, 
who were guards at the door, speared a man who was 
endeavouring to make his escape. That the prisoner 
put his pike under the thatch to make it blaze. That 
he and Furlong went afterwards to the forge, which 
was near, to sharpen his pike; and on bein^ asked, ^ 
whether they were all dead ? the prisoner replied^ 
" rU engage they are all settled." 


September 27tb, 1799f on the trial of Matthew 
ReveU Kt appeared, that oae gang of assassins, com- 
ing from TiDtern with a drore oiL protestants, met 
another at some distance from ScaUabogoe, with Mr 
Miiward Giffard and John Moran in their costody* 
and that the two parties joining, went to Scullabogae 
together, and committed the prisoners to the barn. 

On the trial of Patrick Furlong, at Wexford, on 
the twelfth of September, 1799, for being concerned 
in the massacre at Scullabogne, it was proved, that 
the messenger who convened orders to captain Murphy 
to put the prisoners to death, said they were sent by 
father Murphy, which corresponds with the foUowiog 
affidavit of Michael Asking. 

County of Wezford^ 1 Michael Askins, having 
to wit^ ) been duly sworn on the Holy 

Evangelists, deposeth and saith, That on the fifth of 
June, he was forced to join a party of rebels, and pro- 
ceed towards Ross ; that when the party got within 
three miles of Ross, they met a man riding very fast, 
who seemed by his dress, to be a priest. That this 
roan cried out, we are defeated, Bagenal Harvey 
has ruined us; I will go to. Scull abogue and destroy 
every soul in it. Deponent saith, that the party he 
was with said, he was the stoutest priest in Ireland, 
father Murphy of Tagh-mou. That soon after depo- 
nent and the party retreated to Scullabogue, where 
they saw thirty-nine bodies dead before the door, and 


the barn burned, and the roof fallen in. Deponent 
heard that one hnndred and fifty persons weredestroyed 
in the barn, amongst wbom were twenty -ei^ht women 
and fifteen children ; and deponent says, he heard the 
same from numbers who were there, and he verily be- 
lieves the numbers were rather more. 

Michael X Askins^ 
Sworn before me, this IStb day 
of JaDuary, 1799. 
John H. Ltstbr. 

Feathard and Scullahogue* 

On Saturday the 26th of May, a band of assasins, 
roaming the country in x|uest of loyalists, and headed 
by Michael Devereux and Joshua Colfer, entered the 
town of Feathard, about eleven miles from Sculla- 
bogue, and seized William Jordan and James Tweedy, 
both protestants, and conveyed them to the barn 
where they were burnt : the former was servant to the 
rev. Mr Kennedy, rector of Feathard, who had fied 
and narrowly escaped to Duncannon fort. Colfer often 
regrettied that he had not that orange ro^ue, Mr Ken-> 
nedy, to put him to death ; he exclaimed very much 
ag^ainst protestants, and said they deserved to be pu« 
pisbed* Some of the protestants inhabitants of Fea^ 
thard saved their lives by going to mass, and by assum- 
ingp the semblance of sincere conversion. The re^. 


. father Doyle, who acted wUfahttouoUy towards ttiem, 
advised tbera to do to, aa the means of presersiog 
their lives* William Uurdis, a witneas on Golfer's 
trial, swore, that Patnok Murphy, one of the gi^iig 
of a^tsasRins, .made him swear to be true to the catho- 
lic war. These faoU were proved oa ihe triiil of Joshua 
Colfer, before a court-martial, held at Waterford the 
3d of December, 1798, by order of general Johnson. 
Colfer had been malster to Mr Clarke, a brewer cf 
Feathard, resided there constantly, and had lived ou 
terms of intimacy with the pro^testaats. 

James Murphy, a witness on the trial of Colfer, 
and servant of the rev. Mr Kennedy, swore. That the 
prisoner asked him whether he would kill his master, 
and declared that he would kill him if he would not. 
lie said aUo> that all oran^e^meo should be kiUed. 

Philip Clarkq, a protestapt, and son of Mr Ciarkc 
the brewer, \y bo. eH> ployed the prisoner, declared, 
that he (Colfcir) desired him and his brother to be 
/christened. by a priest^ and s^nt far a popish manual, 
to him* his brothec and sisters, tj^ught their cate- 
chism ; Irbal;, his brother a^^d sisters, and other prote- 
ctants of Feathard, were sfiv^d merely because they 
were aonsujered as ^ppycctqd. 

Richard Stewar,t, a boy of nine years. old, and bro- 
ther-! Ur law of T^e^dyt followed him crying, upon 
whic;h;CQlfer„ thfftM^tjned him. Xhi» child was after- 
.ward«.^urdj^i}ed. - 


Ott'SiitBtdftjr the Sd of Jane, soother hand of as- 
•asnns, headed by the aame l^cfaaei Devereux, of 
BattletoQTSi arrived -there aad &wept away all the pro- 
atants they gooM 'find* :It fbrtunateiy happened that 
they were but few in number, as most of thetn had 
escaped, or were doing daty in a yeomanry corps at 
Duncannon forU The rebels were so zealous .in this 
•ervice, that they loclied up such protestants as they 
seized, while they went in ^uest of others« 

Samuel Oransre, now living, is- a memorable IWi 
stance of this. He was taken by his own neighbours, 
Patrick Hen nesy and James Sava^re, and was locked 
«p in the house of the former ; but while they were 
hunting for others, he providentially made his escape 
through a back window, and concealed himself in 
ditches till Sunday, the 5th of June, when Colfer 
Teturned with another gang, and conveyed him to 
Wexford, Scullabogue having been before consumed. 
Michael Devereux having visited Feathard again, on 
3d of Junf , with another gang, seized Mrs DuiHeld, 
aged seventy-^five, Mrs Ckrke, and Philip Chirke^ a 
boy of about thirteen years. John Jones, a humane 
aud respectable Roman catholic, solicited the release 
of the priaoners; and on his knees, he implored him 
to discharge the latter, as he was the child of his near 
neighbour ; but to no purpose, as he said he could 
not release him, con<$istent with his own safety. This 
shewed that he acted by the orders of his superiors, 
who were supplied with lists of the protestant inhabit 
tants of every parish. 

Vol. 11. Hh 


The three were conveyed on a car to Scollabogne, 
but fortunately for them, Bagenal Harvey, who hap- 
pened to arrive there, discharged them, gave them a 
pass to return, and ordered that no more women and 
children should be taken prisoners. On the 9th of 
'June, one Thomas M*Danie1, a sanguinary ruffiaD, 
went to Feathard, at the head of another gang, in 
search of Elizabeth Ennis, a protestant, who had 
escaped all their former searches ; and when discover- 
ed» she threw herself on the mercy of John Jones, 
already mentioned, who very humanely locked her up 
in a room in his own house. When M^Daniel was on 
the point of breaking open the door, Mrs Jones placed 
herself between him and it, and said they must first 
murder her. She also assured him, that she was no 
longer a protestant, having been christened by the 
priest, and was become a Roman catholic. The poor 
trembling wretch's life was saved by Mrs Jones's firm- 
ness, and her assurances of her conversion. 

After that period, such of the protestants as re- 
mained at Feathard were saved by going to mass* 

Father Doyle, the priest, assembled them in a 
house, under a pretence of baptizing them, though 
in fact he did not, perform that ceremony; and he 
very humanely announced, in order to save their lives, 
that they were sincere converts to his religion. 

Tfiese facts were proved on the trial of Devereux, 


Colfer, HaughraQ, and some othes concerned in thi» 
atrocious business* 

, No. VIL 

County of W€xfordy\ Richard Gbandy, of Bally- 
to wiU J shan, in said county, came be- 

fore ns his majesty's justices of the peace, and made 
oath on the Holy Evangelists, that he this examinant 
was attacked and seized at the cross roads of Kilbride, 
on Sunday the third of June, between the hours^ 
nine and ten o^clock in the morning, as he was return- 
ing from a farm he has on the lands of Kilbride, by 
several persons armed with guns, pikes, spears ; that 
amongst the number were Michael Poor, Thomas 
Poor, Martin White, Richard Shee, Martin Colhoun, 
Nicholas Brown, Michael White, John Moran, and 
Lawrence Moran, all of Kilbride aforesaid, with many 
others, whose names examinant did not know, though 
their faces were familiar to him; he was conducted 
from thence to the rebel camp at Carrickbyrne, i^k 
said county, and in the afternoon of the same day was 
brought to Mr King's house at Scullabogue ; that he 
was introduced into a room where he saw Bagenal Har- 
vey, of Bargy-Castle, esquire; William Devereux, 
ofTaghmon; Francis Breen; Nicholas Sweetman, of 
New-Bawn ; with a few more whom he did not know, 
but believes that John Colclough, esq. of Ballyteigue, 
and a son of William Devereux aforesaid, were of 
the number; that he was closely examined by Bagenal 
Ilarvey as to the state of Ross and Duncannon fort, 
Hh 2 


and whether he was an orange raon or a united man ; 
that the said Ba<;eual Harvey pressed him ^o take the 
united man's oath» and becouie one of their connnu* 
nity ; that at last he obfmned a pass/rom said Bage- 
nal Harvey, with which he came as far as Bryanstown,. 
where he was stopped hy the rebel guard stationed 
there ; that he was conducted back again to Collops- 
well, where he met with said Bagenal Harvey and said 
Nicholas Sweetman ; that Nicholas Sweetman signed 
the pass he got f^om Bagenal Harvey before ; that he 
had not gone far before the pass had been taken from 
him and torn, upon which he was taken prisoner to 
Scnllabogue house, where he was confined tilt Tues- 
day morning, with several other protestants; that 
about nine oMock John Murphy, of Lough nageer, 
(frho had the command of the Rosegarland tehel 
ctirps, and Was iht officer of the gua^d over the pi-i- 
s(>n'er$] had ordered them out by fours to be shot by 
his company, till tlrirty-five were massacred ; that the 
spedr^men used to take pleasure in piercing the victinis 
through, and with eidttatioti ficking their bloody 
spears ; that whilst this horrid scene was acting, the 
barn, in which were above one hundred protestants, 
as exarainant heard and believes, was set on fire, and 
all consumed to ashes; that e^^aminant^s Kfe wais spar- 
ed because Murphy knew that Bagenal Harvey had 
given hiin a pass, and that through his intercession 
with Murphy, Loftus Frisrzel was likewise spared; 
that they were both tied and conveyed within a mile 
and a half of Ross, where they met Bagenal Harvey, 
Cornelius Grogan, of Johtistowri in said county, Wil- 


liam Devereux, and many others retreating from the. 
battle of Ross. 

That Bagenal Harvey ordered the said Murphy to 
take the two prisoners to his lodging at Collopswell, 
where he had given a pass to Loftus Frizzel, but re- 
fused to give one to examii^ant, for fear he should 
come and report what he had seen and heard at Dun- 
cannon fort; that deponent heard, and believes it tq 
be a fact that said Cornelius Gtrogan * had the com« 
mand of the barony of Forth rebel troops at the battle 
of Ross; that deponent was taken to Fou1ke*s mills 
that night, where he continued for two days under a 
guard, dressing the wounded ; that he Was afterwards 
conveyed to Ballymitty, where he obtained a pass 
from Edward Murphy of said place, to pass and re- 
pass through his district for the purpose of curing the 
wounded* That he was sent to Taghmon, where the 
sitting rebel magistrates, John Breen, James Harpur, 
Joseph Cullomore^ and Matthew Commons, were of 
opinion, that he might with the priest^s pass have gone 
back dud remained there ; that he strolled along the . 
sea-side, till at last he effected his escape across the 
ferry of Bannow to Feathard, on Friday the 22d inst. 
and from thence to Duncannon fort this morning; 
that he often heard it reported, whilst in cutody, that 
John Colclough, and Thomas Macord, both of Tin- 
tern in said county, were very active in promoting the 

* It has been since ascertained, that this unfortunate gentU^ 
man never acted with the rebels, but by compulsion. 

Hh a 


rebelfion; that he saw John Devereux jtfo. of ShiU 
beggan, in said coanty, at Scollahogne; on Monday 
the 41 h inat. and that he seemed, and believes that be 
had A principal cominand in the rebel army* He Hke*^ 
ttise saw Charles Reilly, of Ramer*s-grange, in said 
county. At the camp at Carrickbyrbe amongst the re- 
bels. Very busy arid active to promote their cause. 
D^pdnetit further saith, that he attended masd dele- 
Crated by Edward Murphy aforesaid, parish priest of 
Bannow ; and thf&t after mass he heard him preach a. 
sermon, in which he said, ** Btethren, yod see you 
are victorious every where — that the balls of the here* 
tics fly about you without hurting you — tbut few of 
you have fallen. Whilst thousands of the Heretics are 
dead, and the few of you thkt have fallen. Was from 
deviating from our cause, and want of faith— -tbat this^ 
visibly is the i^ork of God, who now is determined 
that the hereticks, who have reigned upwai^ds of an 
hundred years, should be extirpated, and the Irnt 
catholic religion be established/^ — Ahd deponent saitb, 
this sermon was preached after the battle of Rds9>. 
and that he heard seveml sermoiis preached by the 
priests to the same effect ; that he likewise heieii^ many 
rebels who had been at the batile of Enniscorthy and 
elsewhere, declare, that father Roche, a rebel gene- 
ral, did c'oiistsintly catch the bullets that came from 
his majesty *8 arms, and gave them to his men to toad. 
their pieces with. Deponent further saith, that every 
protestaut that was admitted into the rebel <rrOrps, was 
first baptised by, a priest ; and that every profei^ant 
that refused to be baptized was put to death : and 


<hat ftiauy, td save t'hcit Iff es, did suffer themselves 
to be baptised. 

- Richard Grai^idy.. 

S^rom hei^te ns, 93d June, i7gs^ 
Gbohge Oole« 
Baac Cornick. 
John H. Ltster* 
John Kennedy*. 

No. VIIL— Vot. IL p^ 353*. 


Rutlandy six 0* clock P; M. Sundm^^ 
Seph l6th^ 1798* 


A^avt twelve o^doek a Fi^ooh hng came into thi* 
harbodr, atid iiiiiiiedifktely landed R number of men 
and officerBy NapperTkndy atthetr head. They ini-^ 
mediately eoqu'ired for the post-ofBre, and came and 
posted a centinel at the door to prevent my ^en^iing off 
immediately : They demandt^d (thoqgh very politely) 
some vlctuah» with which they were furnished. I had 
a good deal of convtrrsation with Tandy : When they 
found that their friends here had surrendered and 
were made prisoners of war, they seemed a good deal 
confounded; «nd« after taking a slight repast^ re-eoi- 


Tandy informed me th^ they came on a mere expe- 
riment, to try the pulse of the people, aboat which 
he particularly enquired. I reported this neighbour- 
hood, as far as I knew, to be weaned from French 
principles, &c. at which heeecmed surprised : he says, 
the French will never make peace with England, until 
Ireland is made free and independent*. 

They behaved very politely and paid for all they 

The brig they came in is called the Anacreon, about 
twelve days from Brest ; they saw several -English 
cruisers, but out-sailed them all. 

I have sent expresses to Ballyshannon and Letter* 

kenny. They intend returning to France directly ; 

they came north about by Scotland* Enclosed is a 
paper. A, several of which I understand they have 
distributed ; also a certificate, B, signed by the offi- 
cers, exonerating me from censure, for admitting them, 
into my house. 

We have not any kiud of armed military force nearer 
vs than Letterkeany, about twenty-five miles» 

I am, sir^ 

Your very obedient servant^ 

Francis Foster, Dep. P. M, R^diand. 

John Lees, esquire* 


Buihnd^ Sepiember IJth, Monday, 
eight o^ciock in the mornings 


I YssTEEDAY (by post) HI formed you of a French 
iH'ig coating into Mir harbour and landing three boata* 
full of men ; there were a number of officers, among 
whom was the redoubted J« N« Tandy, a brigadier, 
and eommattder of the expedition. Tandy, being aa 
old acquaintance, wat communicative ; he saya, po«<« 
tively^ that Franee will not make peace with Great 
BrttaiQ npoBuny other terma than Iriah independence ; 
he appeavtd dt* jectied on hearing of iStte ^te c^ the kte 
French descent, aad af tlie diacov^riea niadie by Bondi, 
M*Nevitiy EiiiMnt»» &ek bui laaid, «hey will certa'mly 
alt«»pt to land twewHy th»i*iand men, mud peruh a^i 
or socDeed^ ; h« ftoa aatanibhed nhen I told htm that 
very few had joined tl^i French ; they took every pains 
to convince the people that they were their best friends^ 
and such stuff; th«y took a cow and two swine, for 
which they paid» and this mornings afterHringa gun, 
went to sea, towards the N. £ast^ I have dispatched 
an express, (a second one) to the collector of Letter^ 
kenny and am in hopes that someof the Lough Swilly 
fleet Will intercept tl^iem. They met several cruisers, 
between England and France, but outsailed them all ; 
they came ncHrth about. They were full of arms, the 
officers of the port were detained aboard them from 
morning (yesterday) until fen o^clock at night ; they 


report them full of arms, a park of artillery, accon- 
trements for cavalry, clothing, &c. &c. They expect- 
ed that the whole coanty was up, and that they had 
nothing to do but join their friends ; the natives here 
all fled to the mountains, and seem not at all inclined 
to join them ; we have not a military man nearer than 
Ballyshannon forty miles, or Letterkenny twenty-five, 
although there is an excellent new barrack here ready 
to receive one hundred men ; they had a great number 
of Irish on board, their force about two hundred and 
fifty men ; and arc perfectly acquainted with the coast: 
Their drift is evidently to encourage disaffection. 1 
was a prisoner in my own house four or five hours, un- 
til the post came in ; they had centinels on every 
point of the islaRd, to prevent intelligence being im- 
mediately dispatched. I am just informed by one of 
the officers, that they were determined to land their 
arms here, but upon a cbnsultation, after they found 
their countrymen had been defeated, they altered their 

I have the honour to be 

Your very obedient servant, 

Francis Foster, P. M. Ruiland, 

On their leaving my hotise, the general (Rev) took 
a gold ring from, his finger, and presented it to Mrs 

Faster, as a token of fraternity ; thus they cajole 

and insidiously endeavour to ^in the weak and the 
ignorant, to the total dissolution of subordination and 


obedience toauthorityy without which society cannot 
exist I 

John Lees, esquire* 

Papers distributed among the vnhahitants ^f Rutland 
by Napper Tandy on his landing there* 



- 1 

Northern army of Avengers. Head Quarters, the 

first year of Irish Liberty. 

United Irishmen I 

The soldiers of the great nation have landed on your 
coast, well supplied with arms and ammunition of all 
kinds, with artillery worked by those who have spread 
terror among the ranks of the best troops in Europe, 
headed by French officers ; .they come to break your 
fetters, and restore you to tbf; blessing of liberty. 

James Napper Tandy is at their head ; he has sworn 
to lead them on to victory or die* Brave Irishmen, the 
friends of liberty have left their native soil to assist 
you in reconquering your rights ; they will brave all- 
dangers, and glory at the sublime idea of cementing 
your happiness with their blood. 


cd eveiy obli^tioo, and paid for whatever we took 
from said placew 

AuiEu colonel, Tawdy, general t^ht- 

uid-^e^amp du gl. Desjardtn gade, and commanier 

of the expedition. 
C. LrxEMBtiRG, Ret. 

e€pt. d^crtillir. Bulckwbll, adjutant'* 

Lb Due, capitne. general 

Joseph, capt. et out-de- 

No. IX. 


Facts discovered on the trial of Andrew Farrel, a 
rebel captain; hanged at Wexford, 1800. 

By the evidence of William Furlong, a protestant, 
it appeared, that he was taken prisoner by the rebels 
on Whitsun Tuesday, 179B» and conducted to the 
windmill on Vinegar-hill, where he saw the rev. Mr 
Pentland and the rev. Mr Trocke, three men of the 
name of Gill, and about thirty more loyalists. Farrel 
had a sword in his hand, and was called captain of the 
rebels. He desired the loyalists to fall on their knees 
and prepare for death, as they should be killed im- 
mediately. He then seized Mr Pentland, and dragged 
him out of the mill by force, though he resisted as 
much as he could. He was instantly put to death. 


and fourteen or fifteen more iinm^d lately met with the 
same fate* Andrew Farrel told the witness, that he 
must know where there were arms and ammunition in 
Enniscorthy, and that he should be saved if he disr- 
covered where they were. He said he would ; and on 
going there, his life was saved by a man who^had been 
master to his uncle. He saw Farrel distributing gun- 
powder to the rebels. He believes that only eight of 
the persona who were in the windmill escaped death. 

Francis Bradley saw Farrd conducting to Vinegar- 
hill Philip Annesley, a protestant, who desired him 
to take his watch and 'money, and give them to hia 
friends, because he said Farrel was taking him to be 
killed ; but witness was afraid to comply with his re« 

Henry Whitney, a protestant, who had been priso- 
nor in the windmill, saw Mr Pentland piked to deatb^ 
and he believes that twenty-Sve more were put to 
death at the same time. He saw their bodies lie deM 
outside of the windmill. Mr Pentland^s, which was 
naked and bloody, lay separate from th6 rest. 

When the prisoners were desired to go upon their 
knees and prepare for deaths messrs. Pentland and 
Trocke expostulated, and begged they might be 
saved, as they were both clergymen. The former said 
he was a northern mau, and had been but a short time 
in.the country. He then offered his watch, which was 
taken by a man of the name of Foley, 
li 2 


John GiU, a witness, was a prisoner ii» the wtmi- 
inilU on Whiten D-Tuesdtiy- The party who conduct- 
ed him into it said, ** Captain Parrel (vH>intino; to 
Gill) there is an oran^eman/' GiU asked Farrel to 
save his life, as he saw him much in the esteem of the 
rebels* He asked him his name. He answered. Gill. 
Farrel replied, that is a bad name, prepare for death, 
you have not an hour to lire. (GiU was a protestant 
name in the county of Wexford.) John Gill of Mon- 
glasB was lying dead there. A party of rebels, with 
guns and pikes, formed a line in front of the windmill 
door, and behind them there were some men on horse- 
back. On being led out, he addressed the rebels, and 
asked them, if they would put a man to death wiUmnt 
atrial? Andrew Martin, the executioner, who stood 
inside the line with a drawn sword, cried out, ** Damn 
your soul, do you come here to preach ?'* made a stab 
at him, and wounded him in the wrist. Some of the 
rebels desired Martin to stop, and asked Gill how be 
would choose to die ? He replied, as a Christian. A 
man on horseback said, are you a Christian ? He an- 
swered, that he believed in the Saviour of the world, 
and that he hoped to be i<aved throogh him. Martin 
then said, '* Oh ! damnation to your soul, you are a 
Christian in your own way,*' and directly stabbed him 
in the side. He then fel) on his face, and was stabbed 
in the back, and beat on the head with some heavy 
instrutnent. He still continued in his senses* His 
brother was next brought out, and having been asked 
the same question, boldly answered that he would die 
a protestant : on which he was instantly put to death. 


Witness then fainted, and continued insensible till his 
wife came for him in the evening, and she found great 
difficulty in saving him, as there was an old man with 
a scythe examining the bodies, and striking it on the 
head of such of them as had any signs of life. She 
took him to the bottom of the hill where, finding tliat 
he had some appearance of life, she concealed his body. 
Next morning he was discovered by a party of rebels, 
where he was saved by a man who was to have married 
his daughter. About half a mile from the hill, he was 
met by two men, one of whom fired at him, and the 
ball grazed his head and stunned him. His wife, at 
her I'eturn, found him again, and from that time till 
Vinegar-hill was taken by the king's troops, he lay 
concealed in ditches in that deploritble state ; but at 
last recovered, and is still alive. 

John Austin was taken prisoner and conducted to 
Enniscorthy by one captain West, when Parrel was on 
parade with some rebels. West said, " Captain Parrel, 
here is an orangemao." Parrel ordered him to a rebel 
guard-house, where there were fifteen or sixteen loya- 
lists, and swore that he would have them all put to 
death the next night. A Mr Robinson who was there, 
begged that Parrel would save them. Austin was saved 
by the intercession of a rebel. Jx)hn Mooney swore, 
he saw Parrel head a party at the attack of Borrts, the 
seat of Mr Kavenah. That after it, he saw him sworn 
in a captain, on which father Kearns, the priest, kiss- 
ed him. He was called St Ruth, 


David OgdeDy a witaess, swore, he was taken pn- 
ftoner by Farrel at Mr Wheeler's house, where he bad 
takeo refuge. He took him and Mr Wheeler, to con- 
duct them, as he said, to Vinegar-hill ; but they were 
released by one McLean, who threatened to go to the 
hill and discover there, that Farrel, on the day of the 
battle of Euniscorthy, disguised in woman's ch>Uies, 
was robbing, instead of fighting the king's army* 

No, X. 

County €^ the city of DuhlintX The examination of 
to wit. J corporal Sbeppard of 

the Royal Irish artillery, who being duly sworn on the 
Holy Evangelists, maketh oath and saith. That he 
this examinant, when on his march with a detachment 
of militia oC the Meath regiment from Dancannon 
Fort, to the town of Wexford, was taken prisoner on 
the thirtieth day of May last, at a place called the 
mountain of Forth within three miles of Wexford 
aforesaid, together with two howitzers, and nine pri- 
vates belonging to the said Royal Irish artillery, by a 
numerous body of rebels, who were encamped on the 
said mountain. Examinant saith, that as soon as the 
6aid rebels had made him and his comrades prisoner^, 
they were going to put them to death ; but that pre- 
vious to their doing so, one of the said rebels asked 
them what religion they were of; and that a private of 
the said Royal Irish artillery, whose name is Patrick 
Dungannon, replied^ that they were all Roman catho* 


llclcs, though examinont 6aith> that he and five more 
of -his said comrades were protestants. Examinunt 
saith, he is coDvtnced in his mind, that the said rebels 
would have put the whole of said party instantly to 
death, but that they believed they were Roman catho- 
licks* Examinant saith, that he and his comrades 
were- conducted as prisoners to Wexford, on the said 
thirtieth of May, and put into prison ; but that he 
this examinant and his comrades were committed to 
different apartments. Examinant ^aith, that while a 
prisoner at Wexford, he was taken out into a small 
square in the gaol to be shot, and that on being placed 
against a wall in said square, they the said rebels burn- 
ed priming four times at escaminant with a musket ; ou 
which father John Murphy> a priest, who had entered 
the said goal, cried out aloud, that he this examinant 
had longer to live ; and at the same time, the said 
priest said, ^* Let the heathen go back to prison, and - 
be damned." Examinant saith, that while he and his 
comrades were in prison, the rebel guards who were 
placed over them, frequently attempted to break open 
the doors of the place where they were confined, with 
an intent, as the said rebel guards declared, to mur- 
der examinant and his comrades, having often declar- 
ed that they would not stand as guards over hcreticks ; 
and that the officers of the said rebels with the greatest 
difficulty prevented the said rebels from putting them 
to death. Examinant saith, that during ten days that 
he and his comrades were confined in Wexford, they 
received no other food but potatoes and water ; and of 
which they got but one meal in twenty-four hours* 


.Examinant Mith, that dariof^ faia eonfiaement, fiie 

•aid rebeU to«k oat maoy priaonera to esecutethem ; 

and eaamiaant verily believes they were pat to dea^b» 

as the said prisoners never returned to the prison ; and 

he this examioant was informed that they bad been 

6hot or put to death with pikes in the Ba)l-rin^» or ia 

some other part of the town. E^aminant saith, that 

he and his comrades were asked to serve in t^ rebel 

army by one captain Dixon, and by one Hocbe the 

brother«in-law of said Dixon» who wore two epaulettes, 

and passed for a rebel general ; and that said Dixon 

and Roche promised examinant and his comrades com- 

missions in the rebel army» and estates in some time, 

if they would serve in said army, dcaminant saitlr, 

that he apd his coraradesy well knowings that they had 

no other way of making their escape from Wexford, 

complied with the desire of said Dixon^ and the said 

Roche. Examinant saith, that he, and three of his 

comrades were conducted by the said rebel general 

Boche t6 the rebel camp of Gorey, near the town of 

^ Gorey, in the cownty of Wexford, on or about the 

eleventh day bf June last, where examinant found 

three of his said comrades before him in said camp, and 

some soldiers of the Meath and Antrim regiments who 

had been taken prisoners. Examinant saith, that oh 

the morning of the day that the said rebels marched 

from the said camp to attack the town of Arklow, 

one Murphy a priest, who was killed at the battle of 

Arklow that day, mounted on a car, and preached a 

sermon of exhortation to the said rebels, iti which the 

said Murphy assured the said rebels that they were 


fighting in the cauBe of God ; that the more of the hea« 
thens (meaning the king's army] thej would kill» the 
sooner they would go to heaven ; and that if any of 
them died in battle, they would be sure of immediate 
salvation ; that said Murphy took some bullets out of 
his pockets, shewed them to the rebels, and assured 
them, that they had hit him at the battle of Gorey, 
in different parts of his body and limbs, and that they 
could not do him any injury. That said Murphy said . 
further in said sermon, that he would take the gravel 
off the road and throw it at the hereticks, and that he 
could kill them with it. Examinant saith, that ano- 
ther priest of the name of Dixon declared to the rebel 
general Roche, that they would take the town of Ark- 
low in half an hour ; that then they would be joined 
by twenty thousand men ; and that they would pro- 
ceed to Wick low, and from thence to Dublin. Exa- 
minant saith, that said rel>eTs wherever they marched, 
put to death such protestants as fell into their hands ; 
' saying often on such occasions, that the kingdom was 
their own, and that there should be but one religion^^ "t 
Examinant saith, that said rebels on their arrival at ."^ 
Gorey aforesaid, and just after the battle of Arklow, 
put many protestants to death, though they had serv- 
ed with the said rebels in said battle ; and that when 
they were on the point of ex tfcu ting one Walker a black- 
smith, some of said rebels pleaded in his favour, hav- 
ing said, that he had made many pikes, and fought 
well with them ; but that father John Murphy said, 
that if there was but one drop of protestant blood in a 
family, they ought to put that family to death ; and 


that said Walker was accordingly put to death* Exa« 
ninant aaith, be repaired with the said n^tels from 
Gorey, to a place, to the best of examinant's recol* 
lection, called Limbrick, from thence to Tinnehclr, 
and from thence to Carnew, and from thence to Vine- 
gar-hill ; and that said rebels in- their march from Co- 
rey to Vinegar-hill aforesaid, killed all the protestants 
they could get into their custody. Informant saitb, 
that he and his comrades made their escape at the bat- 
tle of Vinegar-hill aforesaid. 

Andrew Sheppabd. 

iStcamftf^nif, this 7*1^ ^fStpUmber^ 17^8. 
Thomas Fltmittg, lord mayor tff the €kyi)fDMk* 

'V^e, the nndersTgned officers of the Royal Irish ar- 
tillery, do certify t|hat AndrewSheppard, a corporal 
in the said corpd, is a man of an honest fair character, 
^nd that he is to be credited on his oath. September, 
fourteenfh^ 1799* 

J. Stkatov, colonel commoHdantf lieutenant-generdf 

Ric*HARD BfiTTEawoB7H, c^lomsl comaumdmt, ma* 

•H.SNEYO, wtfjor. Royal Irish ariillery^ 

John Pratt, Hevtenant'colonef^ colonel brevet ^ 

W, Wright, lieutenant-colonel^ 

J. D. Arabin^ lientetiani'ColoneL 


No^ XL p. 238. 


** Dcver, October 26, 1798. 
«* My Lord, 

** Being on the point of returning^ to France, I 
think it my duty to testify to you the extraordinary 
esteem with which your conduct has always inspired 
me* Since I have. had the good fortune ofbeiixg ac- 
quainted: with you, I have always regretted that the 
chance of war, and my duty as a military officer, have 
obliged me, in carrying the scourge of war into your 
neighbourhood, to disturb the domestic happiness 
which you enjoyed, and of which you are in every re» 
spect worthy. Too happy, if in returning into my 
cc^ntry^ I can flatter myself that I have acquired any 
claim to your esteem. Independently of other reasons 
which I have for loving and esteeming you, the repre* 
sentation which citizen Charost gives me of all your 
good offices to him and his officers, as well before as 
after the redaction of Killalla, will demand for ever 
my esteem and gratitude. 

" I entreat you, my lord, to accept my declaration 
of it, and to impart it to your worthy family. 

** I am, with the highest esteem, 
«* My lord, 
** your most humble servant, 

" Humbert.** 



An acc&wit •/the www ofuumey claimed by thenffenng loyaUsts in 
the diferent eauniitt qf Ireland^ for thmr losaet tusttdned m ike 
rebeUkm qf 1796» and laid before the commisswners appemted by 
act qfparliammtfor eempensatwg them. 











K»kenn> - 

King's rounty 







Queen's County 



Tipperary - 

Watei-ford - 


Wexford - 

Wicklow - 

£. *. rf. 



17729 3 *i 



34S54 14 7 


61 16 9 


9501 14 111 


856 9 ll| 


12129 ^ 8 


25829 16 —1 


4814 — 3 


149 4 Si 


97090 3 11 


S7352 8 9i 


2461 19 7 


28 9 6 


7 19 3 


2316 19 ]{ 


1046 14 lOf 


120553 1} 4| 


14597 9 Si 


J 586 9 3§ 


325 19 7 


15769 14 9| 


1577 9 8 


1321 18 9 


9808 13 4 


515191 8 5 



1303T9 17 

£102*3^7 'i 4 


F I 

N I S. 


taken from th« Btiildio*